List of former United States district courts

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The following are former United States district courts, which ceased to exist because they were subdivided into smaller units. With the exception of California, each of these courts initially covered an entire U.S. state, and was subdivided as the jurisdictions which they covered increased in population. Two of the district courts—those of South Carolina and New Jersey—were subdivided but later recreated. Every change to the divisions and boundaries of these courts is effected by an act of the United States Congress, and for each such action, the statutory reference is identified.

Alabama[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Alabama was created on April 21, 1820, by 3 Stat. 564.[1][2] It was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on March 10, 1824, by 4 Stat. 9.[1][2] The Middle District was subsequently formed from parts of these two districts on February 6, 1839, by 5 Stat. 315,[1][2][3] with legislation specifying that the Middle District Court was to be held at Tuscaloosa, the Northern District Court at Huntsville, and the Southern District Court at Mobile.[1] The Districts were reorganized on August 7, 1848.[4] Only one judge was ever appointed to the District of Alabama.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Charles Tait James Monroe May 13, 1820 March 10, 1824 reassigned to subdivided
districts of Alabama

Arkansas[edit]

Arkansas, originally part of the Louisiana Purchase, became part of the Missouri Territory in 1812, when Louisiana became a state. When Missouri became a state in 1819, a territorial government, including a territorial court, was organized for Arkansas, taking effect on July 4, 1819.[5] The United States District Court for the District of Arkansas was established with a single judge when Arkansas became a state, on June 15, 1836, by 5 Stat. 50, 51.[5][6] The court was subdivided into Eastern and the Western Districts on March 3, 1851, by 9 Stat. 594.[1][6][7]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Benjamin Johnson Andrew Jackson June 29, 1836 October 2, 1849 death
Daniel Ringo Zachary Taylor November 5, 1849[8] March 3, 1851 reassigned to subdivided
districts of Arkansas

California[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of California existed from 1866 to 1886. California was admitted as a state on September 9, 1850, and was initially divided into two districts, the Northern and the Southern, by Act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, 9 Stat. 521.[9] The boundary line was at the 37th parallel of North Latitude.[10] The creating act provided that:

In addition to the ordinary jurisdiction and powers of a District Court of the United States, with which the Southern District Court of New York has been invested, the said Courts be and hereby are invested respectively within the limits of its district with the exercise of concurrent jurisdiction and power in all civil cases now exercised by the Circuit Courts of the United States; and that in all cases where said Courts shall exercise such jurisdiction, appeals may be taken from the judgments, orders or decrees of said Courts to the Supreme Court of the United States.

On February 27, 1851, President Millard Fillmore appointed Ogden Hoffman, Jr., as the judge presiding over the Northern District. The Act of August 31, 1852, made the Judge of the Northern District be Judge of the Southern District as well until otherwise provided, by 10 Stat. 76, 84,[9] effectively creating a single District in all but name until an Act of January 18, 1854 provided for the appointment of a Judge for the Southern District.[10] The Southern District of California was abolished and the State made to constitute one district by Act of Congress approved July 27, 1866, 14 Stat. 300.[9][10]

Twenty years later, on August 5, 1886, Congress re-created the Southern District of California (and, by extension, the Northern District) by 24 Stat. 308.[10] Hoffman, who had continued serving as the sole district judge, again became judge of the Northern district only, there continuing in service for five more years. Erskine Mayo Ross was appointed Judge of the new Southern District and served until his promotion to the Circuit Judgeship, when he was succeeded by Olin Wellborn.[10]

On March 18, 1966, the Eastern and Central Districts were created from portions of the Northern and Southern Districts by 80 Stat. 75.[9]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Ogden Hoffman, Jr. Millard Fillmore July 23, 1866 August 5, 1886 reassigned to Northern
District of California

Florida[edit]

On the same day that Florida was admitted as a state, March 3, 1845, Congress enacted legislation creating the United States District Court for the District of Florida, 5 Stat. 788.[11][12] On February 23, 1847, 9 Stat. 131[11][12]divided the jurisdiction of this court between the Northern District and a Southern District Courts with the boundary between as:

[T]hat part of the State of Florida lying south of a line drawn due east and west from the northern point of Charlotte Harbor, including the islands, keys, reefs, shoals, harbors, bays and inlets, south of said line, shall be erected into a new judicial district, to be called the Southern District of Florida; a District Court shall be held in said Southern District, to consist of one judge, who shall reside at Key West, in said district...

The same statute directed the Northern District to hold court at Apalachicola, Florida, and Pensacola, Florida.

