Diverticulitis

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Diverticulitis
Classification and external resources
Diverticula, sigmoid colon.jpg
Large bowel (sigmoid colon) showing multiple diverticula. The diverticula appear on either side of the longitudinal muscle bundle (taenium).
ICD-10 K57
ICD-9 562
DiseasesDB 3876
MedlinePlus 000257
eMedicine med/578
MeSH D004238

Diverticulitis is a common digestive disease which involves the formation of pouches (diverticula) within the bowel wall. This process is known as diverticulosis, and typically occurs within the large intestine, or colon, although it can occasionally occur in the small intestine as well. Diverticulitis results when one of these diverticula becomes inflamed.

People often have left lower quadrant abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, and an increase white blood cell count. They may also complain of nausea or diarrhea; others may be constipated. The severity of symptoms depends on the extent of the infection and complications. Less commonly, an individual with diverticulitis may have right-sided abdominal pain. This may be due to the less common right-sided diverticula or a highly redundant sigmoid colon. Some patients report bleeding from the rectum.

Causes[edit]

The cause of diverticulitis is unknown. The development of colonic diverticulum is thought to be a result of raised intraluminal colonic pressures. The sigmoid colon (Section 4) has the smallest diameter of any portion of the colon, and therefore the portion which would be expected to have the highest intraluminal pressure. The claim that a lack of dietary fiber, particularly non-soluble fiber (also known in older parlance as "roughage") predisposes individuals to diverticular disease was long accepted within the medical literature.[1][2] However, the first study to specifically test the theory has found that "A high-fiber diet and increased frequency of bowel movements are associated with greater, rather than lower, prevalence of diverticulosis."[3]

Diet[edit]

Foods such as seeds, nuts, and corn were, in the past, thought by many health care professionals to cause or worsen diverticulitis.[4] However, there is no evidence that suggests the avoidance of nuts and seeds prevents the progression of diverticulosis to an acute case of diverticulitis.[5] It appears that a higher intake of nuts and corn could in fact help to avoid diverticulitis in adult males.[5]

Pathophysiology[edit]

Diverticulitis is believed to develop due to changes inside the intestines including high pressures due to faulty contracting of the intestines.[6]

Most people with diverticulosis do not have any discomfort or symptoms; however, symptoms may include mild cramps, bloating, and constipation. Other diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and stomach ulcers cause similar problems, so these symptoms do not always mean a person has diverticulosis.

Diagnosis[edit]

Diverticulitis in the left lower quadrant as seen on CT scan

People with the above symptoms are commonly studied with computed tomography, or CT scan.[7] The CT scan is very accurate (98%) in diagnosing diverticulitis. In order to extract the most information possible about the patient's condition, thin section (5mm) transverse images are obtained through the entire abdomen and pelvis after the patient has been administered oral and intravascular contrast. Images reveal localized colon wall thickening, with inflammation extending into the fat surrounding the colon.[8] The diagnosis of acute diverticulitis is made confidently when the involved segment contains diverticulae.[9] CT may also identify patients with more complicated diverticulitis, such as those with an associated abscess. It may even allow for radiologically guided drainage of an associated abscess, sparing a patient from immediate surgical intervention.

Other studies, such as barium enema and colonoscopy are contraindicated in the acute phase of diverticulitis due to the risk of perforation.

Differential diagnosis[edit]

The differential diagnosis includes colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as a number of urological and gynecological processes.

Treatment[edit]

Most cases of simple, uncomplicated diverticulitis respond to conservative therapy with bowel rest. People may be placed on a low residue diet.[10] This low-fiber diet gives the colon adequate time to heal without needing to be overworked.

Antibiotics[edit]

If bacterial infection is suspected, antibiotics may be used.[11] Despite being recommended by several guidelines, the use of antibiotics in mild cases of uncomplicated diverticulitis is supported with only "sparse and of low quality" evidence, with no evidence supporting their routine use.[12]

Surgery[edit]

Surgery is often not needed.[6] Complications, such as peritonitis, abscess, or fistula may require surgery, either immediately or on an elective basis. Whether the elective surgery should be performed is decided by external factors such as the stage of the disease, the age of the patient and his or her general medical condition, as well as the severity and frequency of attacks or if the symptoms persist after a first acute episode. In most cases, the decision to perform elective surgery is taken when the risks of the surgery are smaller than the ones resulting from complications of the condition. Elective surgery may be performed at least six weeks after recovery from acute diverticulitis.[13]

Emergency surgery is necessary for people whose intestine has ruptured; intestinal rupture always results in infection of the abdominal cavity.[14] During emergency diverticulitis surgery, the ruptured section is removed and a colostomy is performed. This means that the surgeon will create an opening between the large intestine and the surface of the skin. The colostomy is closed in about 10 or 12 weeks in a subsequent surgery in which the cut ends of the intestine are rejoined.

