Disney Consumer Products

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Disney Consumer Products
Type Subsidiary[1]
Industry Merchandising
Predecessor(s) Character Merchandising Division
Founded 1929[1]
Headquarters Burbank, California[1], United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people Robert Chapek (President)[1]
Products Textiles, apparel and luxury goods[1]
Services Licensing
Parent The Walt Disney Company[1]
Divisions Licensing[1]
Subsidiaries Disney Publishing Worldwide
Disney Store[1]
Website disneyconsumerproducts.com

Disney Consumer Products (DCP) is a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company that engages in merchandising of the Disney brand and Disney properties.

Background[edit]

DCP's origins trace back to 1929, when Walt Disney licensed the image of Mickey Mouse for use on a children's writing tablet.[ChWDC 1] On December 16 of that year, Walt Disney Productions formed the Walt Disney Enterprises (WDE) division to handle merchandising.[ChWDC 2]

The Mickey Mouse doll production by Charlotte Clark started shortly after in January 1930.[ChWDC 3] The WDE division also hired George Borgfeldt & Company of New York as a licensing agent to make Mickey and Minnie Mouse toys.[ChWDC 4] Borgfeldt & Company in turn set to work developing other products, granting the first license to Walkburger, Tanner and Company of St. Gall, Switzerland, for Mickey and Minnie Mouse handkerchiefs.[ChWDC 5] That summer of 1930 Disney expanded WDE to England, granting a general license to William Banks Levy for Mickey and Minnie Mouse character merchandise.[ChWDC 6]

In 1932 Disney closed a merchandising contract with Herman Kay Kamen for sole representation.[ChWDC 7] Early on WDE began to show results. The company's merchandising made the Silly Symphony film Three Little Pigs (1933) the company's first profit-making animated feature.[ChWDC 8]

In 1934, Disney licensing expanded to hand-crank toy projectors,[ChWDC 9] diamond-studded Mickey Mouse pins, Mickey Mouse toffee in England[ChWDC 10] and a Lionel wind-up train toy,[ChWDC 11] while a patent is received for Ingersoll-Waterbury Clock Company's Mickey Mouse watch.[ChWDC 12]

Yet more companies licensed the Mickey Mouse image. General Foods did so for one year and made $1.5 million on the Post Toasties cereal box. Mickey was the first licensed character on such a product.[ChWDC 13] Clashes with other companies weren't unavoidable, though. Disney filed suit on July 31 against the United Biscuit Company of America, Sawyer Biscuit Company, and the Chicago Carton Company for unauthorized use of Disney characters for animal crackers which lasted for four months and ended in Disney's favor.[ChWDC 14]

Disney signed on July 19, 1938 with Courvoisier Galleries, making Courvoisier Disney's original art marketing representative. In December, Walt Disney Enterprises was renamed Walt Disney Productions.[ChWDC 15]

In October 1948, Disney and Kay Kamen extend the merchandising contract, but only for the Americas.[ChWDC 16] In 1949, the Character Merchandising Division is formed with in Disney.[ChWDC 17] Also that year on October 28, Kay Kamen, Disney's licensing representative, died in an Air France plane crash over the Azores.[ChWDC 18]

After Disney purchased the rights for Winnie the Pooh to make a 1966 animated short film, the company conceded to a broad licensing agreement with Sears, Roebuck & Co..[2]

In 1979, the Intergovernmental Philatelic Corporation of New York was licensed by Walt Disney Productions to make Disney character stamps for several countries.[ChWDC 19]

History[edit]

DCP office buildings in Glendale at Disney's Grand Central Creative Campus

Disney Consumer Products was incorporated with the State of California in 1986.[3]

The first Disney Store opened in Glendale, California on March 28, 1987.[ChWDC 20] On October 12, Disney agreed to a licensing contract with Mattel for a Disney Character infant and preschool toy line.[ChWDC 21] DCP purchased Childcraft Education Corp., maker of children's furniture and equipment, retail stores and catalog sales, from Grolier Inc. in April 1988.[nyt 1]

