District of Columbia Public Schools

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District Of Columbia Public Schools
DCPSlogo.gif
Type and location
Type Public
Grades PK–12
Established 1805
Region Mid-Atlantic, Southeast
Country United States
Location 1200 First Street, NE, Washington, DC 20002
District Info
Superintendent Hosanna Mahaley
Chancellor Kaya Henderson
Schools 139 (2010–2011 academic year)
Budget $1,224,312,000
Per Pupil Expenditure $29,409 (2009–2010)
NCES District ID 1100030
Students and staff
Students 43,866
Teachers 4,017
Staff 8,180
Student-teacher ratio 10.92
Other information
Website http://dcps.dc.gov

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) is the local, traditional public school system of Washington, D.C. in the United States. DCPS should not be confused with the independently governed DC Public Charter Schools (DCPCS), which also operates in Washington, D.C.

Composition and enrollment[edit]

District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) consists of 111[1][2] of the 238 public elementary and secondary schools and learning centers located in Washington, D.C. These schools have a grade span of prekindergarten to twelfth grade and, as of 2000, a kindergarten entrance age of 5 years old.[3] School is compulsory for DCPS students between the ages of 5 and 18.[4] DCPS schools typically start the last Monday in August. The school day is generally approximately six hours.[citation needed]

The ethnic breakdown of students enrolled in 2012 was 72% Black, 14% Hispanic (of any race), 10% non-Hispanic White, and 4% of other races. The District itself has a population that is 42% non-Hispanic White, 51% Black and 10% Hispanic (of any race).[5] Gentrification and demographic changes in many DC neighborhoods has increased the White and Hispanic populations in the city, while reducing the Black population. In 2008, DCPS was 84.4% Black, 9.4% Hispanic (of any race), 4.6% non-Hispanic White, and 1.6% of other races.[6]

Facilities reform legislation in DC has led to many school openings and closings. The most recent closure announcement is that River Terrace Elementary School and Shaed Education Campus are shutting their doors at the end of the 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 school years, respectively. Students attending River Terrace Elementary School will transition with Emery Education Campus to the Langley Building. In addition, the Montessori program is expanding into the Montessori School (PS-5th grade). A part of this will be the Jefferson 6th Grade Academy, which will only house 6th grade students. As of the 2009–2010 school year, there was a total enrollment of 43,866 students and 4,017 classroom teachers. The current student to teacher ratio is 10.92, an improvement from the 2006–07 ratio of 13.5.[7] However, student enrollment was at a peak of 72,850 students with a much larger staff totaling 12,000. The reason for this sudden enrollment drop in DCPS is that the Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 separated DC Public Charter Schools (DCPCS) from District of Columbia Public Schools.

The District of Columbia passed charter school legislation in 1996, which went into effect in September 1999. The legislation gave the District the power to grant charters for 15 years. Although this is longer than the traditional 3–5 year term observed in 31 other states, a required review takes place every 5 years. 4.4% of public school students enrolled in a charter school for the 1999 academic school year; the 28 schools had a total enrollment of approx. 3,000 students. After legislation was enacted in 2007, chartering authority was placed under the D.C. Public Charter School Board and disaffiliated from DCPS. The governance of DCPS was also restructured, and the district was placed under the control of the Mayor. In 2010 about 38% of Washington, D.C. public school students attended 60 charter schools.[8] There are 52 public charter schools in the District, with 93 campuses and 30,000 students. The total number of public charter schools has been reduced from 60 schools on 96 campuses in 2008–09 to 53 schools on 98 campuses as of the 2011–12 school year. However, the addition of grades to the charter schools are still increasing enrollment and decreasing from DCPS’ numbers.

Students[edit]

Health[edit]

In 2009, 43% of all DCPS public school students were overweight or obese. This was one of the highest rates in the United States.[9]

Dropout Rate[edit]

In the graduating class of spring 2008, the average freshman graduation rate for DCPS was 56%‚ compared with a national average of 74.9%. This constituted a large drop from the freshman graduation rate of 68.4% in 2002 and 68.8% as recently as 2005. In just the 2008–09 school year alone, 1,075 black students dropped out of high school. This figure raises concern since there were 1,246 students that dropped out of DCPS schools that year.[10] However, these numbers are not meant to be misleading; the 62.8% freshman graduation rate of black students in 2008 was above the state average.

