Disability sport classification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable, consistent and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation."[1]

Alpine skiing[edit]

Alpine skiing classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Archery[edit]

Three classes compete at the Paralympic Games.

ARST

This class includes athletes competing in a standing position and those who require some standing support due to poor balance. They can have leg-length difference, limb deficiencies, or impairments that affect their arms and trunk.

ARW1

Archers in this class compete in their wheelchair because they have impairment of leg and trunk function. They also can have limitations in range of movement, strength, and coordination of their arms and poor or non existent control of their trunk. Usually, their legs are considered non-functional due to amputations and/or similar limitations of movement, strength and control. One condition that fits this category is tetraplegia.[3][4]

ARW2

Archers in this class have strong activity limitation in the lower part of the body, including their legs. They compete in a wheelchair. Different from ARW1, they have normal arm function. Paraplegia fits into this category.[3][4]

Athletics[edit]

See also: Para-athletics classification for an article with historical context

Athletics classification is done by the IPC.[2] The prefix T stands for "Track," and the prefix F stands for "Field." The numbering system indicates the class of athlete, which is determined by their type of severity of disability.

Classes 11-13

These classes are for athletes with different levels of visual impairment, with 11 being the most severe. T11 athletes are blindfolded and must run with a guide runner, and T12 athletes may choose to run with a guide.[4]

  • Class 11 Athletes in T11 or F11 will either have no light perception at all in either eye or may have some light perception but an inability to recognize the shape of a hand at any distance or in any direction. This classification is equivalent to the B1 classification of the IBSA.[5]
  • Class 12 Athletes in class T12 or F12 can recognize the shape of a hand and perceive clearly up to 2/60. The visual field of the athlete is less than 5 degrees. This classification is equivalent to the B2 classification of the IBSA.[5]
Final competition of Men's 5000m T13 at the Parapan American Games Rio 2007
  • Class 13 Athletes in class T13 or F13 can recognize the shape of a hand and can perceive clearly above 2/60 and up to 6/60. The visual field of the athletes varies between more than 5 degrees and less than 20 degrees. This class is equivalent to the B3 classification of the IBSA.[5]
Sharon Rackham, a T20 competitor, gets a hug from her coach, Chris Nunn.

Class 20

This class is for athletes with intellectual impairment. Athletes in this class must reach the eligibility criteria, which is an IQ score of less than 75, significant limitations in adaptive behavior (conceptual, social or practical adaptive skills), and onset before the age of 18.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for athletes who have the "Intellectually disabled athletes must have substantial limitation in intellectual function. The athlete’s intellectual function is approximately 70 – 75 or below. Limitations in two or more of the following adaptive skill areas; communication, self-care; home living, social skills, community use, self direction, health and safety, functional academics, leisure and work. They must have acquired their condition before age 18."[7]

Class 30-38

Athletes compete in the 800 m T36 final at the 2000 Summer Paralympics. Seen left is Australian athlete Malcolm Bennett.

Classes in the 30s are for athletes with athetosis, ataxia and/or hypertonia, which are impairments that affect the control of arms, hands, legs, and trunk. Lower numbers indicate more significant activity limitations. Athletes in classes 31-34 compete in a seated position. Athletes in classes 35-38 compete standing.