In April 1990, the 50th store was opened in Montclair, California along with the first Mickey's Kitchen fast food restaurant.[nyt 2] On November 11, 1991, Mattel and Disney extended the 1987 agreement, adding Pinocchio, Bambi, Dumbo, It's a Small World, and the Autopia to the toy line.[ChWDC 22] In March 1992, Disney Stores closed the two Mickey's Kitchen as the restaurants were only breaking even while well received by the customers as the company wanted to focus on overseas expansions.[4]

In 1994, DCP ended an exclusive licensing agreement with Sears for Winnie the Pooh. Three distinct product lines were created for Pooh: Disney Pooh, based on the Disney red-shirted tan bear cartoon version; 100 Acre Collection, a more upscale line for department stores and the Classic Pooh line based on the original A.A. Milne books' Ernest H. Shephard illustrations.[2]

Disney's and McDonald's ten-year cross-promotional agreement began on January 1, 1997.[nyt 3] In May 1997, the Vermont Teddy Bear Co. filed a copyright infringement suit against Disney over "Pooh-Grams" being similar to its mail-order "Bear-Gram" trademark and logo. Also, Disney Enterprises, Inc. sold DCP operating subsidiary Childcraft Education Corp. to U.S. Office Products Co.[5]

By 1998, Pooh outsold Mickey Mouse $316 million to $114 million through November of that year in just-licensed-toy sales. By replacing Sears with 100 licensees including Mattel, Hallmark, Timex, Tupperware and Royal Daulton, DCP has since increased Pooh product lines from $390 million to $3.3 billion.[2]

In December 1999, Andrew P. Mooney became the head of DCP. He created the Disney Princess franchise in January 2000.[nyt 4][6] He also developed the Disney Couture fashion line, Walt Disney Signature furniture, a princess-inspired bridal gowns line, and lines based on the Pixar films, Toy Story and Cars.[7] Disney licensed Motorola for cordless phones and two way handset radios in August 2002.[8]

Consumer Products also begin expanding licensing in the food category in the 2000s. DCP agreed to a licensing agreement with Kellogg Company for a Kellogg's Disney cereal line launched in February 2002—Kellogg's Disney Mickey's Magix, Kellogg's Disney Hunny Bs, and Kellogg's Disney/Pixar Buzz Blasts.[9] In May 2003, DCP and Wells' Dairy launched a Disney-branded dairy line with a variety of new ice creams, frozen novelties and yogurt products.[10] In May 2005, DCP licensed Krogers the Old Yeller name to sell dog food.[11]

The Japanese stores were sold to Oriental Land Company in 2002,[12] while most North American stores were sold and licensed in November 2004 to The Children's Place.[13]

In 2005, DCP has begun working with various Indian retail outlets to establish Disney Corners within the outlets to sell licensed merchandise.[14] Also that year, Mooney formed the Disney Fairies franchise which launched in the fall with Fairy Dust and the Quest for the Egg book.[6][15] In the early 2000s, DisneyToon joined DCP as their internal Disney conglomerate video partner in developing the new Disney franchises. While DCP eyed other potential franchises, DTS looked to the Seven Dwarfs for a male centric franchise to counter balance the female centric Fairies by 2005.[16]

With Disney Princesses a success and Disney Fairies just under way in 2006, Consumer Products started looking into the next possible franchises with Disney Bunnies selected already.[17] DCP in May concluded a consumer products master licensing agreement for Indochina, including Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, with East Media Holdings Inc.'s EMHI Licensing Inc.[18] On September 26, the Disney Jeans brand was launched in India under license to Indus Clothing, who planned to open 30 Disney Jean stores by the end of 2007.[19] In October, DCP India franchised to Ravi Jaipuria Corporation the rights for five years to set up 150 Disney Artist brand stores and wholesale under the Disney Artist brand Disney character branded greeting cards, stationary, arts, crafts and party product in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Maldives.[20]