On July 30, 1962, the Middle District was created from portions of the other districts by 76 Stat. 247.[12]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Isaac H. Bronson James K. Polk August 8, 1846 February 23, 1847 reassigned to Northern
District of Florida

Georgia[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Georgia was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[13] The District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on August 11, 1848, by 9 Stat. 280.[1][7][13] The Middle District was formed from portions of those two Districts on May 28, 1926, by 44 Stat. 670.[13]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Clay, Jr., JosephJoseph Clay, Jr. George Washington September 16, 1796[14] February 24, 1801 reappointment
Cuyler, Jeremiah La ToucheJeremiah La Touche Cuyler James Monroe June 12, 1821[15] May 7, 1839 death
Davies, WilliamWilliam Davies James Monroe January 14, 1819 March 9, 1821 resignation
Nicoll, John CochranJohn Cochran Nicoll Martin Van Buren May 11, 1839[16] August 11, 1848 reassigned to subdivided
districts of Georgia
Pendleton, NathanielNathaniel Pendleton George Washington September 26, 1789 September 1, 1796 resignation
Stephens, WilliamWilliam Stephens Thomas Jefferson October 22, 1801[17] October 13, 1818 resignation

Illinois[edit]

Map of the changing Districts of Illinois.

The United States District Court for the District of Illinois was established by a statute passed by the United States Congress on March 3, 1819, 3 Stat. 502.[11][18] The act established a single office for a judge to preside over the court. Initially, the court was not within any existing judicial circuit, and appeals from the court were taken directly to the United States Supreme Court. In 1837, Congress created the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, placing it in Chicago, Illinois and giving it jurisdiction over the District of Illinois, 5 Stat. 176.[18] The District itself was eliminated by a statute passed on February 13, 1855, 10 Stat. 606, under which it was subdivided into the Northern and the Southern Districts.[18] The boundaries of the District and the seats of the courts were set forth in the statute:

The counties of Hancock, McDonough, Peoria, Woodford, Livingston, and Iroquois, and all the counties in the said State north of them, shall compose one district, to be called the northern district of Illinois, and courts shall be held for the said district at the city of Chicago; and the residue of the counties of the said State shall compose another district, to be called the southern district of Illinois, and courts shall be held for the same at the city of Springfield.

The district has since been re-organized several times. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois was created on March 3, 1905, by 33 Stat. 992,[18] by splitting counties out of the Northern and Southern Districts. It was later eliminated in a reorganization on October 2, 1978, which replaced it with a Central District, 92 Stat. 883,[18] also formed from parts of the Northern and Southern Districts.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Thomas Drummond Zachary Taylor February 19, 1850 February 13, 1855 reassigned to Northern
District of Illinois
Nathaniel Pope James Monroe March 3, 1819 January 23, 1850 death

Indiana[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Indiana was established on March 3, 1817, by 3 Stat. 390.[19][20] The District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on April 21, 1928, by 45 Stat. 437.[20] Of all district courts that have been subdivided, Indiana existed for the longest time as a single court, 111 years.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Anderson, Albert BarnesAlbert Barnes Anderson Theodore Roosevelt December 8, 1902 January 13, 1925 reappointment
Baker, John HarrisJohn Harris Baker Benjamin Harrison March 29, 1892 December 8, 1902 retirement
Baltzell, Robert C.Robert C. Baltzell Calvin Coolidge January 13, 1925 April 21, 1928 reassigned to Southern
District of Indiana
Gresham, Walter Q.Walter Q. Gresham Ulysses S. Grant September 1, 1869[21] April 9, 1883 resignation
Holman, Jesse LynchJesse Lynch Holman Andrew Jackson September 16, 1835[22] March 14, 1842 death
Huntington, Elisha MillsElisha Mills Huntington John Tyler May 2, 1842 October 26, 1862 death
McDonald, DavidDavid McDonald Abraham Lincoln December 13, 1864 August 25, 1869 death
Parke, BenjaminBenjamin Parke James Monroe March 6, 1817 July 12, 1835 death
Slick, Thomas WhittenThomas Whitten Slick Calvin Coolidge February 17, 1925 April 21, 1928 reassigned to Northern
District of Indiana
Smith, Caleb BloodCaleb Blood Smith Abraham Lincoln December 22, 1862 January 7, 1864 death
White, Albert SmithAlbert Smith White Abraham Lincoln January 18, 1864 September 4, 1864 death
Woods, William AllenWilliam Allen Woods Chester A. Arthur May 2, 1883[23] March 21, 1892 reappointment

Iowa[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Iowa was established on March 3, 1845, by 5 Stat. 789.[24][25] The District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on July 20, 1882, by 22 Stat. 172.[25]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
John James Dyer James K. Polk March 3, 1847 September 14, 1855 death
James M. Love Franklin Pierce October 5, 1855[26] July 20, 1882 reassigned to Southern
District of Iowa