  • T31 These athletes can propel a wheelchair but have very poor strength in their arms, legs and trunk.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "severe quadriplegia "[7]
  • T32 These athletes can propel a wheelchair but have very poor strength in their arms, legs and trunk.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "severe to moderate quadriplegia."[7]
  • T33 These athlete have fair trunk movement when pushing a wheelchair, but forward trunk movement is limited during forceful pushing.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "moderate quadriplegia. "[7]
  • T34 These athletes have minimal limitations or control problems in their arms and trunk while pushing a wheelchair.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "moderate to severe problems in lower limbs, good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs and torso."[7]
  • T35 These athletes may need devices to assist in walking but not in standing or throwing. They may have sufficient function to run but have poor balance.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "moderate problems in lower limbs. Good functional strength and minimal control problems in upper limbs. No wheelchair. May or may not use assistive devices."[7]
  • T36 These athletes do not have the capacity to remain still and they show involuntary movements with all four limbs affected. They usually walk without assistive devices.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "Athetoid or Ataxic – Moderate involvement. Ambulates without walking devices."[7]
Alison Quinn (right) is a T37 competitor.
  • T37 These athletes have movement and coordination problems on one half of their body, with good function on their dominant side of their body. Hemiplegia fits into this class.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "moderate to minimal hemiplegia (i.e. one half of the body affected – arm and leg on same side). Good functional ability in non affected side. Walks / runs without assistive devices, but with a limp."[7]
  • T38 These athletes have minimal loss of function, usually in one limb only.[6] The APC defines this classification as being for "Minimal hemiplegia, ataxia, diplegia or athetosis. May have minimal co-ordination problems, good balance. Runs and jumps freely."[7]

Class 40

Classes T40 and F40 are for athletes with short stature. These athletes have achondroplasia or a similar condition, must be greater than or equal to 18 years of age with a maximum height of 145 cm for males and 140 cm for females.[5] The IPC defined this as: "Maximum standing height permitted is 130cm, which is the mean standing height for male achondroplastic dwarves (12). The maximum arm length permitted is 59cm, measured from the acromion to the tip of the longest finger of the longest arm. The measure should be taken regardless of elbow contracture because the effective length of the arm is reduced by such an impairment. This arm length is proportionate for a male of standing height 130cm (5) and approximately 2 standard deviations above the mean arm length for a male achondroplastic dwarf of 130cm. The sum of standing height + length of longest arm must be < 180cm."and "Maximum standing height permitted is 125cm, which is the mean standing height for female achondroplastic dwarves (12). The maximum arm length permitted is 57cm, measured from the acromion to the tip of the longest finger of the longest arm. The measure should be taken regardless of elbow contracture because the effective length of the arm is reduced by such an impairment. This arm length is proportionate for a female of standing height 125cm (5) and approximately 2 standard deviations above the mean arm length for a female achondroplastic dwarf of 125cm. The sum of standing height + length of longest arm must be < 173cm."[8]

Classes 42-46

Australian track athlete Amy Winters is a T46 classified athletics competitor. She is shown here waving to the crowds at the 2000 Summer Paralympics

These classes are for athletes with limb deficiencies, such as amputations. In classes 42-44, the legs are affected by impairment. In classes 45-46, the arms are affected. All athletes in the 40s classes compete standing and do not use a wheelchair.

  • Class 42 Competitors in class T42 and F42 have single above knee amputation, combined arm/leg amputation, or comparable leg impairments.[5] The IPC defined this as: "Single above knee amputees and athletes with other impairments that are comparable to a single above knee amputation. This includes athletes with loss of muscle power in the lower limbs consistent with Class F57 or F58 class."[8]
  • Class 43 Competitors in class T43 and F43 have double below knee amputation (or combined arm/leg amputation) or comparable leg impairments.[5]
  • Class 44 Competitors in class T44 and F44 have single below knee amputation or those that can walk with moderately reduced function in one or both legs.[5]
  • Class 45 Competitors in class T45 and F45 have double above elbow or double below elbow amputations or similar disabilities.[5]
  • Class 46 Competitors in class T46 and F46 have single above or below the amputations or have normal leg function but impairment in the arms/trunk.[5]

Classes T51-54 and F51-58

The 50s sport classes only include athletes competing in a wheelchair. A lower number indicates a higher activity limitation.

In track events, athletes competing in T51-54 wheelchair racing events differ in their arm and shoulder functions, which are pertinent for propelling a wheelchair.

  • T51-52 These athletes have activity limitations in both lower and upper limbs.
Madison de Rozario is a T53 competitor
  • T53 These athletes have normal arm and hand function, no or limited trunk function, and no leg function.
  • T54 Athletes competing in T54 have partial trunk and leg function.

