Divine Mercy image

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The Divine Mercy painting by Adolf Hyła (1943). The Polish inscription at the bottom reads: "Jesus, I trust in You"

The Divine Mercy image is a depiction of Jesus based on the devotion initiated by Saint Faustina Kowalska.

"I promise that the soul that will venerate this image will not perish," Jesus told Faustina, according to her diary, which has been studied and authenticated by the Church over several decades. "I also promise victory over enemies already here on earth, especially at the hour of my death. I myself will defend it as My own glory." (Diary of Faustina, 48)

Jesus is shown in most versions as raising his right hand in blessing, and pointing with his left hand on his chest from which flow forth two rays: one red and one white (translucent). The depictions often contains the message "Jesus, I trust in You!" (Polish: Jezu ufam Tobie). The rays streaming out have symbolic meaning: red for the blood of Jesus (which is the Life of Souls), and pale for the water (which justify souls) (from Diary - 299). The whole image is symbolic of charity, forgiveness and love of God, referred to as the "Fountain of Mercy". According to the diary of St Faustina, the image is based on her 1931 vision of Jesus.[1]

A number of artistic renditions of the image have appeared since Faustina directed the painting of the first image in Poland. These are widely venerated worldwide, and are used in the celebration of Divine Mercy Sunday, observed in Roman Catholic, as well as some Anglican churches.[2]

Context and background[edit]

History[edit]

Faustina Kowalska was a Polish nun who joined the convent of Our Lady of Mercy in Warsaw 1925.[3][4] In her diary, which was later published as the book Diary: Divine Mercy in My Soul, Faustina wrote about a number of visions of Jesus and conversations with him.[3] Her confessor was Michael Sopocko, a priest and a professor of theology.[3][4]

In 1930, Faustina was assigned to the convent in Płock, Poland. Faustina stated that whilst she was in her cell on the night of Sunday, 22 February 1931, Jesus appeared to her as the "King of Divine Mercy", robed in a white garment.[5][6]

A 2006 rendition of the image above the altar of the sanctuary of the Fathers of Mercy

Faustina wrote that Jesus' right hand was raised in a sign of blessing and the other was touching the garment near his breast, and that from beneath the garment slightly down, aside his breast, emanated two large rays, one red, the other white.[5][6][7]

In her diary (Notebook 1, items 47 and 48), she wrote that Jesus told her:[3]

Another nun, Sister Christine, later stated that rays of light from the window were visible that night and attracted the attention of people standing on the other side of the street, implying that this was a "physical" appearance rather than an interior vision.[5][8]

Not knowing how to paint, Faustina approached some other nuns at her convent for help, but received no assistance. She attempted to sketch the image with charcoal on canvas, but had little success.[4][9] In her diary (Notebook 1, item 53), she wrote that Jesus told her that she would receive "visible help" with the task. In November 1932, Faustina left Płock and returned to Warsaw, and in May 1933, she was sent to the convent in Vilnius to work as the gardener.[10]

In Vilnius, Faustina met Father Michael Sopocko, the newly appointed confessor to the nuns.[10] Sopocko supported Faustina's efforts and arranged for the first painting of the image by the artist Eugene Kazimierowski,[4][5][10] which was the only rendition Faustina saw.[5] After Faustina's death, a number of other artists painted their own versions of the image, with the depiction by Adolf Hyła being among the most reproduced.[11]

Devotional significance[edit]

After the canonisation of Faustina in April 2000, devotion to the Divine Mercy and the image has increased.[14][15] The devotional following of the image and Faustina's message has been stronger among Catholics at large than among theologians.[16] Author Benedict Groeschel considers a modest estimate of the following in 2010 to be over one hundred million Catholics.[16]

Faustina's diary relates the rays of light within the image to life and salvation, stating (Notebook 1, item 299) that she was told by Jesus:

Faustina also wrote that Jesus stressed the importance of the image as part of the Divine Mercy devotion, and in Notebook 1, item 327 attributed these words to Jesus:

