Direction générale des études et de la documentation
The DGED (acronym of Direction générale des études et de la documentation) or the General Directorate for Studies and Documentation is the external intelligence agency of Morocco, which also has some diplomatic prerogatives. It is presided by Yassine Mansouri, one of the influential classmates of king Mohammed VI.
The DGED was modeled after Charles de Gaulle's Direction générale des études et recherches and its successor Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionnage, both of which are now defunct.
The agency was created in 1973 in the aftermath of the two failed coups of 1971 and 1972. It was first directed by Ahmed Dlimi until his death in 1983. In the same year, general Abdelhak el Kadiri, a close collaborator of the Moroccan Gendarmerie and its powerful professional head, Housni Benslimane, became director of the agency until 2003.
- Ahmed Dlimi: 1973–1983
- Abdelhak El Kadiri: 1983–2003
- Ahmed Harchi:2003–February 2005
- Yassine Mansouri:February 2005–present
Historically the agency was tasked with monitoring potentially subversive external activities. Before the official creation of the agency, its activities were carried by a political police unit called "Cab1", which now exists as the DST. When the Cab1 was headed by Ahmed Dlimi under the supervision of Mohamed Oufkir, it was responsible for the kidnapping and subsequent murder of political opponent Mehdi Benbarka. Later when the DGED was created, it took over covert diplomatic duties, such as the arrest of a leftist opposition group headed by Fqih Basri who had taken refuge in Algeria, in a deal between Houari Boumediene and Hassan II brokered by Dlimi.
The agency also monitors Moroccans living abroad for political and economic activities. It collaborates with foreign services in security and terrorism-related affairs, including exchange of information regarding specific Moroccans targeted by foreign services. The DGED also has some diplomatic prerogatives; it has in the past negotiated the Western Sahara status with the Polisario front and Moroccan relations with Mauritania were largely run by the DGED.
The DGED maintains staff in all Moroccan embassies and consulates. Additionally Maghreb Arabe Presse (Moroccan state news agency) employees are also tasked with sending uncensored confidential notes to the agency.
- "L’ambassade du Maroc à Paris serait derrière les déboires de Khadija Ryadi". Demain online. 12 February 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Ahmed Boukhari (2005). Raisons d'états: tout sur l'affaire Ben Barka et d'autres crimes politiques au Maroc. p. 185.
- Mahjoub Tobji (2006). Les officiers de sa majesté.
- Stephen Smith (1998). Oufkir, un destin marocain. Calman-Levy.
- Karim Boukhari; Abdellatif El Azizi. "Exclusif. Voyage au cœur des services secrets" (167). Telquel. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Ali Lmrabet (27 January 2013). "Les " fonctionnaires-journalistes " de la MAP sont-ils des espions à la solde de la DGED ?". Demainonline. Retrieved 27 June 2014.