Governance[edit]

Within DCPS, schools are classified as either a “neighborhood school” or a “destination school.” Neighborhood schools are elementary or secondary schools assigned to students based on his or her address. Destination schools are feeder-schools for elementary or secondary institutions from a school a student is already attending. Since the fall of 2009, students may choose a destination school, regardless of their neighborhood location. Locations of all of the schools and the neighborhood divides can be found on the DCPS website.[11]

For the school year ending in spring 2007, the DCPS was governed by the D.C. Board of Education, with eleven members, including two students who had the right to debate but not to vote. Five members were elected and four were appointed by the Mayor. The Board established DCPS policies and employed a superintendent to serve as chief executive officer of the school district, responsible for day-to-day operations. Four Board members represented specific geographical boundaries and the Board President was elected at large. One condition of the District of Columbia Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007 was the creation of DCPS as a separate cabinet-level agency from the D.C. Board of Education. This moved DCPS within the executive branch of the District of Columbia government—specifically, under Mayoral control. Currently, this means that DCPS is subordinate to District of Columbia Mayor Vincent Gray. D.C. Mayor Adrian Fenty proposed putting the public schools under the direct control of the Mayor's Office upon taking office in January 2007. However, this reform to District of Columbia Public Schools was encouraged by his predecessor and constituents at large. It also placed all of the District of Columbia public charter schools under the care of a new board—District of Columbia Public Charter School Board (PCSB). Although these schools were previously a part of DCPS, they are now considered to be a separate district controlled by the D.C. Public Charter School Board (PCSB).

The D.C. Council passed the Mayor's proposal into law but since the change amended the Home Rule Act, the change needed to gain Federal approval before taking effect. D.C. Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton introduced H.R. 2080, a bill to amend the D.C. Home Rule Charter Act to provide for the Mayor's proposal. H.R. 2080 was passed by the United States House of Representatives under an expedited procedure on May 8, 2007 by a voice vote. After three U.S. Senators (Ben Cardin of Maryland, Mary Landrieu of Louisiana, and Carl Levin of Michigan) initially placed "holds" on the bill to prevent its consideration in the United States Senate, the Senate agreed to pass H.R. 2080 without amendment on May 22, 2007 by unanimous consent. On May 31, 2007, the bill was presented to the President and President Bush signed H.R. 2080 into law on June 1, 2007. After the standard Congressional review period expired on June 12, 2007, the Mayor's office had direct control of the Superintendent and the school budget. On June 12, Mayor Fenty appointed Michelle Rhee the new Chancellor, replacing Superintendent Clifford B. Janey.

D.C. School Choice Incentive Act of 2003[edit]

In January 2004, Congress passed the D.C. School Choice Incentive Act of 2003. The law established a federally-funded private school voucher program known as the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP). The OSP distributes vouchers to low-income families to cover private school tuition. Because there are more eligible applicants than available vouchers, they are distributed by lottery. In 2010, a randomized controlled trial conducted under the auspices of the Department of Education examined the impacts of the OSP students, finding that it raised graduation rates.[12] Students who were offered vouchers had a graduation rate of 82%, while those who actually used their vouchers had a graduation rate of 91%. By comparison, the rate for students who did not receive vouchers was only 70%. The study received the Department of Education’s highest rating for scientific rigor.[13] Over 90% of the study’s participants were African American, and most of the remainder were Latino American. Further research found that students who received vouchers were 25% more likely to enroll in college than students with similar demographic characteristics who did not receive vouchers.[14]

D.C. Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007[edit]

