Divya Desam

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A Divya Desam (Tamil: திவ்ய தேசம்) is one of the 108 Vishnu temples that are mentioned in the works of the Tamil Azhvars (saints). Divya means "premium" and Desam indicates "place" (temple). Of the 108 temples, 106 are in India, one is in Nepal, and last one is outside the Earthly realms. The Divya Desams are revered by the 12 Azhvars in the Divya Prabandha, a collection of 4,000 Tamil verses. While most Divya Desams follow Thenkalai mode of worship, some follow Vadakalai too among others.

Azhwars[edit]

Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur showing the pyramidal temple tower
Image of Rangamannar-Andal temple in Srivilliputhur

The word azhwar means the one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god. Azhwars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism during the 5th-8th centuries A.D. The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[1][2] The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three azhwars, Poigai, Bhutha and Pey were born miraculously. Tirumizhisai was the son of a sage, Thondaradi, Mathurakavi, Peria and Andal were from brahmin community, Kulasekhara from Kshatria community, Namm was from a cultivator family, Tirupana from panar community and Tirumangai from kazhwar community. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century AD), Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar, Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan, Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya, commentaries on Divya Prabandam, Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts, temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the azhwars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Poigai is considered an incarnation of Panchajanya (Krishna's conch), Bhoothath of Kaumodakee (Vishnu's Mace/Club), Pey of Nandaka (Vishnu's sword), Thirumalisai of Sudarshanam (Vishnu's discus), Namm of Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander), Madhurakavi of Vainatheya (Vishnu's eagle, Garuda), Kulasekhara of Kaustubha (Vishnu's necklace), Periy of Garuda (Vishnu's eagle), Andal of Bhoodevi (Vishnu's wife, Lakshmi, in her form as Bhudevi), Thondaradippodi of Vanamaalai (Vishnu's garland), Thiruppaan of Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest) and Thirumangai of Saranga (Krishna's bow). The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[2][3]

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three azhwars namely Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belong to Dwapara Yuga (before 4200 BC). Modern historians place the period of azhwars from the 5th to 8th century AD, but there is dispute about the chronology and relation between each other. But it is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve azhwars.[1][2][4][5][6] Along with the three Saiva nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region. The azhwars were also instrumental in promoting the Bhagavatha cult and the two epics of India, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[7] The azhwars were instrumental in spreading Vaishnavism throughout the region.[8] The verses of the various azhwars were compiled by Nathamuni (824-924 AD), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Tamil Veda".[9][10]

List of Divya Desams[edit]

The list of 108 Divya Desams is given in this table:[11][12]

108 Divya Desams
North/South[Andhra Pradesh]/West India&Nepal Malai Nadu Madurai Kanchipuram Chennai

1. Tirumala - Andhra Pradesh
2. Ahobilam - Andhra Pradesh
3. Muktinath, Saligramam Nepal
4. Naimisaranya - Uttar Pradesh
5. Mathura - Uttar Pradesh
6. Gokul - Uttar Pradesh
7. Devaprayag - Uttarakhand
8. Badrinath temple - Uttarakhand
9. Ayodhya - Uttar Pradesh
10. Dwarka - Gujarat

11. Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple Thiruvananthapuram
12. Thirukatkarai
13. Moozhikkalam
14. Tiruvalla
15. Thirukadithanam
16. Sengunroor
17. Thiruppuliyoor
18. Thiruvaaranvilai
19. Thiruvanvandoor
20. Thiru naavaay
21. Viththuvakkodu
22. Thirupalkadal Keezhperoor

23. Thirumeyyam
24. Thirukoshtiyur
25. Koodal Azhagar Temple
26. Azhagar Kovil
27. Tirumogoor
28. Srivilliputhur
29. Tiruththangal
30. Thiruppullani

31. Thiruvengadam
32. Tirukkacchi
33. Ashtabujakaram
34. Tiruvekkaa
35. Tiruththanka
36. Tiruvelukkai
37. Tirukalvanoor
38. Tiru oorakam
39. Tiru neeragam
40. Tiru kaaragam
41. Tirukaarvaanam
42. Tiru parameswara vinnagaram
43. Tiru pavala vannam
44. Tiru paadagam
45. Tiru nilaaththingal thundam
46. Thiruputkuzhi