Kentucky[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Kentucky was part of one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[4][27] At the time, Kentucky was not yet a state, but was within the territory of the state of Virginia. The District was unchanged when Kentucky became a state on June 1, 1792. On February 13, 1801, the Judiciary Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89, abolished the U.S. district court in Kentucky,[27] but the repeal of this Act restored the District on March 8, 1802, 2 Stat. 132.[27] The District was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on February 12, 1901, by 31 Stat. 781.[27]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Ballard, BlandBland Ballard Abraham Lincoln October 16, 1861[28] July 29, 1879 death
Barr, John WatsonJohn Watson Barr Rutherford B. Hayes April 16, 1880 February 21, 1899 retirement
Boyle, JohnJohn Boyle John Quincy Adams October 20, 1826[29] January 28, 1834 death
Evans, WalterWalter Evans William McKinley March 3, 1899 July 1, 1901 reassigned to Western
District of Kentucky
Hays, William HerculesWilliam Hercules Hays Rutherford B. Hayes September 6, 1879[30] March 7, 1880 death
Innes, HarryHarry Innes George Washington September 26, 1789 September 20, 1816 death
Monroe, Thomas BellThomas Bell Monroe Andrew Jackson March 8, 1834 September 18, 1861 resignation
Trimble, RobertRobert Trimble James Madison January 31, 1817 May 9, 1826 reappointment

Louisiana[edit]

On March 26, 1804, Congress organized the Territory of Orleans and created the United States District Court for the District of Orleans – the only time Congress provided a territory with a district court equal in its authority and jurisdiction to those of the states.[31] The United States District Court for the District of Louisiana was established on April 8, 1812, by 2 Stat. 701,[19][31] several weeks before Louisiana was formally admitted as a state of the union. The District was thereafter subdivided and reformed several times. It was first subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on March 3, 1823, by 3 Stat. 774.[19][31]

On February 13, 1845, Louisiana was reorganized into a single District with one judgeship, by 5 Stat. 722,[31] but was again divided into Eastern and the Western Districts on March 3, 1849, by 9 Stat. 401.[31] Congress again abolished the Western District of Louisiana and reorganized Louisiana as a single judicial district on July 27, 1866, by 14 Stat. 300.[31] On March 3, 1881, by 21 Stat. 507, Louisiana was for a third time divided into Eastern and the Western Districts, with one judgeship authorized for each.[31] The Middle District was formed from portions of those two Districts on December 18, 1971, by 85 Stat. 741.[31]

During the course of its frequent subdivisions and reunifications, four judges served as judge of the District of Louisiana: Dominic Augustin Hall, (1812–1820), John Dick, (1821–1823), Theodore Howard McCaleb (1845–1849), and Edward Henry Durell (1866–1874).[32] Hall was appointed to the District of Louisiana twice. He briefly resigned from the District Court to serve as a Justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court. He was shortly thereafter reappointed to the same seat on the District Court, which had remained vacant in his absence.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Dick, JohnJohn Dick James Monroe March 2, 1821 March 3, 1823 reassigned to both
Districts of Louisiana
Durell, Edward HenryEdward Henry Durell Abraham Lincoln May 20, 1863[33] December 4, 1874 resignation
Hall, Dominic AugustinDominic Augustin Hall James Madison June 1, 1812
May 29, 1813
February 22, 1813
December 19, 1820
resignation
death
McCaleb, Theodore HowardTheodore Howard McCaleb John Tyler, Sr. September 3, 1841[34] March 3, 1849 reassigned to both
Districts of Louisiana

Michigan[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Michigan was established on July 1, 1836, by 5 Stat. 61, with a single judgeship.[35] The district court was not assigned to a judicial circuit, but was granted the same jurisdiction as United States circuit courts, except in appeals and writs of error, which were the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Due to the so-called "Toledo War", a boundary dispute with Ohio, Michigan did not become a state of the Union until January 26, 1837. On March 3, 1837, Congress passed an act that repealed the circuit court jurisdiction of the U.S. District Court for the District of Michigan, assigned the District of Michigan to the Seventh Circuit, and established a U.S. circuit court for the district, 5 Stat. 176.[35]

On July 15, 1862, Congress reorganized the circuits and assigned Michigan to the Eighth Circuit by 12 Stat. 576,[35] and on January 28, 1863, the Congress again reorganized Seventh and Eight Circuits and assigned Michigan to the Seventh Circuit, by 12 Stat. 637.[35] On February 24, 1863, Congress divided the District of Michigan into the Eastern and the Western Districts, with one judgeship authorized for each district, by 12 Stat. 660.[35]