The Council of the District of Columbia enacted the DC Public Education Reform Amendment Act of 2007. This act established a DC public school agency based on authority given to the council in the District of Columbia Home Rule Act of 1973. The Department of Education that was established under the Mayor triggered several changes. The largest was already discussed—DCPCS gained sole authority over chartering and charted schools, DCPS became subordinate to the Mayor’s office. Secondly, many smaller authoritative changes took place. The first is that the State Education Office (SEO) became the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE). The four subsections of the District were reaffirmed through location-based State Board of Education selectees. In addition, the smaller eight school election wards were reaffirmed. Finally, the Commission was established through this legislature. The “Commission” is the Interagency Collaboration and Services Integration Commission, which includes the Mayor, Chairman of the Council of the District of Columbia, Chief Judge of the DC Superior Family Court, Superintendent of Education, Chancellor of DCPS, Chair of DCPCSB and fourteen others. After the 2007–2008 school year, about one-fifth of the teachers and one-third of the principals resigned, retired, or were terminated from DCPS in response or relation to the passage of the law. A very strong negative impact was initially experienced by DCPS due to the loss. A GAO-conducted study.[15] recommended that the Mayor direct DCPS to establish planning processes for strikes and look to performance reviews from central offices to strengthen accountability. These recommendations were followed and accountability has increased through academic and financial report generation. Increased accountability made way for other small reforms. One example is the implementation of a requirement that students entering 9th grade are now required to sit down with a school counselor and construct a course-plan to reach graduation.

No Child Left Behind Compliance[edit]

In accordance with Section 1116, a provision of the No Child Left Behind Act(NCLB), entitled “Academic Assessment and Local Education Agency and School Improvement", the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) of the District of Columbia oversees compliance with Adequate Yearly Progress(AYP). A large portion of meeting AYP is based on standardized tests performance; in the District this summative assessment is called the DC CAS, District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System.

Many schools are failing to meet AYP, even though DCPS educators offer support and tools to students to be academically successful. DCPS has created an evaluation tool to assess schools by more than their standardized test scores. They call this Quality School Review, which uses the Effective Schools Framework to assess schools through rubrics on topics such as classroom observations, interviews with parents, students, teachers, and school leadership, staff surveys and reviewing artifacts (i.e. handbooks, student work). In 2007, Karin Hess of the The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment conducted an analysis has also gone into the alignment of DCPS standards and the DC CAS Alt, the assessment for students with cognitive disabilities.

Budget[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, DCPS had a budget of $1.2 billion and spent $29,409 per pupil in FY 2009–10.[16]

In 1989–90, DCPS reported that it had spent $10,200 (1999 adj. dollars) per pupil and a decade later, in 1999–2000, its reported per pupil expenditures had increased to $11,500. However, those figures likely underreport DCPS's actual total per pupil expenditures. In 2012, the Cato Institute's Andrew J. Coulson showed that DCPS's reported per pupil expenditures figures were based on incomplete data.[17] That year, the U.S. Census Bureau had reported that DCPS's 2008–09 per pupil expenditures were $18,181, but DCPS officials had neglected to include about $400 million in spending. Informed by Coulson's observations, the U.S. Census Bureau revised its data collection methods and reported that per pupil expenditures were $28,170.[18] Those revisions are reflected in the Bureau's 2009–10 reports.[citation needed]


In FY 2009–2010, the District received 6.7% of its total revenues for elementary and secondary education from federal sources.[19]

Statistics[edit]

In 2008, in terms of testing 36% of students demonstrated proficiency in mathematics and 39% demonstrated proficiency in reading.[20]

The average educator was paid $67,000 in 2010. A contract signed in 2010 was expected to raise that figure to $81,000 in 2012.[21]

Schools and locations[edit]

All DCPS schools are located in Washington, D.C., except Maya Angelou Academy‚ which is located in Laurel, Maryland.

Many of the District's public schools are undergoing evolving relationships with the central office as they seek to compete for students leaving the system for charter schools. According to school choice researcher Erin Dillon, "In its winning application for federal Race to the Top funds, DCPS, for example, touted its three models for autonomous schools: The aptly named 'Autonomous Schools,' which are granted autonomy as a reward for high performance; 'Partnership Schools,' which are run by outside organizations that are granted autonomy in the hope of dramatically improving performance; and the 'D.C. Collaborative for Change,' or DC3, a joint effort of some of the District’s highest- and lowest-performing schools that have been granted autonomy as a tool for innovating with curriculum and professional development. (Meanwhile, highly autonomous charter schools, a growing presence in the District of Columbia, educate almost 40 percent of the city’s public school students.)"[22]

High schools[edit]