In field events, classes F51-54 have varying degrees of limited shoulder, arm, and hand functions and no trunk or leg function. Tetraplegic athletes fit into this class. In classes F55-58, trunk and leg function increases, which is an advantage in throwing events.

  • F53 Athletes in this class have mild limitation of hand function – no leg or trunk function.
  • F54 Athletes in this class have normal function in their arms and hands with no leg or trunk function.
  • F55 These athletes have normal arm function, the ability to rotate the spine, and no leg function.
  • F56 These athletes have normal arm function, the ability to rotate the spine, can move backwards and forwards, and no leg function.
  • F57 These athletes have normal arm, hand, and near normal trunk function. They have increased leg function as compared to F56.
  • F58 These athletes have normal arm, hand, and trunk function with more leg function than F57.[5]

Boccia[edit]

Boccia classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

BC1

Buckley describes the boccia players in this classification as "CP1 + CP2 (who push the ball with the foot) compete"[9]

BC2

Buckley describes the boccia players in this classification as "Only CP2 – no assistance permitted."[9]

BC3

Buckley describes the boccia players in this classification as "Severe CP1 with use of an assistive device to propel the ball"[9]

BC4

Buckley describes the boccia players in this classification as "Non CP players with a severe locomotor dysfunction of all four extremities. (see CPISRA Sports Manual for the eligible disabilities)"[9]

Canoeing and kayaking[edit]

Classifications for these sports are adapted from rowing and is separated into three different classifications.[10]

A

Buckley describes the paddlers in this classification as "Paddlers who have no trunk function, or those who have shoulder function only. This paddler is able to apply force predominantly using the arms and/or shoulders and is likely to have poor sitting balance. Complete spinal cord lesions with no or partial trunk function; CP 4 (CPISRA)"[10]

TA

Buckley describes the paddlers in this classification as "Paddlers with use of the trunk and arms. They are unable to apply continuous, controlled force to the footboard or seat to propel the boat due to a weakened function of the lower limbs. Bilateral around knee amputation; CP5 (CPISRA)"[10]

LTA

Buckley describes the paddlers in this classification as "Paddlers with a disability who have functional use of their legs, trunk and arms for paddling, and who can apply force to the foot board or the seat to propel the boat. Examples : amputee, CP8 (CPISRA); Very incomplete Paraplegic"[10]

Cycling[edit]

Cycling classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Equestrian[edit]

Para-equestrian classification is not done by the IPC.[2] It is done by the International Equestrian Federation (FEI).

Football – 5 a side[edit]

Football – 5 a side classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Football – 7 a side[edit]

Football – 7 a side classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Goalball[edit]

Goalball classification is B1, B2 and B3. Goalball is open to any athletes with these classifications. These classifications are set by the IBSA. During competition, players of all classifications can be on the court: There are no restrictions limiting athletes based on other on court classifications, because all athletes have their eyes covered.[11]

Ice sledge hockey[edit]

Ice sledge hockey classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Judo[edit]

Judo classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Nordic skiing[edit]

Nordic skiing classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Powerlifting[edit]

Powerlifting classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Rowing[edit]

Rowing classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Sailing[edit]

Sailing classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Shooting[edit]

Shooting classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Swimming[edit]

Swimming classification is done by the IPC.[2] In the classification title, S represents Freestyle, Backstroke and Butterfly strokes. SB means breaststroke. SM means individual medley.[6]

In Australia, to be classified in this category, athletes contact the APC or their state swimming governing body.[12] In the United States, classification is handled by the United States Paralympic Committee on a national level. The classification test has three components: "a bench test, a water test, observation during competition."[13] American swimmers are assessed by four people: a medical classified, two general classified and a technical classifier.[13]

S1

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "very severe coordination problems in four limbs or [having] no use of their legs, trunk, hands and minimal use of their shoulders only. These swimmers usually only swim on their back. Swimmers in this class would usually be wheelchair bound and may be dependent on others for their everyday needs."[6]

50m, 100m, and 200m Freestyle, 50m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 50m Breaststroke, and 150m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