Ross Wilkins was the only district judge to serve the District of Michigan. He was nominated by President Andrew Jackson on July 2, 1836, to the newly created seat, and was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 2, 1836. He received his commission on January 26, 1837. Upon termination of the District of Michigan, Wilkins was reassigned to the Eastern District of Michigan.[35][36]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Ross Wilkins Andrew Jackson January 26, 1837 February 24, 1863 reassigned to Eastern
District of Michigan

Mississippi[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Mississippi was established on April 3, 1818, by 3 Stat. 413.[1][37] It existed for over twenty years, and was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on June 18, 1838, by 5 Stat. 247:[1][37]

The State of Mississippi, at the date of the act of March 3, 1837... constituted one district, in which the District Court was invested with the powers of a Circuit Court. By that act the extraordinary jurisdiction of the District Court was abrogated. But by the acts of June 18, 1838, and of February 16, 1839, the district of Mississippi was divided into two districts, the Northern and Southern; and by the latter act the powers of a Circuit Court were conferred on the District Court for the Northern District.[38]
Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Adams, GeorgeGeorge Adams Andrew Jackson January 20, 1836 June 18, 1838 reassigned to both
districts of Mississippi
Ellis, PowhatanPowhatan Ellis Andrew Jackson July 14, 1832 January 5, 1836 resignation
Randolph, PeterPeter Randolph James Monroe June 25, 1823[39] January 30, 1832 death
Shields, William BayardWilliam Bayard Shields James Monroe April 20, 1818 April 18, 1823 death

Missouri[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Missouri was established on March 16, 1822, by 3 Stat. 653.[11][40] However, an act of Congress passed in 1845 and upheld by the United States Supreme Court in 1851, extendeding federal admiralty jurisdiction to inland waterways, resulted in a substantial increase in the number of admiralty cases arising from traffic on the Mississippi River.[41] These disputes involved "contracts of affreightment, collisions, mariners' wages, and other causes of admiralty jurisdiction", and litigants of matters arising in the port city of St. Louis found it inconvenient to travel far inland to Jefferson City for their cases to be tried.[41] The District was therefore subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on March 3, 1857, by 11 Stat. 197.[40]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
James H. Peck James Monroe April 5, 1822 April 29, 1836 death
Robert William Wells Andrew Jackson June 27, 1836 March 3, 1857 reassigned to Western
District of Missouri

New Jersey[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of New Jersey was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[42] The District was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New Jersey and the United States District Court for the Western District of New Jersey on February 13, 1801, by the Judiciary Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89,[42] with the judicial districts being headquartered in New Brunswick and Burlington, respectively. The repeal of the 1801 Act on March 8, 1802, by 2 Stat. 132, restored New Jersey as a single judicial district.[42] The only judge to serve on the briefly subdivided courts was Robert Morris, who had begun serving as a recess appointment to the District of New Jersey on August 28, 1790 and continued serving after the restoration of the single court, until June 2, 1815.[43]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Robert Morris George Washington August 28, 1790[44] June 2, 1815 death

New York[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of New York was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[45][46] It existed for nearly twenty-five years before, on April 9, 1814, New York was divided into Northern and Southern Districts by 3 Stat. 120.[45][46] These Districts were later further subdivided with the creation of Eastern District on February 25, 1865 by 13 Stat. 438,[46] and the Western District on May 12, 1900, by 31 Stat. 175.[46]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Duane, JamesJames Duane George Washington September 26, 1789 March 17, 1794 resignation
Laurance, JohnJohn Laurance George Washington May 6, 1794 November 8, 1796 resignation
Troup, RobertRobert Troup George Washington December 10, 1796 April 4, 1798 resignation
Hobart, John SlossJohn Sloss Hobart John Adams April 12, 1798 February 4, 1805 death
Tallmadge, Matthias BurnettMatthias Burnett Tallmadge Thomas Jefferson June 12, 1805[47] April 9, 1814 reassigned to Northern District of New York
Van Ness, William PeterWilliam Peter Van Ness James Madison May 27, 1812 April 9, 1814 reassigned to Southern District of New York

North Carolina[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of North Carolina has a unique history among defunct district courts. It was established on June 4, 1790, by 1 Stat. 126.[48][49] On June 9, 1794 it was subdivided into three districts by 1 Stat. 395,[49] but on March 3, 1797, the three districts were abolished and the single District restored by 1 Stat. 517,[49] until April 29, 1802, when the state was again subdivided into three different districts by 2 Stat. 156.[48][49]

In both instances, these districts, unlike those with geographic designations that existed in other states, were titled by the names of the cities in which the courts sat. After the first division, they were styled the District of Edenton, the District of New Bern, and the District of Wilmington; after the second division, they were styled the District of Albemarle, the District of Cape Fear, and the District of Pamptico. However, in both instances, only one judge was authorized to serve all three districts, causing them to effectively operate as a single district.[49] The latter combination was occasionally referred to by the cumbersome title of the United States District Court for the Albemarle, Cape Fear & Pamptico Districts of North Carolina. Judge Henry Potter's 55 years of service on this court during the period in which the state contained a single district, from April 1802 to December 1857, represents one of the longest terms ever held by a United States federal judge.

