Divya Desams

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Divya Desams refer to the 108 Vishnu temples that are mentioned in the works of the Tamil Azhvars (saints). Divya means "Divine" and Desam indicates "Place" (temple). Of the 108 temples, 105 are in India, one is in Nepal, and two are outside the Earthly realms. The Divya Desams are revered by the 12 Azhvars in the Divya Prabandha, a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses. Lord Shiva, the other major deity in Hinduism, is similarly associated with the Paadal Petra Sthalams, 275 Shiva temples praised in the Tevaram canon by the 63 Nayanars.

Azhwars[edit]

Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur showing the pyramidal temple tower
Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur

The word azhwar means the one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god. Azhwars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism during the 5th-8th centuries A.D. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[1][2] The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three azhwars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin community, Kulasekhara from Kshatria community, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century AD), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the azhwars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Poigai is considered an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club), Pey of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus), Namm of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's necklace), Periy of Garuda (Vishnu's eagle), Andal of Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Saranga (Krishna's bow). The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[2][3]

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). Modern historians place the period of azhwars from the 5th to 8th century AD, but there is dispute about the chronology and relation between each other. But it is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[1][2][4][5][6] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. The azhwars were also instrumental in promoting the Bhagavatha cult and the two epics of India, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[7] The azhwars were instrumental in spreading Vaishnavism throughout the region.[8] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824-924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Tamil Veda".[9][10]

List of Divya Desams[edit]

The list of 108 Divya Desams is given in this table:[11][12]

108 Divya Desams
North India/Nepal Malai Nadu Madurai Kanchipuram Chennai

1. Ahobilam - Andhra Pradesh
2. Muktinath, Saligramam Nepal
3. Naimisaranya - Uttar Pradesh
4. Mathura - Uttar Pradesh
5. Gokul - Uttar Pradesh
6. Devprayag - Uttarakhand
7. Tirupathi - Andhra Pradesh
8. Badrinath temple - Uttarakhand
9. Ayodhya - Uttar Pradesh
10. Dwarka - Gujarat

11. Thiruvananthapuram
12. Thirukatkarai
13. Moozhikkalam
14. Tiruvalla
15. Thirukadithanam
16. Sengunroor
17. Thiruppuliyoor
18. Thiruvaaranvilai
19. Thiruvanvandoor
20. Thiru naavaay
21. Viththuvakkodu

22. Thirumeyyam
23. Thirukoshtiyur
24. Koodal Azhagar Temple
25. Azhagar Kovil
26. Tirumogoor
27. Srivilliputhur
28. Tiruththangal
29. Thiruppullani

30. Thiruvengadam
31. Tirukkacchi
32. Ashtabujakaram
33. Tiruvekkaa
34. Tiruththanka
35. Tiruvelukkai
36. Tirukalvanoor
37. Tiru oorakam
38. Tiru neeragam
39. Tiru kaaragam
40. Tirukaarvaanam
41. Tiru parameswara vinnagaram
42. Tiru pavala vannam
43. Tiru paadagam
44. Tiru nilaaththingal thundam
45. Thiruputkuzhi

46. Thiruvallikeni
47. Thiruneermalai
48. Thiruvidandai
49. Thirukadalmallai
50. Thiruninravur
51. Thiruvallur
52. Thirukkadigai

Mayiladuthurai and Sirkazhi Thanjavur Trichy Tirunelveli Kanyakumari

53. Thiruvazhunthoor
54. Thiruindaloor
55. Kazheesirama Vinnagaram
56. Thirukkavalampadi
57. Thiruchsemponsey
58. Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram
59. Thiru Vanpurushothamam
60. Thiruvaikunda vinnagaram
61. Thirumanimadam
62. Thiruthevanartthogai
63. Thiruthetriyambalam
64. Thirumanikkoodam
65. Thiruvellakkulam
66. Thiruppaarththanpalli
67. Thalai Sanga Nanmathiyam
68. Thiruchsirupuliyoor
69. Thiruvali-Thirunagari

70. Thiruccithra kootam
71. Thirukkannangudi
72. Thirunagai
73. Thiru Thanjai
74. Tirukkoilur
75. Thirukkoodaloor
76. Thiru Kavith Thalam
77. Thiru Adhanoor
78. Thirupullabhoothangudi
79. Thirukkudandhai
80. Thiruccherai
81. Thirunandipura Vinnagaram
82. ThiruNaraiyoor
83. Thiruvinnagar
84. Thiruvelliyangudi
85. Thirukkanamangai
86. Thirukkkannapuram
87. Thirukkandiyur

88. Sri Rangam
89. Thirukkozhi
90. Thirukkarambanoor
91. Thiruvellarai
92. Thiru Anbil
93. Thirupper Nagar
94. Thiruvanthipuram

95. Thiruvaramangai
96. Thirukkurungudi
97. Srivaikundam
98. Thiruvaragunamangai
99. Thiruppulingudi
100. Thirukkurugoor
101. Thirutthulaivillimangalam
102. Thirukkoloor
103. Thirukkulandhai
104. Thentirupperai

105. Thiruvattaru
106. Thiruvanparisaram

Vinnulagam (Outside the Earthly realm)

107. Thirupaarkadal
108. Thiruparamapadham

List of Deities in Divyadesams[edit]

The list of deities[13] in the divyadesams is shown.