The first surgical approach consists in the resection and primary anastomosis. This first stage of surgery is performed on patients with a well vascularized, nonedematous and tension-free bowel. The proximal margin should be an area of pliable colon without hypertrophy or inflammation. The distal margin should extend to the upper third of the rectum where the taenia coalesces. Not all of the diverticula-bearing colon must be removed, since diverticula proximal to the descending or sigmoid colon are unlikely to result in further symptoms.[15]

Diverticulitis surgery can be done in two ways: through a primary bowel resection or through a bowel resection with colostomy. Both bowel resections may be done in the traditional way or by laparoscopic surgery.[16] The traditional bowel resection is made using an open surgical approach, called colectomy. During a colectomy, the patient is placed under general anesthesia. A surgeon performing a colectomy will make a lower midline incision in the abdomen or a lateral lower transverse incision. The diseased section of the large intestine is removed and then the two healthy ends are sewn or stapled back together. A colostomy may be performed when the bowel has to be relieved of its normal digestive work as it heals. A colostomy implies creating a temporary opening of the colon on the skin surface and the end of the colon is passed through the abdominal wall and a removable bag is attached to it. The waste will be collected in the bag.[17]

However, most of the surgeons prefer performing the bowel resection laparoscopically mainly because the postoperative pain is reduced and the patient's recovery is faster. The laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive procedure in which three to four smaller incisions are made in the abdomen or navel.

All colon surgery involves only three maneuvers that may vary in complexity depending on the region of the bowel and the nature of the disease which are the retraction of the colon, the division of the attachments to the colon and the dissection of the mesentery.[18] After the resection of the colon, the surgeon normally divides the attachments to the liver and the small intestine. After the mesenteric vessels are dissected, the colon is divided with special surgical staplers that close off the bowel while cutting between the staple lines.

When excessive inflammation of the colon renders primary bowel resection too risky, bowel resection with colostomy remains an option. Also known as the Hartmann's operation, this is a more complicated surgery typically reserved for life-threatening cases.

The bowel resection with colostomy implies a temporary colostomy which is followed by a second operation to reverse the colostomy. The surgeon makes an opening in the abdominal wall (a colostomy) which helps clear the infection and inflammation. The colon is brought through the opening and all waste is collected in an external bag.[19]

The colostomy is usually temporary but it may be permanent depending on the severity of the case.[20] Most of the time, several months later after the inflammation has healed, the patient undergoes another major surgery during which the surgeon rejoins the colon and rectum and reverses the colostomy.

Complications[edit]

In complicated diverticulitis, bacteria may subsequently infect the outside of the colon if an inflamed diverticulum bursts open. If the infection spreads to the lining of the abdominal cavity, (peritoneum), this can cause a potentially fatal peritonitis. Sometimes inflamed diverticula can cause narrowing of the bowel, leading to an obstruction. Also, the affected part of the colon could adhere to the bladder or other organ in the pelvic cavity, causing a fistula, or abnormal connection between an organ and adjacent structure or organ, in this case the colon and an adjacent organ.

Epidemiology[edit]

Diverticulitis most often affects middle-aged and elderly persons, though it can strike younger people as well.[21] Central obesity may be associated with diverticulitis in younger patients, with some being as young as 20 years old.[22]

In Western countries, diverticular disease most commonly involves the sigmoid colon – section 4 (95% of patients). The prevalence of diverticular disease has increased from an estimated 10% in the 1920s to between 35 and 50% by the late 1960s. 65% of those currently 85 years of age and older can be expected to have some form of diverticular disease of the colon. Less than 5% of those aged 40 years and younger may also be affected by diverticular disease.