Woodrow Wilson High School, Tenleytown
Eastern High School, Kingman Park
School Name Students* Low grade High grade
Anacostia High School 693 9th 12th
Ballou High School 964 9th 12th
Benjamin Banneker Academic High School 390 9th 12th
Bell Multicultural High School 672 9th 12th
Cardozo Education Campus 749 6th 12th
Calvin Coolidge High School 843 9th 12th
Dunbar High School 931 9th 12th
Eastern High School 968 9th 12th
Duke Ellington School of the Arts 485 9th 12th
H.D. Woodson High School 571 9th 12th
Luke C. Moore Academy Senior High School 264 9th 12th
McKinley Technology High School 800 9th 12th
Phelps Architecture, Construction and Engineering High School 340 9th 12th
Theodore Roosevelt High School (Washington D.C.) 821 9th 12th
School Without Walls 500 9th 12th
Washington Metropolitan High School 282 9th 12th
Woodrow Wilson High School 1476 9th 12th

Middle and junior high schools[edit]

School Name Students* Low grade High grade
Backus Middle School 569 6th 8th
Barbara Jordan PCS** 55 5th 8th
Brown Ronald Middle School 496 6th 8th
Browne Junior High School 459 7th 9th
Choice Middle Program 15 6th 8th
Alice Deal Middle School 773 6th 8th
Eliot-Hine Junior High School 320 6th 8th
Evans Middle School 259 6th 8th
Francis Junior High School 403 7th 9th
Garnet-Patterson Middle School 327 6th 8th
Hardy Middle School 420 6th 8th
Hart Middle School 578 7th 8th
Jefferson Junior High School 882 7th 9th
Johnson Junior High School 646 7th 9th
Kelly Miller Middle School 400 6th 8th
Kramer Middle School 369 6th 8th
Lincoln Middle School 397 6th 8th
Macfarland Middle School 671 6th 8th
Moten Elementary School 348 4th 6th
Shaw Junior High School 534 7th 9th
Sousa Middle School 420 6th 8th
Stuart-Hobson Middle School 386 6th 8th
Terrell Center 32 7th 9th
Terrell Junior High School 294 7th 9th

Elementary schools[edit]