On June 4, 1872, North Carolina was re-divided into two Districts, Eastern and Western, by 17 Stat. 215.[49] The Middle District was created from portions of the Eastern and Western Districts on March 2, 1927, by 44 Stat. 1339.[49]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Stokes, JohnJohn Stokes George Washington August 3, 1790 October 12, 1790 death
Sitgreaves, JohnJohn Sitgreaves George Washington December 20, 1790 March 4, 1802 death
Potter, HenryHenry Potter Thomas Jefferson April 7, 1802 December 20, 1857 death
Biggs, AsaAsa Biggs James Buchanan May 3, 1858 April 23, 1861 resignation; became a
judge of Confederacy
Brooks, George WashingtonGeorge Washington Brooks Andrew Johnson August 19, 1865[50] June 4, 1872 reassigned to Eastern
District of North Carolina

Ohio[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Ohio was established on February 19, 1803, by 2 Stat. 201.[19][51] The District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on February 10, 1855, by 10 Stat. 604.[51]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Byrd, Charles WillingCharles Willing Byrd Thomas Jefferson March 3, 1803 August 25, 1828 death
Campbell, John WilsonJohn Wilson Campbell Andrew Jackson March 7, 1829 September 24, 1833 death
Creighton, Jr., WilliamWilliam Creighton, Jr. John Quincy Adams November 1, 1828[52] February 16, 1829 nomination rejected
by the Senate
Tappan, BenjaminBenjamin Tappan Andrew Jackson October 12, 1833[53] May 29, 1834 nomination rejected
by the Senate
Leavitt, Humphrey H.Humphrey H. Leavitt Andrew Jackson June 30, 1834 February 10, 1855 reassigned to Southern
District of Ohio
Term start Term end United States Attorney[54]
1802 1803 William McMillan[55]
1803 1804 Michael Baldwin
1804 1810 William Creighton, Jr.
1810 1818 Samuel Herrick
1818 1823 John Crafts Wright
1823 1830 Joseph Benham
1830 1839 Noah Haynes Swayne
1839 1841 Israel Hamilton
1841 1846 Charles Anthony
1846 1850 Thomas W. Bartley
1850 1854 Samson Mason
1854 1855 Daniel O. Morton

Pennsylvania[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[56][57] It was subdivided on April 20, 1818, by 3 Stat. 462,[56][57] into the Eastern and Western Districts, to be headquartered in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, respectively.[56] Portions of these districts were subsequently subdivided into the Middle District on March 2, 1901, by 31 Stat. 880.[57]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Francis Hopkinson George Washington September 26, 1789 May 9, 1791 death
William Lewis George Washington July 14, 1791[58] January 4, 1792 resignation
Richard Peters, Jr. George Washington January 12, 1792 April 20, 1818 reassigned to Eastern
District of Pennsylvania

South Carolina[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of South Carolina was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[59] It was subdivided into the United States District Court for the Eastern District of South Carolina and the United States District Court for the Western District of South Carolina Districts on February 21, 1823 by 3 Stat. 726.[59] The Eastern District was headquartered at Florence,[60] and the Western District was headquartered in Greenville.[61] The division was solely for the purposes of holding court – a single judge presided over both districts, and the act authorized no additional court staff.[59]

In 1898 the United States Supreme Court held in Barrett v. United States[62] that South Carolina legally constituted a single judicial district. Congress made a more explicit effort to subdivide the District on March 3, 1911, by 36 Stat. 1087, 36 Stat. 1123. South Carolina was again Eastern and the Western Districts, with one judgeship authorized to serve both districts, effective January 1, 1912.[59] Congress finally authorized an additional judgeship for the Western District, and assigned the sitting judge exclusively to the Eastern District, on March 3, 1915, by 38 Stat. 961.[59] However, on October 7, 1965, by 79 Stat. 951, South Carolina was reorganized as a single judicial district with four judgeships authorized for the district court.[59] It has since remained a single District.