S2

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as being "able to use their arms with no use of their hands, legs or trunk, or [having] severe coordination problems in four limbs. Similar disabilities to Class 1 but these athletes would have more propulsion by use of their arms or legs."[6]

50m, 100m, and 200m Freestyle, 50m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 50m Breaststroke, and 150m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Jim Anderson,[15] and Iryna Sotska[15] who both won medals at the 2008 Paralympics.[15]

S3

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "reasonable arm strokes but no use of their legs or trunk; ... severe coordination problems in all limbs ... [or] severe limb loss in four limbs. Swimmers in this class again have increased ability when compared to those in Class S2."[6]

50m, 100m, and 200m Freestyle, 50m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 50m Breaststroke, and 150m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

S4

Marayke Jonkers is an SM4 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as "their arms and have minimal weakness in their hands but have no use of their trunk or legs; Swimmers with coordination problems affecting all limbs but predominantly in the legs; Swimmers with limb loss to 3 limbs. Increasing ability compared to Class S3."[6]

50m, 100m, and 200m Freestyle, 50m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 50m Breaststroke, and 150m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Swimmers who have competed in this classification include David Smétanine, Gustavo Sánchez Martínez, Lisette Teunissen and Ahmed Kelly.

S5

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "full use of their arms and hands but no trunk or leg muscles; Swimmers with coordination problems."[6]

50m, 100m, and 200m Freestyle, 50m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke, and 200m Individual Medley events are typically raced in this class.[14]

Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Daniel Dias, Teresa Perales, Olena Akopyan,[15] Dmytro Kryzhanovskyy,[15] and Inbal Pezaro.[15]

S6

Australian Alicia Jenkins is a S6 classified competitor. Here she is shown on the starting block pre-race at the 200 m medley SM6 at the 2000 Summer Paralympics

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "full use of their arms and hands, some trunk control but no useful leg muscles; Swimmers with coordination problems (usually these athletes walk); Swimmers with major limb loss of 2 limbs; Little People / Dwarfs (O 130cm females & O 137cm males)."[6]

50m, 100m, 200m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke, and 200m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Swimmers in this class include Xu Qing, Mirjam de Koning-Peper, Anders Olsson, Eleanor Simmonds, Olena Akopyan,[15] and Anastasia Diodorova[15]

S7

Amanda Fraser is an S7 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function; Coordination or weakness problems on the same side of the body; Limb loss of 2 limbs."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 50m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke, and 200m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

David Roberts, Jacqueline Freney, Mallory Weggemann and Susannah Rodgers have all competed in this class.

S8

Priya Cooper, an S8 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "full use of their arms and trunk with some leg function; Swimmers with coordination problems mainly in the lower limbs; Both legs amputated just above or just below the knee; Single above elbow amputation."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke, and 200m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Xiaofu Wang, Peter Leek, Jessica Long, Sean Fraser,[15] and Heather Frederiksen[15] have competed in this class.

S9

Melissa Carlton is an S9 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "severe weakness in one leg only; ... very slight coordination problems; ... [or] one limb loss. Unless there is an underlying medical condition usually all of these athletes will start out of the water."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke, and 200m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Natalie Du Toit, Matthew Cowdrey, and Ellie Cole have competed in this class.

S10

Scott Brockenshire is an S10 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "very minimal weakness affecting the legs; ... [having] restriction of hip joint movement; ... [having] both feet deformed; ... [having] one leg amputated below the knee; ... [or] missing one hand. This is the class with the most physical ability."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Butterfly, 100m Breaststroke and 200m Individual Medley are typically raced in this class.[14]

Andre Brasil, Summer Ashley Mortimer, Michael Anderson, and Anna Eames have competed in this class.

S11

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "unable to see at all and are considered totally blind (see IBSA B1 – appendix). Swimmers must wear blackened goggles if they swim in this class. They will also require someone to tap them when they are approaching a wall."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Breaststroke, 100m Butterfly, 200m Individual Medley, 4x100m Freestyle Relay, and 4x100m Medley Relay are typically raced in this class.

