||It has been suggested that Celestial bureaucracy be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since March 2013.|
Historical setting 
The concept of a divine assembly (or council) is attested in the archaic Sumerian, Akkadian, Old Babylonian, Ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Caananite, Israelite, Celtic, Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman and Nordic pantheons. Ancient Egyptian literature reveals the existence of a 'synod of the gods'... Some of our most complete descriptions of the activities of the divine assembly are found in the literature from Mesopotamia. Their 'assembly of the gods,'headed by the high god Anu, would meet to address various concerns." The term used in Sumerian to describe this concept was Ukkin, and in later Akkadian and Aramaic was puhru.
Archaic Sumerian 
Old Babylonian 
Ancient Egyptian 
In Celtic Mythology, Lugh holds presidency over a divine council of the Tuatha Dé Danann with members including Ogma, the Dagda, Dian Cecht and a divine blacksmith called Goibniu. The council is later joined by various ranks of craftsmen and druids.
Ancient Greek 
Ancient Roman 
Norse Mythology 
Biblical usage 
In the Bible, there are multiple descriptions of Yahweh presiding over a great assembly of Heavenly Hosts. Some interpret these assemblies as examples of Divine Council: "The Old Testament description of the 'divine assembly' all suggest that this metaphor for the organization of the divine world was consistent with that of Mesopotamia and Canaan. One difference, however, should be noted. In the Old Testament, the identities of the members of the assembly are far more obscure than those found in other descriptions of these groups, as in their polytheistic environment. Israelite writers sought to express both the uniqueness and the superiority of their God Yahweh."
Others interpret the heavenly hosts as angels. They argue that angels are creations of God and not deities; therefore the verses are not Biblical examples of Divine Councils.
The Book of Psalms (Psalm 82:1), states "1 God (אֱלֹהִ֔ים elohim) stands in the divine assembly (בַּעֲדַת-אֵל ); He judges among the gods (אֱלֹהִ֔ים elohim)" (אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט). The meaning of the two occurrences of "elohim" has been debated by scholars, with some suggesting both words refer to YHWH, while others propose that God rules over a divine assembly of other Gods or angels. Some translations of the passage render "God (elohim) stands in the congregation of the mighty to judge the heart as God (elohim)" (the Hebrew is "beqerev elohim", "in the midst of gods", and the word "qerev" if it were in the plural would mean "internal organs"). Later in this Psalm, the word "gods" is used (in the KJV): Psalm 82:6 - "I have said, Ye [are] gods; and all of you [are] children of the most High." Instead of "gods", another version has "godlike beings", but here again, the word is elohim/elohiym (Strong's H430). This passage is quoted in the New Testament in John 10:34.
In the Books of Kings (1 Kings 22:19), the prophet Micaiah has a vision of Yahweh seated among "the whole host of heaven" standing on his right and on his left. He asks who will go entice Ahab and a spirit volonteers. This has been interpreted as an example of a divine council. However, others argue that the verse refers to angels created by God and not deities.
The first two chapters of the Book of Job describe the "Sons of God" assembling in the presence of Yahweh. Like "multitudes of heaven", the term "Sons of God" defies certain interpretation. This assembly has been interpreted by some as another example of divine council. Others translate "Sons of God" to "angels", and thus argue this is not a divine council because angels are God's creation and not deities.
"The role of the divine assembly as a conceptual part of the background of Hebrew prophecy is clearly displayed in two descriptions of prophetic involvement in the heavenly council. In 1 Kings 22:19-23... Micaiah is allowed to see God (elohim) in action in the heavenly decision regarding the fate of Ahab. Isaiah 6 depicts a situation in which the prophet himself takes on the role of the messenger of the assembly and the message of the prophet is thus commissioned by Yahweh. The depiction here illustrates this important aspect of the conceptual background of prophetic authority."
See also 
- Sakenfeld, Katharine ed., "The New Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible" Volume 2, pg 145, Abingdon Press, Nashville.
- Freedman, David N. ed., "The Anchor Bible Dictionary" Volume 2 pg 120, Doubleday, New York
- E. Theodore Mullen (1 June 1980). The divine council in Canaanite and early Hebrew literature. Scholars Press. ISBN 978-0-89130-380-0. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Leda Jean Ciraolo; Jonathan Lee Seidel (2002). Magic and Divination in the Ancient World. BRILL. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-90-04-12406-6. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Virginia Schomp (15 December 2007). The Ancient Egyptians. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-7614-2549-6. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Alan W. Shorter (March 2009). The Egyptian Gods: A Handbook. Wildside Press LLC. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-1-4344-5515-4. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Leo G. Perdue (28 June 2007). Wisdom Literature: A Theological History. Presbyterian Publishing Corp. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-0-664-22919-1. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Mark S. Smith (2009). The Ugaritic Baal Cycle.. BRILL. pp. 841–. ISBN 978-90-04-15348-6. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- J. G. Oosten (1985). The War of the Gods: The Social Code in Indo-European Mythology. Routledge & K. Paul. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-7102-0289-5. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Sharon Paice MacLeod (30 October 2011). Celtic Myth and Religion: A Study of Traditional Belief, with Newly Translated Prayers, Poems and Songs. McFarland. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-7864-6476-0. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Bruce Louden (6 January 2011). Homer's Odyssey and the Near East. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-521-76820-7. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Randall T. Ganiban (8 February 2007). Statius and Virgil: The Thebaid and the Reinterpretation of the Aeneid. Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-521-84039-2. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (1831). Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. W. and A. Smellie for W. Creech, Edinburgh, and T. Cadell, London. pp. 178–. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Viktor Rydberg. Teutonic Mythology, Vol. 1 of 3: Gods and Goddesses of the Northland. Library of Alexandria. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-1-4655-0771-6. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- Michael S. Heiser. "Divine Council 101: Lesson 2: The elohim of Psalm 82 – gods or men?".
- ""Psalms 82:1"".
- HamMilon Hechadash, Avraham Even-Shoshan, copyright 1988.
- "godlike beings, in JPS 1917". Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Psalm 82:6 KJV with Strong's H430 (elohim/elohiym)". Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "John 10:34". Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- Freedman, David N. ed., "The Anchor Bible Dictionary" Volume 2 pg 123, Doubleday, New York