School Name Students* Low grade High grade
Barnard Elementary School 327 Prekindergarten 5th
Beers Elementary School 444 Prekindergarten 6th
Benning Elementary School 237 Prekindergarten 6th
Birney Elementary School 529 Prekindergarten 5th
Bowen Elementary School 294 Prekindergarten 6th
Brent Elementary School 295 Prekindergarten 5th[23]
Brightwood Education Campus 503 Prekindergarten 8th
Brookland Elementary School 358 Prekindergarten 6th (CLOSED)
Bruce-Monroe Elementary School 370 Prekindergarten 5th
Bunker Hill Elementary School 421 Prekindergarten 7th
Burroughs Elementary School 265 Prekindergarten 6th
Burrville Elementary School 325 Prekindergarten 6th
Clark Elementary School 298 Prekindergarten 5th
Cleveland Elementary School 238 Prekindergarten 5th
Consolidated Headstart 79 Prekindergarten Prekindergarten
Cook Elementary School 248 Prekindergarten 6th
Cooke Elementary School 416 Prekindergarten 6th
Davis Elementary School 338 Prekindergarten 5th
Draper Elementary School 312 Prekindergarten 6th
Drew Elementary School 313 Prekindergarten 6th
Emery Elementary School 367 Prekindergarten 6th
Emilia Reggio 83 Prekindergarten Kindergarten
Ferebee-Hope Elementary School 314 Prekindergarten 5th
Fletcher Johnson Ed Complex 528 Prekindergarten 8th
Gage Eckington Elementary 364 Prekindergarten 6th
Garfield Elementary School 520 Prekindergarten 6th
Garrison Elementary School 386 Prekindergarten 6th
Gibbs Elementary School 528 Prekindergarten 6th
Green Elementary School 411 Prekindergarten 6th
Harris Elementary School 533 Prekindergarten 6th
Harris P R Educational Center 917 Prekindergarten 8th
Hearst Elementary School 159 Prekindergarten 5th
Hendley Elementary School 405 Prekindergarten 6th
Houston Elementary School 338 Prekindergarten 6th
Hyde Elementary School 172 Prekindergarten 5th
Janney Elementary School 456 Prekindergarten 5th
John Eaton Elementary School 413 Prekindergarten 5th
Kenilworth Elementary School 379 Prekindergarten 6th
Ketcham Elementary School 413 Prekindergarten 6th
Key Elementary School 217 Prekindergarten 5th
Kimball Elementary School 452 Prekindergarten 5th
King Elementary School 464 Prekindergarten 5th
Lafayette Elementary School 517 Prekindergarten 5th
Langdon Elementary School 387 Prekindergarten 6th
Lasalle Elementary School 309 Prekindergarten 6th
Leckie Elementary School 377 Prekindergarten 6th
Ludlow-Taylor Elementary 278 Prekindergarten 6th
Malcolm X Elementary School 562 Prekindergarten 6th
Mann Elementary School 233 Prekindergarten 6th
Marshall Thurgood Elementary 345 Prekindergarten 8th
Maury Elementary School 283 Prekindergarten 5th
McGogney Elementary School 434 Prekindergarten 6th
Merritt Elementary School 474 Prekindergarten 8th
Meyer Elementary School 382 Prekindergarten 5th
Miner Elementary School DCPS 462 Prekindergarten 6th
Montgomery Elementary School 314 Prekindergarten 6th
Murch Elementary School 484 Prekindergarten 5th
Nalle Elementary School 459 Prekindergarten 5th
Noyes Elementary School 202 Prekindergarten 6th
Orr Elementary School 407 Prekindergarten 5th
Oyster Adams Bilingual School 635 Prekindergarten 8th
Patterson Elementary School 324 Prekindergarten 6th
Payne Elementary School 274 Prekindergarten 6th
Peabody Elementary School 141 Prekindergarten Kindergarten
Plummer Elementary School 357 Prekindergarten 5th
Powell Elementary School 322 Prekindergarten 5th
Randle Highlands Elementary 479 Prekindergarten 6th
Raymond Elementary School 491 Prekindergarten 5th
Reed Elementary School 470 Prekindergarten 6th
River Terrace Elementary School 264 Prekindergarten 6th
Ross Elementary School 168 Prekindergarten 6th
Rudolph Elementary School 538 Prekindergarten 6th CLOSED
Savoy Elementary School 385 Prekindergarten 5th
Seaton Elementary School 441 Prekindergarten 6th
Shadd Elementary School 191 Prekindergarten 5th
Shaed Elementary School 370 Prekindergarten 6th
Shepherd Elementary School 354 Prekindergarten 6th
Simon Elementary School 406 Prekindergarten 6th
Slowe Elementary School 471 Prekindergarten 6th
Smothers Elementary School 267 Prekindergarten 6th
Stanton Elementary School 622 Prekindergarten 6th
Stevens Elementary School 328 Prekindergarten 6th
Stoddert Elementary School 228 Prekindergarten 5th
Takoma Elementary School 445 Prekindergarten 8th
Terrell Elementary School 247 Prekindergarten 5th
Thomas Elementary School 377 Prekindergarten 5th
Thomson Elementary School 276 Prekindergarten 6th
Truesdell Elementary School 477 Prekindergarten 6th
Tubman Elementary School 635 Prekindergarten 6th
Turner Elementary School 513 Prekindergarten 6th
Tyler Elementary School 290 Prekindergarten 6th
Van Ness Elementary School 250 Prekindergarten 6th
Watkins Elementary School 475 Prekindergarten 4th
Webb Elementary School 536 Prekindergarten 6th
West Elementary School 309 Prekindergarten 6th
Wheatley Elementary School 350 Prekindergarten 6th
Whittier Education Campus 490 Prekindergarten 8th
Wilkinson Elementary School 508 Prekindergarten 3rd
Wilson Elementary School 414 Prekindergarten 6th
Winston Elementary School 555 Prekindergarten 8th

Other schools[edit]