In January 2007 two new DCP franchises launched, the Bunnies brand Disney Dragonkind.[21][22]

In 2008, Disney purchased back its Disney Stores from The Children's Place.[7] On June 5, 2008, Disney Interactive Studios is transferred out of DCP to the Disney Interactive Media Group.[23][24]

John Lasseter of Pixar became a creative advisor to DCP in 2009 after already assisting on Cars products. Lasseter pushed to an end to "label slapping", which is using a popular move to sell unrelated generic toys.[25] The Disney Princesses franchise has generated more than $4 billion in retail sales worldwide.[7] The Cars sequel was approved for a 2011 debut despite the original being panned by the critics and one of the lowest grossing Pixar film as its licensed products have done well.[26] Mooney stepped down as DCP chair in September 2011.[7] With Robert Chapek being appointed president of DCP, DCP expanded its responsibility to include all retailing, distribution and licensing for Marvel, Pixar, video discs and video games.[27]

Swampy the Alligator from Where's My Water? was the first Disney Interactive Media Group original character to get the merchandising treatment by 2012.[28] In 2012, Disney was the world’s largest licensor and number 1 in the entertainment category according to International Licensing Industry Merchandisers’ Association for another year with an 80% market share and $39.5 billion.[29]

In March 2013, Disney sent a letter to its suppliers to have them by April 2014 pull any Disney branded products out of the five "highest-risk countries": Bangladesh, Ecuador, Venezuela, Belarus and Pakistan, based on a World Bank-governed metric report. This was announced in May after a Bangladeshi factory building collapsed. Haiti and Cambodia, which are also low-ranking countries, were allowable per Disney's new policy so long as the factories worked with the Better Work health and safety program run by the International Labor Organization and the International Finance Corporation. Bangladesh factories were liable to get work if they also partnered with the Better Work program. Disney also stated that less than 1% of its products were sourced from Bangladesh and even less from the other four countries.[30]

DCP began representing Lucasfilm brands in June 2013.[31] With the addition of Star Wars, Disney has six of the top 10 franchises; Disney Princess (1st), Star Wars (2nd), Winnie the Pooh (3rd), Cars (4th), Mickey & Friends (6th), and Toy Story (8th), with two more in the top twenty; Disney Fairies (11th) and Spider-Man (16th).[29] In October, DCP announced an arrangement with Wet Seal for an ABC Family character inspired Crush by ABC Family apparel and accessories line to reach the shelves in 2014.[32]

In April 2014, DCP was the subject of searing online criticism from numerous parents (through the Disney Store's Facebook page and other forums) for severely underestimating consumer demand for merchandise related to Disney Animation's 2013 blockbuster hit, Frozen.[33][34]

Franchises[edit]

Franchises launched[17]
Disney Princess (2000)
Disney Fairies (2006)
Franchises considered (2006)[17]
Disney Bunnies
Disney Dwarves
Disney Horses
Disney Mermaids
Disney Trains

Andrew P. Mooney of Disney Consumer Products (DCP) created the Disney Princess franchise in January 2000.[nyt 4] In 2005, Mooney formed the Disney Fairies franchise which launched in the fall with Fairy Dust and the Quest for the Egg book.[6][15] In the early 2000s, DisneyToon Studios (DTS) joined DCP as their internal Disney conglomerate video partner in developing the new Disney franchises. While Consumer Products eyed other potential franchises, DTS looked to the Seven Dwarfs for a male-centric franchise to counter balance the female-centric Fairies by 2005.[16]

With Disney Princesses a success and Disney Fairies just under way in 2006, Disney Consumer Products started looking into the next possible franchises (see table at right) with Disney Bunnies selected already.[17] In January 2007 two new DCP franchises were launched, Disney Bunnies with three books and Disney Dragonkind with a set of statues.[21][22]