Catholic devotions thus stress the importance of the image as a "conduit for grace" as part of the Divine Mercy message.[13]

Faustina's diary also relates the image to Divine Mercy Sunday. Faustina wrote (Notebook 1, item 49) that Jesus told her that he wanted the Divine Mercy image to be "solemnly blessed" on the first Sunday after Easter; and that Sunday was to be the Feast of Mercy.[3][20]

Pope John Paul II instituted Divine Mercy Sunday (Dominica II Paschae seu de divina misericordia) and placed it on the General Roman Calendar.[21] The Divine Mercy image is often carried in processions on Divine Mercy Sunday, and is placed in a location in the church so that it can be venerated by those who attended the Mass.[14]

The veneration of the Divine Mercy image also takes place in conjunction with the Divine Mercy Chaplet and Novena.[3][22] The Vatican biography of Faustina states that the veneration of the Divine Mercy image is part of the second component of her message, namely "entreating God's mercy for the whole world".[23] Praying before the Divine Mercy image (with the signature "Jesus I trust in you") is not only encouraged in Catholic devotions, but is mentioned as a partial condition for some of the indulgences associated with Divine Mercy Sunday.[24]

Artistic renditions[edit]

The first painting[edit]

The first Divine Mercy painting by Kazimierowski (1934) at the Divine Mercy Sanctuary (Vilnius)

The first painting was by Eugene Kazimierowski, under the supervision of Faustina and her confessor, Michael Sopocko, in Vilnius in 1934.

Sopocko was a professor of theology at the University of Vilnius and introduced Faustina to Kazimierowski, who was professor of art there. Kazimierowski had painted religious images before, but this task was difficult for him. Sopocko himself posed as Jesus for the image, wearing an alb, and both he and Faustina regularly visited the painter‘s workshop. The final painting satisfied neither Sopocko nor Faustina, who later wrote that Christ told her it is not that important that the picture be beautiful. The true beauty, Christ said, would be the blessing that He would bestow to the people by the means of the painting.

After completion in 1934, the painting hung in the Bernardine Sisters' convent near St. Michael's church in Vilnius, where Sopoko was rector.[25] The first public exposition of the Kazimierowski rendition was on 26–28 April 1935, at the church of the Gate of Dawn in Vilnius.[7]

The Hyła painting[edit]

Another painting of the Divine Mercy was made by Adolf Hyła, as a votive offering. Through painting this picture, Hyła expressed his gratitude for the survival of his family during World War II.

Hyła was given the descriptions from Faustina's diary by the nuns at the convent, and a small copy of the first painting. Hyła's image is somewhat different from Kazimierowski's, as the former figured Jesus as a "Divine Physician", walking the earth and healing people. He has Jesus approaching the viewer instead of merely standing. Christ's right hand is lifted up high in benediction, and He is looking into the eyes of the viewer. The original version of this painting had a country landscape in the background, which was removed in a later replica as it was deemed "non-liturgical".

The Hyła rendition is also called the "Kraków Divine Mercy Image" because it is kept in the sanctuary at Kraków-Łagiewniki.

Other versions[edit]

Before Adolf Hyła offered his votive painting, the sisters had commissioned Stanisław Batowski to paint a third version. This was lost in a fire, and Batowski painted a fourth painting which arrived at the convent at almost the same time as Hyła's. Cardinal Sapieha, who happened to be in the convent then, selected the Hyła painting because it was a votive image.[26]

A number of other artists have painted the image, but Hyła's rendition remains the most reproduced one.[11]

"The image of The Divine Mercy, painted by Adam Styka (1957), [is] displayed in the Sanctuary of The Divine Mercy at the Congregation of Marians in Stockbridge, MA USA." (Diary pictures of images). A popular image was created in 1982 by American artist Robert Skemp.[27] This rendition depicts Jesus standing in front of an arched doorway, with a more pronounced halo about his head. The Skemp and Hyła images are the most ubiquitous depictions found in the Philippines, where the devotion to the Divine Mercy is a popular one.