School Name Students* Low grade High grade
Ballou Stay 538 Ungraded Ungraded
Browne Center Special Education 76 Ungraded Ungraded
Carlos Rosario International PCS** 835 Ungraded Ungraded
Child & Family Services 177 Prekindergarten 12th
D.C. Alternative Learning Academy West 33 7th 11th
Friendship PCS Collegiate Academy** 1,214 9th 12th
Hamilton Center Special Education 56 Ungraded Ungraded
Hyde Leadership PCS** 547 Kindergarten 12th
Jackie Robinson Center 14 Ungraded Ungraded
Lee Mamie 161 Ungraded Ungraded
Maya Angelou Academy 152 6th 12th
Maya Angelou Academy Transition Center 25 6th 12th
Moten Center Special Education 87 Ungraded Ungraded
New School For Enterprise And Dev PCS** 356 9th 11th
Prospect Learning Center 103 Ungraded Ungraded
Residential Schools 349 2nd 12th
Robeson Paul 24 Ungraded Ungraded
Roosevelt Stay 268 Ungraded Ungraded
Rose School 26 Ungraded Ungraded
Seed PCS** 302 7th 12th
Sharpe Health School 222 Prekindergarten 12th
Spingarn Center 35 9th 9th
Spingarn Stay 121 Ungraded Ungraded
Taft School 100 Ungraded Ungraded
Thurgood Marshall Academy PCS** 89 9th 12th
Tuition Grant 2037 Kindergarten 12th
Village Leaning Center PCS** 397 Prekindergarten 12th
Walker-Jones Educational Center 200+ Prekindergarten 8th
Washington Latin PCS** 514 5th 11th[24]
Young Elementary School 441 Prekindergarten 9th

*Student counts as of 2003

**Charter school

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "DCPS Opens With Students Ready to Learn and Build on Previous Year Success" (Press release). DCPS. August 26, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2013. "Today, 111 District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) opened..." 
  2. ^ "State Education Data Profiles". National Center for Education Statistics (Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education). 2009–2010. 
  3. ^ Paige, Rod (July 2003). "District of Columbia Public Schools--School Locator". Overview and Inventory of State Education Reforms: 1990–2000 (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Department of Education). p. 137. 
  4. ^ "Education Commission of the States: 2010 Collection". 2010 Collection of Education Commission of the State Notes and Policy Briefs (Washington, DC: ECS Publications). 2010. p. 382. 
  5. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/11000.html
  6. ^ "Key State Education Policies on PK–12 Education: 2008". Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. 2009. p. 38. 
  7. ^ "2010–2011 Public School District Directory Information". National Center for Education Statistics (Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education). 2010–2011. 
  8. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (29 April 2010). "Taking baby steps towards charter schools". Washington, DC: Washington Pose. pp. 18 in Casual Living. 
  9. ^ Craig, Tim (2 May 2010). "D.C. Council targets childhood obesity". Washington, DC: Washington Post. pp. A8. 
  10. ^ "Public School Graduates and Dropouts From the Common Core of Data: School Year 2008–09". National Center for Education Statistics (Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, Department of Education). 2008–2009. 
  11. ^ "District of Columbia Public Schools--School Locator". Washington, DC: The Government of the District of Columbia. 
  12. ^ Wolf, Patrick. "Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report". U.S. Department of Education -- Institute of Education Sciences. 
  13. ^ "WWC Quick Review of the Report “Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: Final Report”". U.S. Department of Education -- Institute of Education Sciences. 
  14. ^ "Funding Cuts for Programs That Send More Kids to Graduation AND College?". Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. 
  15. ^ "District of Columbia Public Schools: Important Steps Taken to Continue Reform Efforts, But Enhanced Planning Could Improve Implementation and Sustainability". Report to Congressional Requesters (Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office (GAO)). June 2009. 
  16. ^ "Public Education Finances: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 3/6/2014. 
  17. ^ Coulson, Andrew. "Census Bureau Confirms: DC Spends $29,409 / pupil". Cato.org. 
  18. ^ Coulson, Andrew. "DC Vouchers Solved? Generous Severance for Displaced Workers". Cato.org. 
  19. ^ "Public Education Finances: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 3/6/2014. 
  20. ^ Ripley, Amanda (December 8, 2008). Can She Save Our Schools. Time Magazine. 
  21. ^ Turque, Bill (8 April 2010). "Fenty, teachers union promote deal". Washington, DC: Washington Post. pp. B2. 
  22. ^ Dillon, Erin. "The Road to Autonomy: Can Schools, Districts, and Central Offices Find Their Way?". The Road to Autonomy: Can Schools, Districts, and Central Offices Find Their Way?. Education Sector. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  23. ^ Brent Elementary admissions information
  24. ^ Washington Latin Public Charter School, History; accessed 2011.03.17.

External links[edit]