Complications relating to the production of Tinker Bell, the debut film of the Disney Fairies franchise lead to discussion over the focus of DisneyToon Studios. Pixar leadership exerted control and affected Franchise projects at the production company. Tinker Bell's animation was scrapped and was restarted while two possible franchise projects were cancelled, "Disney's Dwarfs" and the "Disney Princess Enchanted Tales" line after the first DVD release.[35][36]

The June 2013 release of the Disney Princess Palace Pets app from Disney Publishing lead DCP to turn Palace Pets into a Disney Princess franchise extension with the release of The Palace Pets toy line in August from licensee, Blip Toys. The line was also listed by TimetoPlayMag.com for its Most Wanted List Holiday 2013.[37]

Disney Bunnies[edit]

Disney Bunnies
Creator Disney Consumer Products
Original work Licensing spin off
Print publications
Books
  • "I Love You, My Bunnies"
  • "Thumper Counts to Ten"
  • "Goodnight, Thumper!"[21]
Miscellaneous
spun off from Bambi, Bambi II

Disney Bunnies is a Disney Consumer Products spin-off franchise based on Thumper from the 1942 film Bambi and its 2006 midquel Bambi II.[17][22] Selected as DCP's third franchise to be launched,[17] Disney Bunnies was launched on January 15, 2007 with three books.[21]

Disney Dragonkind[edit]

Disney Dragonkind
Creator Disney Consumer Products
Original work Licensing spin off
Miscellaneous
Toys statues
spun off from Disney Movies

