Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2013)|
Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), or Disarmament, Demobilisation, Repatriation, Reintegration and Resettlement (DDRRR) are applied strategies for executing successful peacekeeping operations, and is generally the strategy employed by all UN Peacekeeping Operations. Disarmament entails the physical removal of the means of combat from ex-belligerents (weapons, ammunition, etc.); demobilization entails the disbanding of armed groups; while reintegration describes the process of reintegrating former combatants into civilian society, ensuring against the possibility of a resurgence of armed conflict.
Prerequisites for DDR
DDR is somewhat different from the blanket term "peacekeeping", in that DDR requires certain conditions to be effectively implemented. They include, but are not necessarily limited to:
- Security - conflict in the targeted area must be completely or at least nearly halted, and a significant deterrent force must be in place to ensure no renewal of conflict. Without this guarantee of security, DDR cannot be effectively implemented, as trust between former belligerents - an integral part of the DDR process - cannot develop.
- Inclusion of all ex-belligerents - without cooperation between all armed groups, DDR cannot succeed. Unless all combatants and factions are disarmed, the potential for a resurgence of conflict is too great.
- Sufficient funding - without enough funding to be completed, DDR operations cannot succeed, as incomplete reintegration of ex-combatants leaves the possibility of a renewal of conflict.
Influence of DDR on the peace process
DDR is often carried out as a technical process, whereas it is in fact a highly political one. It is often overlooked that DDR is not only shaping the demand for security, e.g. to what extent the people still feel unsafe due to prevailing presence of armed groups in their proximity, but also the supply of security. The supply of security here refers to the amount of combatants integrated into regular security forces after the conflict has ended through means of DDR, thus influencing the structure and the organization of the newly emerged security sector. If too many soldiers, policemen or paramilitary troops are present, the DDR campaign has not altered the level of insecurity, but rather changed its cause.
Requirements for successful DDR implementation
There are 6 aspects to a successful DDR conversion:
- Reduction of military expenditure
- Reorientation of military research and development
- Conversion of the arms industry
- Demobilization and reintegration
- Redevelopment of troops
- Safe disposal and management of "surplus weapons"
Demobilization is one aspect of conversion.
To assess the impact of demobilization one has to consider the resources involved, the dynamic processes of production, redistribution and the different factors and actors in policy making and implementation. The ultimate objective of demobilization and reintegration efforts should be to improve the welfare of people. Demobilization of combatants frees human potential that can contribute to achieving these objectives.
- GFN-SSR A library of DDR publications and article summaries
- United Nations DDR Resource Center
- Hänggi, H. and Bryden, A. (Eds.) (2005): Security Goverance in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding
- "Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants" - A KnowledgeBase Essay
- United Nations Peacekeeping
- Caramés, A. and Sanz, E. (2009): Analysis of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes in the World during 2008
- ICTJ; Patel, Ana Cutter, Pablo de Greiff and Lars Waldorf (Eds.) (2010): "Disarming the Past: Transitional Justice and Ex-combatants"