Judges of both the Eastern and Western Districts of South Carolina:

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
End reason
John Lyles Glenn, Jr. Herbert Hoover April 29, 1929 May 2, 1938 - death
Robert W. Hemphill Lyndon B. Johnson April 30, 1964 November 1, 1965 - reassigned to District
of South Carolina
Alva M. Lumpkin Franklin D. Roosevelt July 19, 1939 July 22, 1941 - resignation
James Robert Martin, Jr. John F. Kennedy September 18, 1961 November 1, 1965 - reassigned to District
of South Carolina
Henry Augustus Middleton Smith William Howard Taft January 1, 1912[63] November 23, 1923[64] November 23, 1924 death
George Bell Timmerman, Sr. Franklin D. Roosevelt January 23, 1942 October 10, 1962 April 22, 1966 death

Judges of only the Eastern District of South Carolina:

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
End reason
Ernest Ford Cochran Calvin Coolidge November 22, 1923[65] March 4, 1934 - death
Francis Kerschner Myers Franklin D. Roosevelt June 14, 1934 August 2, 1940 - death
Charles Earl Simons, Jr. Lyndon B. Johnson May 1, 1964 November 1, 1965 - reassigned to District
of South Carolina
Julius Waties Waring Franklin D. Roosevelt January 23, 1942 February 15, 1952 January 11, 1968 death
Ashton Hilliard Williams Harry S. Truman July 3, 1952 February 25, 1962 - death

Judges of only the Western District of South Carolina:

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
End reason
Joseph Travis Johnson Woodrow Wilson November 9, 1915[66] May 8, 1919 - death
Henry Hitt Watkins Woodrow Wilson July 22, 1919 December 31, 1936 September 8, 1947 death
Charles Cecil Wyche Franklin D. Roosevelt January 30, 1937 November 1, 1965 - reassigned to District
of South Carolina

Tennessee[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Tennessee was established with one judgeship on January 31, 1797, by 1 Stat. 496.[4][67] The judgeship was filled by President George Washington's appointment of John McNairy. Since Congress failed to assign the district to a circuit, the court had the jurisdiction of both a district court and a circuit court. Appeals from this one district court went directly to the United States Supreme Court.

On February 13, 1801, in the famous "Midnight Judges" Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89, Congress abolished the U.S. district court in Tennessee,[67] and expanded the number of circuits to six, provided for independent circuit court judgeships, and abolished the necessity of Supreme Court Justices riding the circuits. It was this legislation which created the grandfather of the present Sixth Circuit. The act provided for a "Sixth Circuit" comprising two districts in the State of Tennessee, one district in the State of Kentucky and one district, called the Ohio District, composed of the Ohio and Indiana territories (the latter including the present State of Michigan). The new Sixth Circuit Court was to be held at "Bairdstown" in the District of Kentucky, at Knoxville in the District of East Tennessee, at Nashville in the District of West Tennessee, and at Cincinnati in the District of Ohio. Unlike the other circuits which were provided with three circuit judges, the Sixth Circuit was to have only one circuit judge with district judges from Kentucky and Tennessee comprising the rest of the court. Any two judges constituted a quorum. New circuit judgeships were to be created as district judgeships in Kentucky and Tennessee became vacant.[68]

The repeal of this Act restored the District on March 8, 1802, 2 Stat. 132.[67] The District was divided into the Eastern and Western Districts on April 29, 1802.[4] On February 24, 1807, Congress again abolished the two districts and created the United States Circuit for the District of Tennessee. On March 3, 1837, Congress assigned the judicial district of Tennessee to the Eighth Circuit. On June 18, 1839, by 5 Stat. 313, Congress divided Tennessee into three districts, Eastern, Middle, and Western.[4][38][67] Again, only one judgeship was allotted for all three districts. On July 15, 1862, Congress reassigned appellate jurisdiction to the Sixth Circuit. Finally, on June 14, 1878, Congress authorized a separate judgeship for each district of Tennessee.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
John McNairy George Washington February 20, 1797 April 29, 1802 reassigned to both
Districts of Tennessee

Texas[edit]

The oldest federal civil building in Texas, the 1861 Customs and Courthouse in Galveston, once housed the Southern District of Texas.