Disney Dragonkind is a Disney Consumer Products spin-off franchise based on dragons appearing in Disney animated movies.[21][22] It was launched in January 2007 with a statue of Maleficent (from Sleeping Beauty) in dragon form. Gentle Giant Studios sculpted the three first statues with the last two being: Mushu from Mulan and Elliot from Pete's Dragon.[21]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Company Overview of Disney Consumer Products, Inc.". investing. BusinessWeek.com. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Hirsch, Jerry (December 31, 1998). "Winnie the Pooh Gains Momentum across Disney Product Lines". The Orange County Register. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  3. ^ "DISNEY CONSUMER PRODUCTS, INC. Entity Number: C1389445". Business Search. State of California. Retrieved 28 November 2012. 
  4. ^ Vaughan, Vicki (March 28, 1992). "Disney Restaurants To Close After Lackluster Performance". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  5. ^ "Vermont Teddy Bear Co. Sues Disney". Los Angeles Times. AP. May 28, 1997. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Grover, Ronald (September 6, 2011). "Disney Consumer Products Chairman Mooney Resigns to Seek Leadership Role". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d Chmielewski, Dawn C. (September 6, 2011). "Head of Disney Consumer Products group steps down". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "Motorola reaches for kids with Disney". TWICE. August 5, 2002. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  9. ^ Toops, Diane (February 1, 2002). "Kellogg brings magic to breakfast". Food Processing. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  10. ^ "Disney Consumer Products, along with Wells' Dairy, Inc., launched a variety of new ice creams, frozen novelties and yogurt products". The Food Institute Report. May 26, 2003. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  11. ^ "Kroger and Disney bring Old Yeller back after 48 years". Private Label Buyer. May 1, 2005. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  12. ^ "Disney to Sell Its Retail Stores in Japan". Los Angeles Times. Bloomberg News. September 11, 2001. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  13. ^ "Disney buys back store chain from Children's Place". Los Angeles Times. Reuters. May 2, 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  14. ^ Bhattacharjee, Manisha (April 25, 2005). "Disney's Eisner, Iger in India; to meet PM & President". Indiantelevision.com. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b "Disney hopes fairies will fly into girls' hearts" USA Today.com, August 25, 2005. Retrieved November 10, 2006.
  16. ^ a b Armstrong, Josh (August 14, 2013). "Mike Disa and The Seven Dwarfs: How the Snow White prequel became a Dopey movie". Animated Views.com. Animated Views. Retrieved June 12, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Hill, Jim (May 29, 2006). ""Disney Fairies" franchise gets ready to take flight". Jim Hill Media.com. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  18. ^ "Disney's BVITV-AP brings 'Toon Disney' block to Vietnam". Indiantelevision.com. February 1, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2014. 
  19. ^ "Disney Jeans launched, plans 30 stores". Business Standard. September 26, 2006. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Disney to set up 150 stores in India". The Times of India. TNN. October 12, 2006. Retrieved April 23, 2014. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f Hill, Jim (Aug 9, 2006). ""Disney Dragonkind" roars into stores & "Disney Bunnies" hops onto bookstore shelves in early 2007". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c d Josh (August 11, 2006). "Bunnies and dragons unite for Disney Consumer Products". Animated Views. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Disney's games and internet divisions merging", Joystiq.com, 2008.
  24. ^ "Boyd promoted at Disney Consumer Products unit". Daily News Record. July 30, 1997. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  25. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (December 14, 2009). "Disney toys get Pixar animation guru's touch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  26. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C.; Rebecca Keegan (June 21, 2011). "Merchandise sales drive Pixar's 'Cars' franchise". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 November 2012. 
  27. ^ Chmielewski, Dawn C. (September 10, 2011). "Disney names Robert Chapek head of consumer products group". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  28. ^ Kohler, Chris (October 16, 2012). "How Videogames Are Changing Disney". Wired.com. Retrieved October 17, 2012. 
  29. ^ a b Graser, Marc (June 17, 2013). "With Star Wars and Princesses, Disney Now Has Six of the Top 10 Licensed Franchises". Variety. Retrieved December 2, 2013. 
  30. ^ Fox, Emily Jane (May 2, 2013). "Disney pulls out of Bangladesh factories". CNN Money. Retrieved May 3, 2013. 
  31. ^ Graser, Marc. (June 17, 2013) ‘Star Wars,’ Marvel to Boost Disney’s Already Dominant Licensing Biz.
  32. ^ "Disney, ABC Plan New Millennial Brand". License Mag. October 18, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  33. ^ Schuster, Dana (14 April 2014). "‘Frozen’ merch is making parents do crazy things". New York Post. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  34. ^ Palmeri, Christopher (9 April 2014). "Disney’s ‘Frozen’ Dress Sets Off $1,600 Frenzy by Parents". Bloomberg. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  35. ^ Baisley, Sarah (June 21, 2007). "DisneyToon Studios Prexy Morrill Steps Down". Animation World Network. Retrieved April 19, 2012. 