Left-sided diverticular disease (involving the sigmoid colon) is most common in the West, while right-sided diverticular disease is more prevalent in Asia and Africa. Among patients with diverticulosis, 10–25% will go on to develop diverticulitis within their lifetimes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Diverticular disease". Umm.edu. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  2. ^ "Diverticular Disease: Oregon Health & Science University – Portland, Oregon". Ohsu.edu. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  3. ^ Anne F. Peery, Patrick R. Barrett, Doyun Park, Albert J. Rogers, Joseph A. Galanko, Christopher F. Martin, Robert S. Sandler. A High-Fiber Diet Does Not Protect Against Asymptomatic Diverticulosis. Gastroenterology, February 2012
  4. ^ "Avoid Certain Foods To Prevent Diverticulitis – Health News Story". KNSD San Diego. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  5. ^ a b Weisberger, L; Jamieson, B (July 2009). "Clinical inquiries: How can you help prevent a recurrence of diverticulitis?". The Journal of family practice 58 (7): 381–2. PMID 19607778. 
  6. ^ a b Morris, AM; Regenbogen, SE; Hardiman, KM; Hendren, S (Jan 15, 2014). "Sigmoid diverticulitis: a systematic review.". JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 311 (3): 287–97. PMID 24430321. 
  7. ^ Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Hye Seung; Park, Seong Ho; Bajpai, Vasundhara; Choi, Yoo Shin; Kang, Sung-Bum; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Young Hoon (2007). "Appendiceal Diverticulitis". Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 31 (5): 763–9. doi:10.1097/RCT.0b013e3180340991. PMID 17895789. 
  8. ^ CT scan of diverticulitis 2012-11-14
  9. ^ Horton, KM; Corl, FM; Fishman, EK (2000). "CT evaluation of the colon: inflammatory disease". Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc 20 (2): 399–418. doi:10.1148/radiographics.20.2.g00mc15399. PMID 10715339. 
  10. ^ Spirt, Mitchell (2010). "Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections: A Focus on Appendicitis and Diverticulitis". Postgraduate Medicine 122 (1): 39–51. doi:10.3810/pgm.2010.01.2098. PMID 20107288. 
  11. ^ Bogardus, Sidney T. (2006). "What Do We Know About Diverticular Disease?". Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 40: S108–11. doi:10.1097/01.mcg.0000212603.28595.5c. PMID 16885691. 
  12. ^ de Korte N, Unlü C, Boermeester MA, Cuesta MA, Vrouenreats BC, Stockmann HB (June 2011). "Use of antibiotics in uncomplicated diverticulitis". Br J Surg 98 (6): 761–7. doi:10.1002/bjs.7376. PMID 21523694. 
  13. ^ Merck, Sharpe & Dohme. "Diverticulitis treatments" 2010-02-23.
  14. ^ What's the diverticulitis surgery? Digestive Disorders portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-23
  15. ^ Diverticulitis: Treatment & Medication eMedicine. 2010-02-23
  16. ^ Diverticulitis Surgery 2010-02-23
  17. ^ Gupta, Aditya K.; Chaudhry, Maria; Elewski, M (2003). "Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea nigra, and piedra". Dermatologic Clinics 21 (3): 395–400, v. doi:10.1016/S0733-8635(03)00031-7. PMID 12956194. 
  18. ^ Bowel resection procedure Encyclopedia of surgery. Retrieved on 2010-02-23
  19. ^ Diverticulitis treatments and drugs Mayo Clinic. 2010-02-23
  20. ^ Vermeulen, J; Coene, PP; Van Hout, NM; van der Harst, E; Gosselink, MP; Mannaerts, GH; Weidema, WF; Lange, JF (July 2009). "Restoration of bowel continuity after surgery for acute perforated diverticulitis: should Hartmann's procedure be considered a one-stage procedure?". Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland 11 (6): 619–24. doi:10.1111/j.1463-1318.2008.01667.x. PMID 18727727. 
  21. ^ Cole, C; Wolfson, A (2007). "Case Series: Diverticulitis in the Young". Journal of Emergency Medicine 33 (4): 363–6. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.02.022. PMID 17976749. 
  22. ^ "Disease Of Older Adults Now Seen In Young, Obese Adults". Retrieved 2007-11-19. 

External links[edit]