The United States District Court for the District of Texas was established on December 29, 1845, by 9 Stat. 1. and based in Galveston, then the largest city in the state.[24][69] John Charles Watrous, appointed to the court by President James K. Polk in May 1846, was the only federal judge to sit for the district.[70] The District was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on February 21, 1857, by 11 Stat. 164.[69] When the District was subdivided, Watrous continued as judge for the Eastern District only, while Thomas Howard DuVal[71] was appointed to the Western District. Watrous continued serving in the Eastern District until 1870. From these Districts, Texas was further subdivided with the creation of a Northern District on February 24, 1879, by 20 Stat. 318.[69] The new Southern District was created on March 11, 1902, by 32 Stat. 64.[69]

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
John Charles Watrous James K. Polk May 29, 1846 February 21, 1857 reassigned to Eastern
District of Texas

Virginia[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Virginia was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789.[56][72]

On February 13, 1801, the Judiciary Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89, divided Virginia into three judicial districts: the District of Virginia, which included the counties west of the Tidewater and south of the Rappahannock River; the District of Norfolk, which included the Tidewater counties south of the Rappahannock; and the District of Potomac, which included the counties north and east of the Rappahannock as well as Maryland counties along the Potomac.[72] Just over a year later, on March 8, 1802, the Judiciary Act of 1801 was repealed and Virginia became a single District again, 2 Stat. 132, effective July 1, 1802.[72]

The District of Virginia was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on February 4, 1819, by 3 Stat. 478.[56][72] At that time, West Virginia was still part of Virginia, and was encompassed in Virginia's Western District. With the division of West Virginia from Virginia during the American Civil War, the Western District of Virginia became the District of West Virginia, and those parts of the Western District that were not part of West Virginia were combined with the Eastern District to again form a single District of Virginia on June 11, 1864, by 13 Stat. 124.[72] Congress again divided Virginia into Eastern and the Western Districts on February 3, 1871, by 16 Stat. 403.[72]

# Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
1 Griffin, CyrusCyrus Griffin Washington, GeorgeGeorge Washington November 28, 1789[73] December 14, 1810 death
2 Tyler, Sr., JohnJohn Tyler, Sr. Madison, JamesJames Madison January 7, 1811 January 6, 1813 death
3 Tucker, St. GeorgeSt. George Tucker Madison, JamesJames Madison January 19, 1813 February 4, 1819 reassigned to the Eastern
District of Virginia
4 Underwood, John CurtissJohn Curtiss Underwood Lincoln, AbrahamAbraham Lincoln March 27, 1863[74] February 3, 1871 reassigned to the Eastern
District of Virginia

Washington[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Washington was established on April 5, 1890, by 26 Stat. 45.[75] The District was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on March 2, 1905, by 33 Stat. 824.[75] Only one judge was ever appointed to the District of Washington.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Cornelius Holgate Hanford Benjamin Harrison February 25, 1890 March 2, 1905 reassigned to Western
District of Washington

West Virginia[edit]

West Virginia split from the state of Virginia during the American Civil War. At that time, Virginia was already divided into an Eastern and Western District. Congress reorganized the Western District of Virginia to conform to the boundaries of the new state of West Virginia, renaming it the United States District Court for the District of West Virginia on June 11, 1864, by 13 Stat. 124.[76] This District was subdivided into Northern and Southern Districts on January 22, 1901, by 31 Stat. 736.[76]

John Jay Jackson, Jr., who had been appointed by Abraham Lincoln to what was then the Western District of Virginia, became the first judge of the District of West Virginia. He remained the only judge on that court until its subdivision.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
John Jay Jackson, Jr. Abraham Lincoln August 3, 1861 July 1, 1901 reassigned to Northern
District of West Virginia

Wisconsin[edit]

The United States District Court for the District of Wisconsin was established on May 29, 1848, by 9 Stat. 233.[24][77] It was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on June 30, 1870, by 16 Stat. 171.[77] Only one judge was ever appointed to the District of Wisconsin.

Judge Appointed by Began active
service
Ended active
service
End reason
Andrew G. Miller James K. Polk June 12, 1848 June 30, 1870 reassigned to Eastern
District of Wisconsin

