Disjoint union

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In mathematics, the term disjoint union may refer to one of two different but related concepts:

  • In set theory, the disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets is a modified union operation that indexes the elements according to which set they originated in; disjoint sets have no element in common.
  • When one says that a set is the disjoint union of a family of subsets, this means that it is the union of the subsets and that the subsets are pairwise disjoint.

Example[edit]

Disjoint union of sets A_0 = {1, 2, 3} and A_1 = {1, 2} can be computed by finding:


\begin{align}
    A^*_0 & = \{(1, 0), (2, 0), (3, 0)\} \\
    A^*_1 & = \{(1, 1), (2, 1)\}
\end{align}

so


    A_0 \sqcup A_1 = A^*_0 \cup A^*_1 = \{(1, 0), (2, 0), (3, 0), (1, 1), (2, 1)\}

Set theory definition[edit]

Formally, let {Ai : iI} be a family of sets indexed by I. The disjoint union of this family is the set


    \bigsqcup_{i\in I}A_i = \bigcup_{i\in I}\{(x,i) : x \in A_i\}.

The elements of the disjoint union are ordered pairs (x, i). Here i serves as an auxiliary index that indicates which Ai the element x came from.

Each of the sets Ai is canonically isomorphic to the set


    A_i^* = \{(x,i) : x \in A_i\}.

Through this isomorphism, one may consider that Ai is canonically embedded in the disjoint union. For ij, the sets Ai* and Aj* are disjoint even if the sets Ai and Aj are not.

In the extreme case where each of the Ai is equal to some fixed set A for each iI, the disjoint union is the Cartesian product of A and I:


    \bigsqcup_{i\in I}A_i = A \times I.

One may occasionally see the notation


    \sum_{i\in I}A_i

for the disjoint union of a family of sets, or the notation A + B for the disjoint union of two sets. This notation is meant to be suggestive of the fact that the cardinality of the disjoint union is the sum of the cardinalities of the terms in the family. Compare this to the notation for the Cartesian product of a family of sets.

Disjoint unions are also sometimes written \,\,\biguplus_{i\in I}A_i\,\, or \,\,\cdot\!\!\!\!\!\bigcup_{i\in I}A_i.

In the language of category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct in the category of sets. It therefore satisfies the associated universal property. This also means that the disjoint union is the categorical dual of the Cartesian product construction. See coproduct for more details.

For many purposes, the particular choice of auxiliary index is unimportant, and in a simplifying abuse of notation, the indexed family can be treated simply as a collection of sets. In this case A_i^* is referred to as a copy of A_i and the notation \bigcup_{A \in C}{^*} A is sometimes used.

Category theory point of view[edit]

In category theory the disjoint union is defined as a coproduct in the category of sets.

As such, the disjoint union is defined up to an isomorphism, and the above definition is just one realization of the coproduct, among others. When the sets are pairwise disjoint, the usual union is another realization of the coproduct. This justifies the second definition in the lead.

This categorical aspect of the disjoint union explains why  \coprod is frequently used, instead of  \bigsqcup, to denote coproduct.

See also[edit]

References[edit]