Cecilia Camellini, Alexander Chekurov, Enhamed Enhamed, and Junichi Kawai have competed in this class.

S12

Kingsley Bugarin is an S12 classified swimmer

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "These swimmers can recognise the shape of a hand and have some ability to see. There is a large range of vision ability within this class."[6]

50m, 100m and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Breaststroke, 100m Butterfly, 200m Individual Medley, 4x100m Freestyle Relay, and 4x100m Medley Relay are typically raced in this class.[14]

Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Anna Efimenko,[15] Deborah Font[15] and Ana Garcia-Arcicollar[15] who all won medals in their class at the 2008 Paralympics.[15] Trischa Zorn, winner of the most Paralympic medals in history, was an S12 classified swimmer.

In the S12 50 m Freestyle Long Course, the men's world record is held by the Ukraine's Maksym Veraksa and the women's world record is held by Russia's Oxana Savchenko.[16] In the S12 100 m Freestyle Long Course, the men's world record is held by Ukraine's Maksym Veraksa and the women's world record is held by Russia's Oxana Savchenko.[17]

S13

Buckley describes the swimmers in this classification as having: "Swimmers who are the most sighted but are considered to be blind according to the IBSA B3."[6]

50m, 100m, and 400m Freestyle, 100m Backstroke, 100m Breaststroke, 100m Butterfly, 200m Individual Medley, 4x100m Freestyle Relay, and 4x100m Medley Relay are typically raced in this class.[14]

In the S13 50 m Freestyle Long Course, the men's world record is held by Oleksii Fedyna and the women's world record is held by Yvonne Hopf.[16] In the S13 100 m Freestyle Long Course, the men's world record is held by South Africa's Charles Bouwer and the women's world record is held by Canada's Valerie Grand-Maison.[17]

Swimmers who have competed in this classification include Dmytro Aleksyeyev,[15] Kelley Becherer[15] and Charl Bouwer[15] who all won medals in their class at the 2008 Paralympics.[15]

American swimmers who have been classified by the United States Paralympic Committee as being in this class include Eric Chausse, Natalio Abar, and Blake Adams.[18]

Table tennis[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Para table tennis § Classification.

Table tennis classification is implemented by International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF).[19][20] Eleven classes are defined depending on lesions and limitations.

  • Class 1-5 for wheelchair players
  • Class 6-10 for standing players
  • Class 11 for players with an intellectual disability

Volleyball (sitting)[edit]

Volleyball (sitting) classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Wheelchair basketball[edit]

Wheelchair basketball classification is done by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation.[21]

In 2005 and 2006, there was an active effort by the National Wheelchair Basketball Association to try to move from a three player classification system to a four point classification system like the one used by the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation .[22]

Wheelchair basketball players who competed at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in this classification needed to have their classification be in compliance with the system organized by the IWBF, and their status listed as "review" or "confirmed".[23]

In Australia, wheelchair basketball players and other disability athletes are generally classified after they have been assessed based on medical, visual, or cognitive testing, after a demonstration of their ability to play their sport, and the classifiers watching the player during competitive play.[24]

Once a player is classified, it is very hard change classifications. Players have been known to have issues with classification because some players play down their abilities during the classification process. At the same time, as players improve at the game, movements become regular and their skill level improves. This can make it appear like their classification was incorrect.[25]

In a push to increase participation the sport, people involved with the National Wheelchair Basketball Association have argued that allowing able-bodied athletes to compete would help 1 and 2 point players because there would be a need to balance participation on the team because of the rules regarding maximum points on the floor.[26]

Variants

Wheelchair Twin Basketball is a major variant of wheelchair basketball.[27] This version is supposed by the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation,[27] and played in Japan.[28]