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 390.
  2. ^ a b c U.S. District Courts of Alabama, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  3. ^ Alfred Conkling, A Treatise on the Organization, Jurisdiction and Practice of the Courts of the United States (1864), p. 178.
  4. ^ a b c d e Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 391.
  5. ^ a b Lynn Foster, Their Pride and Ornament: Judge Benjamin Johnson and the Federal Courts in Early Arkansas, 22 U. Ark. Little Rock L. Rev. 21 (1999).
  6. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Arkansas, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  7. ^ a b Alfred Conkling, A Treatise on the Organization, Jurisdiction and Practice of the Courts of the United States (1864), p. 179.
  8. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1849, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 10, 1850, and received commission on June 10, 1850.
  9. ^ a b c d U.S. District Courts of California, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  10. ^ a b c d e Willoughby Rodman, History of the Bench and Bar of Southern California (1909), p. 46.
  11. ^ a b c d Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 393.
  12. ^ a b c U.S. District Courts of Florida, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  13. ^ a b c U.S. District Courts of Georgia, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  14. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1796, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 27, 1796, and received commission on January 2, 1797.
  15. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 19, 1821, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 10, 1822, and received commission on January 10, 1822.
  16. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 23, 1840, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 17, 1840, and received commission on February 17, 1840.
  17. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 6, 1802, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 26, 1802, and received commission on January 26, 1802.
  18. ^ a b c d e U.S. District Courts of Illinois, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  19. ^ a b c d Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 392.
  20. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Indiana, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  21. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 6, 1869, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 21, 1869, and received commission on December 21, 1869.
  22. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on March 21, 1836, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 29, 1836, and received commission on March 29, 1836.
  23. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 18, 1883, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 7, 1884, and received commission on January 7, 1884.
  24. ^ a b c Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 394.
  25. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Iowa, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  26. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on February 7, 1856, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 25, 1856, and received commission on December 21, 1856.
  27. ^ a b c d U.S. District Courts of Kentucky, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  28. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 9, 1861, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 22, 1862, and received commission on January 22, 1862.
  29. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 13, 1826, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 12, 1827, and received commission on February 12, 1827.
  30. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 1, 1879, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 10, 1879, and received commission on December 10, 1879.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h U.S. District Courts of Louisiana, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  32. ^ Judges of the District of Louisiana, Federal Judicial Center.
  33. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on February 8, 1864, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 17, 1864, and received commission on February 17, 1864.
  34. ^ McCaleb was originally appointed to the Eastern and Western Districts of Louisiana. When the state was reconsolidated into a single District of Louisiana, he became the judge for that district for the duration of its existence.
  35. ^ a b c d e f U.S. District Courts of Michigan, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  36. ^ Judges of the District of Michigan, Federal Judicial Center.
  37. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Mississippi, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  38. ^ a b Alfred Conkling, A Treatise on the Organization, Jurisdiction and Practice of the Courts of the United States (1842), p. 42.
  39. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1823, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 1823, and received commission on December 9, 1823.
  40. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Missouri, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  41. ^ a b Broadhead, James O. (March 5, 1887). "Address of Col. J. O. Broadhead". In Bar Association of St. Louis. Proceedings of the Saint Louis bar on the retirement of Hon. Samuel Treat. St. Louis: Nixon-Jones printing co. pp. 10–17. 
  42. ^ a b c U.S. District Courts of New Jersey, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  43. ^ Robert Morris, Federal Judicial Center.
  44. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 17, 1790, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 20, 1790, and received commission on December 20, 1790.
  45. ^ a b Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 386.
  46. ^ a b c d U.S. District Courts of New York, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  47. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 20, 1805, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 23, 1805, and received commission on January 17, 1806.
  48. ^ a b Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 389.
  49. ^ a b c d e f g U.S. District Courts of North Carolina, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  50. ^ Recess appointment; Johnson appointed him on August 19, 1865. He was confirmed by the Senate on January 22, 1866, and received commission on January 22, 1866.
  51. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Ohio, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  52. ^ Recess appointment; the United States Senate later rejected the appointment.
  53. ^ Recess appointment; the United States Senate later rejected the appointment.
  54. ^ "History of the U.S. Attorney Southern District of Ohio". United States Attorney's Office Southern District of Ohio. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  55. ^ did not serve due to illness
  56. ^ a b c d e Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 388.
  57. ^ a b c U.S. District Courts of Pennsylvania, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  58. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on October 31, 1791, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 7, 1791, and received commission on November 7, 1791.
  59. ^ a b c d e f U.S. District Courts of South Carolina, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  60. ^ The Florence, South Carolina courthouse, Federal Judicial Center.
  61. ^ The Greenville, South Carolina courthouse, Federal Judicial Center.
  62. ^ Barrett v. United States, 169 U.S. 219 (1898).
  63. ^ Smith had been appointed to the District of South Carolina on June 7, 1911, prior to its 1912 subdivision.
  64. ^ Smith was reassigned to only the Eastern District of South Carolina on March 3, 1915.
  65. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 15, 1923, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 17, 1924, and received commission on January 21, 1924.
  66. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 4, 1916, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 24, 1916, and received commission on January 24, 1916.
  67. ^ a b c d U.S. District Courts of Tennessee, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  68. ^ The Honorable Harry Phillips, "History of the Sixth Circuit".
  69. ^ a b c d U.S. District Courts of Texas, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  70. ^ Biography of John Charles Watrous, Federal Judicial Center.
  71. ^ Biography of Thomas Howard DuVal, Federal Judicial Center.
  72. ^ a b c d e f U.S. District Courts of Virginia, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  73. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on February 8, 1790, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 10, 1790, and received commission on February 10, 1790.
  74. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1864, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 25, 1864, and received commission on January 25, 1864.
  75. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Washington, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  76. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of West Virginia, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
  77. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Wisconsin, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.