Disambiguation refers to the process of splitting an audio stream into separate audio files. These files may or may not be tagged with metadata which gives information about the track, such as the title or artist.
While the idea probably did not start here, TimeTrax is one example of a software program that disambiguates audio tracks. Specifically, TimeTrax does so with the help of identification data that is transmitted as part of an XM or Sirius satellite audio stream.
More recently, the Radio Data System has developed as a way for radio stations to transmit ID information to FM receivers. Assuming a compatible interface, a computer could use the RDS data from an FM receiver to separate the audio into separate songs, then label them with artist and title data.
In 2006, and again in 2007, the PERFORM Act, a bill proposed to the United States Senate, would make it illegal for companies to provide software or hardware to disambiguate audio tracks.