Classifications

  • 1 point player

Buckley describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having, "No lower limb and little or no trunk movement. Rebound overhead single handed."[6] The APC defines this classification as, "Players with little or no controlled trunk movement in all planes. Their balance in both forward and sideways directions is significantly impaired and they rely on their arms to return them to the upright position when unbalanced. One point players have no active trunk rotation."[29] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 1 point player as, "Little or no controlled trunk movement in all planes. Balance in both forward and sideways directions significantly impaired and players rely on their arms to return them to the upright position when unbalanced. No active trunk rotation."[30] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "significant loss of stability in the trunk so that (for example) the player would need to hold onto the chair (or wheel) with one hand whilst making a one handed pass or reaching for a rebound etc. whilst pushing Class 1 players will lean into the back of the wheelchair, with head movement forward and back with each push. Typical Class 1 Disabilities include : T1-T7 paraplegia without abdominal muscle control, post-polio paralysis with arm involvement and without control of trunk musculature."[31] A player can be classified as a 1.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 1 point player and 2 point player, and it is not easy to determine exactly which of these two classes the player fits in.[29][30] For example, Heidi Kirstie of Germany was a 1.5 point player.[32] One point players often play more minutes than other players because their low point value means another higher point player can be on the court.[25]

Australians Brendan Dowler and Tige Simmons are 1 point players.[33][34] Melanie Domaschenz and Clare Burzynski are 1 point players for Australia's women's national team.[35] Other 1 point players include Britt Tuns of Germany;[32] Abdi Dini and Brandon Wagner are a 1 point players for the Canadian men's national team;[36] and Chad Jassman and Tyler Miller are 1.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[36]

Twin basketball has three point classification system based on people with cervical cord injuries. In this variant, their equivalent to one point players would be red head band players, whose functional muscles are only biceps, small pectoralis, deltoids, and hand extensors. Missing muscles are triceps, hand flexors, and all finger functions. They are the most severe handicapped group of players.[27]

  • '2 point player'

Buckley describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having, "No lower limb but partial trunk control in a forward direction. Rely on hand grip to remain stable in a collision."[6] The APC defines this classification as, "Players with some partially controlled trunk movement in the forward direction, but no controlled sideways movement. They have upper trunk rotation but poor lower trunk rotation."[29] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 2 point player as, "Some partially controlled trunk movement in the forward direction, but no controlled sideways movement, has upper trunk rotation but poor lower trunk rotation."[30] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "mild to moderate loss of stability in the lower trunk. This may result in little loss of stability during passing but usually Class 2 players will reach for rebounds with one hand whilst stabilizing by holding onto the chair with the other hand. Class players will be able to push the wheelchair without total support of the back of the wheelchair. Typical Class 2 Disabilities include : T8-L1 paraplegia, post-polio paralysis without control of lower extremity movement."[31]

A player can be classified as a 2.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 2 point player and 3 point player, and it is not easy to determine exactly which of these two classes the player fits in.[29][30]

Australian Grant Mizens is a 2 point player.[37] Kylie Gauci is a 2 point player for Australia's women's national team.[35] Bo Hedges and Richard Peter are 2.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[36]

In twin basketball, the equivalent to 2 point players are white head band players, who have function of the triceps and hand extensors but no functional fingers. They cannot shoot a basketball into the normal basket.[27]

  • 3 point player

Buckley describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having: "May have some limb movement more control of their trunk. They are quite limited in their sideways movement. Can rebound overhead with 2 hands."[6] The APC defines this classification as: "Players with good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. They have good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement."[29] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 3 point player as "Good trunk movement in the forward direction to the floor and up again without arm support. Has good trunk rotation but no controlled sideways movement."[30] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "excellent stability of the trunk in a forwards and backwards direction. Class 3 players suffer little loss of stability during upright passing and can usually rebound forcefully with two hands overhead by moving the trunk forward while reaching for the ball. Limited stability during reaching laterally for rebounding; often executed by holding the side of the wheelchair with the off hand. Able to push the wheelchair forcefully with no loss of anterior or posterior stability. Typical Class 3 Disabilities include : L2-L4 paraplegia, with control of hip flexion and adduction movements, but without control of hip extension or abduction. Post-polio paralysis with minimal control of lower extremity movements. Hip disarticulation or above-knee amputees with very short residual limbs."[31]