The Divine Mercy Shrine, Misamis Oriental in El Salvador City, Philippines was built in 2008, and has a 15.24-metre (50 foot) statue of the Divine Mercy towering above the shrine.[28][29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Divine Mercy in My Soul - The Diary of Sister Faustina". Our Home with God. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  2. ^ Brockman, Norbert (13 September 2011). Encyclopedia of Sacred Places. ABC-CLIO. p. 140. ISBN 9781598846546. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Tim Drake, 2002, Saints of the Jubilee, ISBN 978-1-4033-1009-5 pages 89-90
  4. ^ a b c d Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X pages 174-175
  5. ^ a b c d e f A Divine Mercy Resource by Richard Torretto 2010 ISBN 1-4502-3236-1 "The Image of Divine Mercy" pages 84-107
  6. ^ a b Catherine M. Odell, 1998, Faustina: Apostle of Divine Mercy OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-923-2 pages 63-64
  7. ^ a b Tim Drake, 2002, Saints of the Jubilee, ISBN 978-1-4033-1009-5 pages 85-95
  8. ^ Sister Faustina Kowalska: her life and mission by Maria Tarnawska 1990 ISBN 0-948202-43-2 page 116
  9. ^ Catherine M. Odell, 1998, Faustina: Apostle of Divine Mercy OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-923-2 pages 65-75
  10. ^ a b c d Catherine M. Odell, 1998, Faustina: Apostle of Divine Mercy OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-923-2 pages 85-95
  11. ^ a b Butler's lives of the saints: the third millennium by Paul Burns, Alban Butler 2001 ISBN 978-0-86012-383-5 page 252
  12. ^ Diary: Divine Mercy in My Soul by Faustina Kowalska 2003 ISBN 1-59614-110-7 Notebok 1, item 313 [1]
  13. ^ a b 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Faustina Kowalska by John J. Cleary 2010 ISBN 1-56548-350-2 page 47-48
  14. ^ a b Sourcebook for Sundays, Seasons, and Weekdays 2011: The Almanac for Pastoral Liturgy by Corinna Laughlin 2010 ISBN 1-56854-871-0 page 195
  15. ^ 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Faustina Kowalska by John J. Cleary 2010 ISBN 1-56548-350-2 page 22
  16. ^ a b Am With You Always by Benedict Groeschel 2010 ISBN 978-1-58617-257-2 page 548
  17. ^ 15 Days of Prayer with Saint Faustina Kowalska by John J. Cleary 2010 ISBN 1-56548-350-2 page 51
  18. ^ Catherine M. Odell, 1998, Faustina: Apostle of Divine Mercy OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-923-2 page 165
  19. ^ The Great Deliverance by Gloria Perales 2010 ISBN 978-1-4343-2765-9 page 39
  20. ^ Faustina: The Apostle of Divine Mercy by Catherine M. Odell 1998 ISBN 0-87973-923-1 page 66
  21. ^ Vatican website: Canonization of St. Faustina Kowalska, April 30, 2000
  22. ^ Sourcebook for Sundays and Seasons 2008 by D. Todd Williamson 2007 ISBN 1-56854-617-3 page 195
  23. ^ Vatican biography of Faustina Kowalska
  24. ^ Decree of the Apostolic Penitentiary on Divine Mercy Indulgences at the Vatican web site
  25. ^ A Divine Mercy Resource by Richard Torretto 2010 ISBN 1-4502-3236-1 pages 84-85
  26. ^ A Divine Mercy Resource by Richard Torretto 2010 ISBN 1-4502-3236-1 page 88
  27. ^ ENID Picture
  28. ^ BusinessWeek Mindanao 26 August 2011: "DIVINE MERCY SHRINE in Misamis Oriental celebrates Birthday of the Blessed Virgin Mary" [2]
  29. ^ CBCP News (Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines) March 28, 2008: "Divine Mercy Sunday in Mindanao" [3]

External links[edit]