Divorce of same-sex couples
|Legal recognition of
*Not yet in effect
The extension of civil marriage, union, and domestic partnership rights to same-sex couples in various jurisdictions can raise legal issues upon dissolution of these unions that are not experienced by opposite-sex couples, especially if law of their residence or nationality does not have same-sex marriage or partnerships.
Conflict of laws
In jurisdictions where same-sex unions are not possible, also divorce or annulment is often not possible, while general conflict of law rules sometimes exclude divorce in the jurisdiction where the marriage was celebrated.
In some jurisdictions divorce is possible, even if marriage is not possible. They are listed below:
|Aruba||Marriages from the Netherlands only|
Couples in same-sex marriages can generally obtain a divorce only in jurisdictions that recognize same-sex marriages, with some exceptions. Same-sex couples attempting to divorce in Texas, which does not recognize the validity of same-sex marriages, have met with different results and two cases are pending before the Texas Supreme Court. Two women who had legally married in Massachusetts and moved to Tampa are currently attempting to divorce, thereby presenting a challenge to Florida's ban on same-sex marriages. The Florida litigants' petition for divorce has been dismissed by the trial court, but they are appealing, and the Family Law Section of the Florida Bar has moved to file an amicus brief in favor of the right to divorce by same sex spouses. The federal government's denial of recognition to same-sex marriages prior to United States v. Windsor meant that prior to 2013, the assets transferred in a divorce settlement were treated as gifts. Same-sex couples in states that deny them access to divorce can end their legal relationship at greater cost by bringing a civil suit. Conversely, some states, including Arizona and Wyoming do not have same-sex marriage, but do allow divorce proceedings of same-sex couples. The same went for Maryland until it legalized same-sex marriage in 2013.
When Delaware and Minnesota legalized same-sex marriage in May 2013, they gave their respective state courts the authority to conduct divorce proceedings in cases where a same-sex couple married in the state but neither party resides in a state that recognizes their marriage.
In 2009 In Belgium, for 158 men and 213 women a divorce was registered in the civil registry, while for 1133 men and 999 women a marriage was registered (i.e., Lesbian divorce rate = 21%, Gay Male divorce rate = 14%).
As of 1997, the same-sex partnership divorce rate was significantly lower than that of heterosexual couples in Denmark. The vast majority of gay marriages in Denmark are male-male, and only 14 percent of these end in divorce, compared to 23 percent of female marriages. The higher rate for lesbians is consistent with data showing that women initiate most of the heterosexual divorces in Denmark.
In the Netherlands, slightly more marriages between women are recorded than between men: between 2006-2011 on average 690 and 610 per year respectively. The number of same sex divorces is between women much higher than between men: in the same period on average 100 women and 45 men divorced per year (i.e., Lesbian divorce rate = 14%, Gay Male divorce rate = 7%).
Norway and Sweden
A study on short-term same-sex registered partnerships in Norway and Sweden found that divorce rates were 50-167% higher for same-sex couples than opposite-sex marriages, and that unions of lesbians are considerably less stable, or more subject to serious change, than unions of gay men. The authors cited that this may be due to same-sex couples "non-involvement in joint parenthood", "lower exposure to normative pressure about the necessity of life-long unions" as well as differing motivations for getting married.
The divorce rate of same-sex couples within 30 months of the introduction of legally binding civil partnerships was slightly less than one percent in the United Kingdom. Other sources cite that lesbian divorce rates are twice the rate of gay male divorce.
As of 2011, for states with available data, the dissolution rate of same-sex couples is lower that of opposite-sex couples. The percentage of those same-sex couples who end their legal relationship ranges from 0% to 1.8%, or 1.1% on average across all listed jurisdictions per year, while 2% of married opposite-sex couples divorce annually. Other sources cite that lesbian divorce is twice the rate of gay male divorce. Some studies have shown that lesbian committed relationships do not last as long as gay male committed relationships.
- Status of same-sex marriage, status around the world
- Civil solidarity pact, French civil unions, available to same-sex and opposite-sex couples
- Civil union, Domestic partnership, other non-marriage legal unions available to same-sex couples in certain jurisdictions
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