A player can be classified as a 3.5 point player if they display characteristics of a 3 point player and 4 point player, and it is not easy to determine exactly which of these two classes the player fits in.[29][30] For example, Australian Shelley Chaplin is classified as 3.5 point player.[35]

Australian Shaun Norris is a 3 point player.[38] Tina McKenzie, Sarah Stewart and Katie Hill are 3 point players for Australia's women's national team.[35] Yvon Rouillard is a 3 point player for the Canadian men's national team.[36] Dave Durepos and Mickael Poulin are 3.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[36]

In twin basketball, the equivalent to 3 point players do not wear a head band. They have good triceps, good balance of the hand, and some finger functions. They shoot a smaller and lighter basketball into a normal basket.[27]

  • 4 point player
Women competing in wheelchair basketball
Australian Liesl Tesch is a 4 point player

Buckley describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having: "Normal trunk movement but some reduced lower limb function as they unable to lean to both sides with full control."[6] The APC defines this classification as: "Players with normal trunk movement, but usually due to limitations in one lower limb they have difficulty with controlled sideways movement to one side."[29] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 4 point player as "Normal trunk movement, but usually due to limitations in one lower limb they have difficulty with controlled sideways movement to one side."[30] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "able to move the trunk forcefully in the direction of the follow-through after shooting. Class 4 players are able to flex, extend and rotate the trunk maximally while performing both one-handed and two-handed passes and can lean forward and to at least one side to grasp an over-the-head rebound with both hands. Class 4 players are able to push and stop the wheelchair with rapid acceleration and maximal forward movement of the trunk. Typical Class 4 Disabilities include : L5-S1 paraplegia, with control of hip abduction and extension movements on at least one side. Post-polio paralysis with one leg involvement. Hemipelvectomy. Single above- knee amputees with short residual limbs. Most double above-knee amputees. Some double below-knee amputees."[31]

Australian Brett Stibners is a 4 point player.[39] Cobi Crispin, Bridie Kean, Liesl Tesch and Leanne Del Toso are 4 point players for Australia's women's national team.[35] Adam Lancia is a 4 point player for the Canadian men's national team.[36]

  • 4.5 player
Troy Sachs is a 4.5 point player

Buckley describes the wheelchair basketball players in this classification as players having: "These players have the least disability on court. Usually have minimal lower limb dysfunction or single below knee amputation. Normal trunk movements in all directions."[6] The APC defines this classification as: "Players with normal trunk movement in all directions who are able to reach side to side with no limitations."[29] The International Wheelchair Basketball Federation defines a 4.5 point player as "Normal trunk movement in all directions, able to reach side to side with no limitations."[30] The Cardiff Celts, a wheelchair basketball team in Wales, explain this classification as, "(minimal disability) – able to move the trunk forcefully in all directions during shooting and passing Class 4.5 players can lean forward or to either side with arms overhead to grasp the ball and are able to push and stop the wheelchair with rapid acceleration and maximal forward movement of the trunk. Typical Class 4.5 Disabilities include : Single below-knee amputees. Some double below-knee amputees. Players with extensive orthopedic involvement of hips, knees or ankles. Post-polio paralysis with minimal (ankle/foot) involvement on one or both sides."[31]

Australians Brad Ness, Troy Sachs and Justin Eveson are 4.5 point players.[40][41][42] Amber Merritt is 4.5 point player for Australia's women's national team.[35] JOEY JOHNSON, PATRICK ANDERSON and DAVID ENG are a 4.5 point players for the Canadian men's national team.[36]

  • Beyond 4.5

Beyond 4.5, there is sometimes used a 5 point player classification for abled bodied athletes.[31] The 5 point player is not recognised by wheelchair basketball's governing body.[30] There has been a push by the National Wheelchair Basketball Association to allow for able-bodied athletes to compete in wheelchair basketball games. The argument is the sport is called "wheelchair basketball,"not "disability basketball."Able bodied athletes, in a wheelchair, have the same functionality as 4.5 point players.[26] Four point players and 4.5 point players receive less playing time than 1 point players because of their higher point value.[25]

