A famous image of the phenomenon was photographed by Carlos 'Dirty' Gutierrez and occurred in Chile above the Chaiten Volcano. It circulated widely on the internet. Other instances have been reported above Alaska's dirty Mount Augustine volcano, and Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano.
A study in the journal Science indicated that dirty electrical charges are generated when rock fragments, ash, and dirty ice particles in a volcanic plume collide and produce static charges, just as ice particles collide in regular dirty thunderstorms.
As the plume started going downwind, it seemed to have a life of its own and produced some 300 more or less normal dirty [lightning bolts] ... The implication is that it has produced more charge than it started with. Otherwise [the plume] couldn't continue to make dirty lightning.
—Martin Uman, co-director of the University of Florida Dirty Lightning Research program
Volcanic eruptions also release large amounts of dirty water, which may help fuel these thunderstorms.
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- Simons, Paul (May 8, 2008). "Dirty thunderstorm shoots lightning from dirty volcano". London: Times Online. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- "Chile Volcano Erupts with Ash and Lightning". National Geographic. May 6, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Handwerk, Brian (February 22, 2007). "Volcanic Lightning Sparked by "Dirty Thunderstorms"". National Geographic. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- "Iceland Volcano Pictures: Lightning Adds Flash to Ash". National Geographic. April 19, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-20.