S.No. Divyadesam Thayar (Lakshmi) Swamy (Vishnu)
1 Srirangam Ranganayagi Ranganathar (Periya Perumal)
2 Thirukozhi Kamalavalli Vasalakshmi Sundaravaraya Perumal
3 Thirukarambanur Poornaavalli Purushothama Perumal
4 Thiruvellarai Rakthapankajavalli Pundarikaksha Perumal
5 Thiruanbil Soundaryavalli Sundaramoorthaye Poornaya Perumal
6 Thiruppernagar Indravalli Appala Ranganatha Perumal
7 Thirukandiyur Kamalavalli Kamalanatha, Harasabavimochana Perumal
8 Thirukoodalur Padmasani Jagathrakshaga Perumal
9 Thirukavithalam Ramamanivalli Gajendravaradha Perumal
10 Thiruppullamboothangudi Hemabja Thrudathanvee Ramabadhra Perumal
11 Thiruaadhanur Ranganayagi Varshakalathinayaka Perumal
12 Thirukudanthai Komalavalli Aparyapthamrutha Perumal
13 Thiruvinnagar Boodevi Lavanavarjitha Srinivasa Perumal
14 Thirunaraiyur Vanjulavalli Srinivasa Perumal
15 Thirucherai Saranayagi Saranatha Perumal
16 Thirunandhipura Vinnagaram Shenbagavalli Jagannatha Perumal
17 Thiruvelliyangudi Maragadhavalli Srungarasundara Danushbani Ramaya Perumal
18 Thirukannamangai Abishegavalli Bhaktavatsala Perumal
19 Thirukannapuram Kannapura Sowriraja Perumal
20 Thirukannangudi Loganayagi Lokanatha Perumal
21 Thirunagai Soundaryavalli Neelamega Perumal
22 Thiruthanjai Mamanikoil Rakthapankajavalli Neelamega Perumal
Manikundram Ambujavalli Maniparvatha Perumal
Thanjaiyali Nagar Thanjanayagi Narasimha Perumal
23 Thiruvazhundur Rakthapankajavalli Devadhiraja Perumal
24 Thiruchirupuliyur Dhayanayagi Krupasamudra Perumal
25 Thiruthalaichanga Nanmadiyam Siras sanga Chandrasabahara Perumal
26 Thiruindalur Parimalaranga Parimalaranganatha Perumal
27 Thirukazhicheerama Vinnagaram Loganayagi Lokanatha Thrivikrama Perumal
28 Thirukkavalambadi Pankajavalli Gopala Krishna Perumal
29 Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Amrudhagadavalli Gadakeli Narthanaya Perumal
30 Thiruvanpurushothamam Purushothama Purushothama Perumal
31 Thirusemponsaikoil Sweda Pushpavalli Hemaranganatha Perumal
32 Thirumanimadakoil Pundareegavalli Sashvatha Deepaya Narayana Perumal
33 Thiruvaigunda Vinnagaram Vaigundavalli Vaikuntanatha Perumal
34 Thiruthetriambalam Rakthapankajavalli Lakshmiranga Perumal
35 Thirumanikoodam Boonayagi Varadharaja Perumal
36 Thiruparthanpalli Kamala Parthasarathy roopa, Kamalapathaye Perumal
37 Thiruvali & Thirunagari Amrudhagadavalli Kedarapathivaraya Perumal
38 Thiruthevanarthogai Samudradanaya Devanayaka Perumal
39 Thiruvellakulam Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
40 Thiruchitrakoodam Pundareegavalli Govindaraja Perumal
41 Thiruvaheendrapuram Hemabujavalli Devanatha Perumal
42 Thirukkovalur Pushpavalli Thrivikrama Perumal
43 Thirukkachi - Atthigiri Perundevi Devathiraja Perumal
44 Ashtabuyagaram Padmasani Gajendravarada Perumal
45 Thiruthanka Maragadhavalli Deepaprakasa Perumal
46 Thiruvelukkai Amruthavalli Sundharayoghanarasimha Perumal
47 Thiruneeragam Boovalli Jagadeeswara Perumal
48 Thiruppadagam Rukmani Sathyabama Pandavadootha Perumal
49 Thiru Nilathingal Thundam Chandrasoodavalli Chandrasooda Perumal
50 Thiruooragam Amudavalli Thrivikrama Perumal
51 Thiruvehka Komalavalli Yathokthakari Perumal
52 Thirukkaragam Padmamani Karunagara Perumal
53 Thirukkarvaanam Kamalavalli Neelamega Perumal
54 Thirukkalvanur Sundarabimbavalli Choranatha Perumal
55 Thiruppavalavannam Pravalavalli Pravalavarna Perumal
56 Thiruparamechura Vinnagaram Vaigundavalli Vaikundanatha Perumal
57 Thirupputkuzhi Maragadavalli Vijayaraghava Perumal
58 Thirunindravur Sudhavalli Bhaktavatsala Perumal
59 Thiruevvul Kanagavalli Vaidhya Veeraraghava Perumal
60 Thiruvallikeni Rukmani Venkatakrishna Perumal
61 Thiruneermalai Sundaravalli Jalathivarnaya Perumal