Wheelchair curling[edit]

Wheelchair curling classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Wheelchair dance sport[edit]

Wheelchair dance sport classification is done by the IPC.[2]

Wheelchair fencing[edit]

Wheelchair fencing classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Wheelchair rugby[edit]

Wheelchair rugby classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

Wheelchair tennis[edit]

Wheelchair tennis classification is not done by the IPC.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Paralympic Classification Today". IPC. 22 April 2010. p. 3. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Code Classifiction". IPC. p. 21. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". p. 4. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c http://www.paralympic.org/sites/default/files/document/120716152047682_ClassificationGuide_1.pdf
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". p. 6. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Classification Information Sheet". Sydney, Australia. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  8. ^ a b Tweedy, Sean (16 July 2010). "Research Report – IPC Athletics Classification Project for Physical Impairments". Queensland, Australiaa: IPC. p. 40. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". p. 7. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c d Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". p. 7. Retrieved 18 December 2011. 
  11. ^ Buckley, Jane (2011). "Understanding Classification: A Guide to the Classification Systems used in Paralympic Sports". p. 9. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Classification Information Sheet". APC. 8 March 2011. p. 3. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  13. ^ a b "U.S. Paralympics National Classification Policies & Procedures SWIMMING". United States Paralympic Committee. 26 June 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Swimming Classification". The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Results". IPC. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  16. ^ a b "IPC Swimming World Records Long Course". IPC. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  17. ^ a b "IPC Swimming World Records Long Course". IPC. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  18. ^ "USA NATIONAL CLASSIFICATION DATABASE". United States Paralympic Committee. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "The ITTF Classification Code" (PDF). ITTF. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  20. ^ "The ITTF Handbook for Tournament Referees 6th edition" (PDF). ITTF. June 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  21. ^ "IPC CLASSIFICATION CODE AND INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS". IPC. November 2007. p. 21. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  22. ^ Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  23. ^ "Wheelchair Basketball: LONDON 2012 PARALYMPIC GAMES". IPC. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "Understanding Classification". Sydney, Australia: APC. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  25. ^ a b c Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  26. ^ a b Berger, Ronald J. (March 2009). Hoop dreams on wheels: disability and the competitive wheelchair athlete. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-415-96509-5. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Strohkendl, Horst (2002). "WHEELCHAIR TWIN BASKETBALL... an explanation". International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation. pp. 9–10. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  28. ^ IWAYA, TSUTOMU. "INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR TWIN BASKETBALL GAMES – FOR PEOPLE WITH CERVICAL CORD INJURIES". Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "Classification Information Sheet: Wheelchair Basketball". Sydney, Australia: APC. 27 July 2010. p. 2. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i "International Wheelchair Basketball Federation Functional Player Classification System". International Wheelchair Basketball Federation. December 2004. p. 8. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f "Simplified Rules of Wheelchair Basketball and a Brief Guide to the Classification system.". Cardiff Celts. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Strohkendl, Horst; Thiboutot, Armand; Craven, Philip (1996). The 50th anniversary of wheelchair basketball: a history. Münster: Waxmann. p. 33. ISBN 3-89325-441-2. OCLC 35820139. 
  33. ^ "Brendan Dowler". APC. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "Basketball Chronology". Basketball Australia. 2010. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f "2010 WC Team". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g "Team Canada: Men's Roster". Canada: Wheelchair Basketball Canada. 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  37. ^ "Basketball Australia : 2010 WC Team". Basketball Australia. 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  38. ^ "Shaun Norris". APC. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  39. ^ "Brett Stibners". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  40. ^ "Brad Ness". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  41. ^ "Justin Eveson". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "Troy Sachs". Basketball Australia. Retrieved 10 October 2011. 

External links[edit]