  36. ^ Hill, Jim (June 20, 2007). "Say "So Long !" to direct-to-video sequels : DisneyToon Studios tunes out Sharon Morrill". Jim Hill Media. Retrieved April 19, 2012. 
  37. ^ Disney Consumer Products Public Relations (September 26, 2013). "Disney Debuts New Franchise Extension with Launch of Disney Princess Palace Pets App and Toy Line". Marketwatch.com. Business Wire. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  • Polsson, Ken. "Chronology of the Walt Disney Company". KPolsson.com. 
  1. ^ "1929". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:
    *The Disney Touch, by Ron Grover, 1991.
    *The Musical World of Walt Disney, by David Tietyen, 1990. Page 19.
    Walt Disney - An American Original, by Bob Thomas, 1994. Page 106.
    *Disney Discourse - Producing the Magic Kingdom, by Eric Smoodin, 1994. Page 205.
    *Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 72.
    *Building a Company - Roy O. Disney and the Creation of an Entertainment Empire, by Bob Thomas, 1998. Page 67.
  2. ^ "1929". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:
    *Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 72.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 31.
  3. ^ "1930". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources: The Disney Studio Story, by Richard Holliss and Brian Sibley, 1988.
    Disney Discourse - Producing the Magic Kingdom, by Eric Smoodin, 1994. Page 205.
  4. ^ "1930". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  Sources:
    *Walt Disney - An American Original, by Bob Thomas, 1994. Page 106.
    Disney Discourse - Producing the Magic Kingdom, by Eric Smoodin, 1994. Page. 73.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 39.
    *Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 73.
    Building a Company - Roy O. Disney and the Creation of an Entertainment Empire, by Bob Thomas, 1998. Page 68.
  5. ^ "1930". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:
    *Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 73.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 39.
  6. ^ "1930". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 81.
  7. ^ "1932". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:
    *Walt Disney - An American Original, by Bob Thomas, 1994. Page 107.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 108.
    *Building a Company - Roy O. Disney and the Creation of an Entertainment Empire, by Bob Thomas, 1998. Page 70.
    *Walt Disney - The Triumph of the American Imagination, by Neal Gabler, 2006. Page 197.
  8. ^ "1933". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:
    *Walt Disney's World of Fantasy, by Adrian Bailey, 1987.
    *Microsoft Cinemania '95, 1994.
    *Of Mice and Magic, by Leonard Maltin, 1980.
    *Walt Disney - Hollywood's Dark Prince, by Marc Eliot, 1993. Page 76.
    *Disney's World, by Leonard Mosley, 1985. Page 139.
    *The Disney Studio Story, by Richard Holliss and Brian Sibley, 1988.
    *The Hollywood Studios, by Roy Pickard, 1978. Page 240.
    *Walt Disney - When Dreams Come True, by JoAnn DiFranco, 1985. Page 29.
    *Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters, by John Grant, 1987. Page 55.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 109.
    *Disney A to Z - The Updated Official Encyclopedia, by Dave Smith, 1998. Page 553.
    *Walt Disney - The Triumph of the American Imagination, by Neal Gabler, 2006. Page 185.
  9. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disney Magazine, Spring 2001. Page 80.
  10. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 76.
  11. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources:,br>*Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 76.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 127.
    Walt Disney's Railroad Story, by Michael Broggie, 1997. Page 41.
  12. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  sources: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 116.
  13. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  Source: Disney Magazine, Summer 1997. Page 46.
  14. ^ "1934". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 273.
  15. ^ "1938". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. page 186.
  16. ^ "1948". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 237.
  17. ^ "1949". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 250.
  18. ^ "1949". Retrieved 13 November 2012.  source: The Disney Studio Story, by Richard Holliss and Brian Sibley, 1988.
    Disney's World, by Leonard Mosley, 1985. Page 153.
    *Disneyana: Walt Disney Collectibles, by Cecil Munsey, 1974. Page 237.
    *Asiaweek, November 12, 1999, Volume 25, Number 45. Page 48.
    * Walt Disney - The Triumph of the American Imagination, by Neal Gabler, 2006. Page 473.
  19. ^ "1979". Retrieved 26 November 2012.  source: Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse - His Life and Times, by Richard Holliss, 1986. Page 89.
  20. ^ "1987". Retrieved 26 November 2012.  source:
    * Prince of the Magic Kingdom, by Joe Flower, 1991.
    *Work in Progress, by Michael Eisner, 1998. Page 243.
  21. ^ "1987". Retrieved 26 November 2012.  source: The New York Times, October 13, 1987. Page D26.
  22. ^ "July to December 1991". Retrieved 26 November 2012.  source: The New York Times, November 12, 1991. Page D4.
  1. ^ "Childcraft Bought By Walt Disney". AP. April 20, 1988. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  2. ^ Stevenson, Richard W. (May 4, 1990). "Disney Stores: Magic in Retail?". pp. D1,D18. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Volume 146, Number 50736.". March 19, 1997. p. D6. 
  4. ^ a b Orenstein, Peggy (December 24, 2006). "What’s Wrong With Cinderella?". Retrieved 12 April 2013. 

External links[edit]