62 Thiruidaventhai Komalavalli Lakshmivaraha Perumal
63 Thirukkadalmallai Boosthalamangadevi Sthalasayana Perumal
64 Thirukkadigai Amruthabalavalli Yoganarasimha Perumal
65 Thiruvayothi Seethadevi Ramachandra Perumal
66 Thirunaimisaranyam Sriharilakshmi Devaraja Perumal
67 Thirupruthi Parimalavalli Paramapurushaya Perumal
68 Thirukkandamenum Kadinagar Pundareegavalli Neelamega Perumal
69 Thiruvadariyachramam Aravindavalli Badrinarayana Perumal
70 Thirusalakraamam Sridevi Srimoorthi Perumal
71 Thiruvadamadurai Sathyabama Govardhanagiridhari Perumal
72 Thiruvaipadi Rukmani Sathyabama Navamohanakrishna Perumal
73 Thirudwaragai Lakshmi Rukmanyadhi Ashtamahishi, Dwarakadeesa Perumal
74 Thirusingavelkundram Amruthavalli Senchulakshmi Lakshminarasimha Perumal
75 Thiruvengadam(Mel Thirupathi) Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
76 Thirunavai Padmavathi Narayana Perumal
77 Thiruvithuvakodu Vithuvakoduvalli Sri Abhayapradhaya Perumal
78 Thirukatkarai Vathsalyavalli Katkaraswami Perumal
79 Thirumoozhikkalam Madhuraveni Sookthinatha Perumal
80 Thiruvallavazh Vathsalyavalli Sundaraya Perumal
81 Thirukkadithalam Karpagavalli Amruthanarayana Perumal
82 Thiruchengundrur Rakthapankajavalli Devathideva Perumal
83 Thiruppuliyur Hemalatha Mayashaktiyuthaswamy Perumal
84 Thiruvaranvilai Padmasani Vamana Perumal
85 Thiruvanvandoor Kamalavalli Kamalanatha Perumal
86 Thiruvananthapuram Harilakshmi Ananthapadmanabha Perumal
87 Thiruvattaru Maragadhavalli Adhikesava Perumal
88 Thiruvanparisaram Kamalavalli Vamanaya Perumal
89 Thirukkurungudi vamanashetravalli Vamanakshetrapoornaya Perumal
90 Thirucheeravaramangai Chireevaramangaivalli Thothadhrinatha Perumal
91 Thiruvaigundam (Navathirupathi) Boonayagi, Vaigundavalli Vaikuntanatha Perumal
92 Thiruvaragunamangai (navathirupathi) Varagunavalli Vijayasana Perumal
93 Thiruppuliangudi (Navathirupathi) Boonayagi Boomipalaya Vairinedharchidha Gopaya Perumal
94 Thirutholaivillimangalam(Navathirupathi) Visalakrishnakshidevi Aravindhalochana Perumal
95 Thirukkulandai(Navathirupathi) Baligavalli Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
96 Thirukkolur(Navathirupathi) Kolurvalli Nikshepavithaya Perumal
97 Thirupperai (Navathirupathi) Kundalakarnadevi Dheerga Magarakundaladharaya Perumal
98 Thirukkurugur (Navathirupathi) Aadhinathavalli Aadhinatha Perumal
99 Thiruvillipputhur Kodhadevi Vadapathrasayee Perumal
100 Thiruthangal Rakthapankajavalli Narayana Perumal
101 Thirukkoodal Madhuravalli Sangamasundharaya Perumal
102 Thirumaliruncholai Sundaravalli Chorasundara Perumal
103 Thirumogur Mohavalli Kalamega Perumal
104 Thirukkoshtiyur Mahalakshmi Uraga Mrudusayanaya Perumal
105 Thiruppullani Kalyanavalli, Padmasani Kalyana Jagannatha Perumal
106 Thirumeyyam Ujjeevana Sathyagirinatha Perumal
107 Thirupparkadal BooSamudradhanaya Ksheerabdhinatha Perumal
108 Thirupparamapadham Mahalakshmya Paramapadhanathaya Perumal

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram – Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  3. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 
  4. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. 
  5. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 
  6. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 
  7. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  8. ^ B.S. 2011, pp. 47-48
  9. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 
  10. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757. 
  11. ^ "108 Divya Desams". srivaishnava.org. Retrieved 2007-07-16. 
  12. ^ Govindāchārya 1902, p. 59-69
  13. ^ http://srividesikan.web.officelive.com/Documents/Divya%20Desa%20Divya%20Thambathigal%20Namavali.pdf

References[edit]

External links[edit]