47. Thiruvallikeni
48. Thiruneermalai
49. Thiruvidandai
50. Thirukadalmallai
51. Thiruninravur
52. Thiruvallur
53. Thirukkadigai

Mayiladuthurai and Sirkazhi Thanjavur Trichy Tirunelveli Kanyakumari

54. Thiruvazhunthoor
55. Thiruindaloor
56. Kazheesirama Vinnagaram
57. Thirukkavalampadi
58. Thiruchsemponsey
59. Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram
60. Thiru Vanpurushothamam
61. Thiruvaikunda vinnagaram
62. Thirumanimadam
63. Thiruthevanartthogai
64. Thiruthetriyambalam
65. Thirumanikkoodam
66. Thiruvellakkulam
67. Thiruppaarththanpalli
68. Thalai Sanga Nanmathiyam
69. Thiruchsirupuliyoor
70. Thiruvali-Thirunagari

71. Thiruccithra kootam
72. Thirukkannangudi
73. Thirunagai
74. Thiru Thanjai
75. Tirukkoilur
76. Thirukkoodaloor
77. Thiru Kavith Thalam
78. Thiru Adhanoor
79. Thirupullabhoothangudi
80. Thirukkudandhai
81. Thiruccherai
82. Thirunandipura Vinnagaram
83. ThiruNaraiyoor
84. Thiruvinnagar
85. Thiruvelliyangudi
86. Thirukkanamangai
87. Thirukkkannapuram
88. Thirukkandiyur

89. Sri Rangam
90. Thirukkozhi
91. Thirukkarambanoor
92. Thiruvellarai
93. Thiru Anbil
94. Thirupper Nagar
95. Thiruvanthipuram

96. Thiruvaramangai
97. Thirukkurungudi
98. Srivaikundam
99. Thiruvaragunamangai
100. Thiruppulingudi
101. Thirukkurugoor
102. Thirutthulaivillimangalam
103. Thirukkoloor
104. Thirukkulandhai
105. Thentirupperai

106. Thiruvattaru
107. Thiruvanparisaram

Vinnulagam (Outside the Earthly realm)

108. Thiruparamapadham

List of Deities in Divyadesams[edit]

The list of deities[13] in the divyadesams is shown.

S.No. Divyadesam Thayar (Lakshmi) Swamy (Vishnu)
1 Srirangam Ranganayagi Ranganathar (Periya Perumal)
2 Thirukozhi Kamalavalli Vasalakshmi Azhagiya Manavala Perumal
3 Thirukarambanur Poornaavalli Purushothama Perumal
4 Thiruvellarai Rakthapankajavalli Pundarikaksha Perumal
5 Thiruanbil Soundaryavalli Sundaramoorthaye Poornaya Perumal
6 Thiruppernagar Indravalli Appala Ranganatha Perumal
7 Thirukandiyur Kamalavalli Kamalanatha, Harasabavimochana Perumal
8 Thirukoodalur Padmasani Jagathrakshaga Perumal
9 Thirukavithalam Ramamanivalli Gajendravaradha Perumal
10 Thiruppullamboothangudi Hemabja Thrudathanvee Ramabadhra Perumal
11 Thiruaadhanur Ranganayagi Varshakalathinayaka Perumal
12 Thirukudanthai Komalavalli Aparyapthamrutha Perumal
13 Thiruvinnagar Boodevi Lavanavarjitha Srinivasa Perumal
14 Thirunaraiyur Vanjulavalli Srinivasa Perumal
15 Thirucherai Saranayagi Saranatha Perumal
16 Thirunandhipura Vinnagaram Shenbagavalli Jagannatha Perumal
17 Thiruvelliyangudi Maragadhavalli Srungarasundara Danushbani Ramaya Perumal
18 Thirukannamangai Abishegavalli Bhaktavatsala Perumal
19 Thirukannapuram Kannapura Sowriraja Perumal
20 Thirukannangudi Loganayagi Lokanatha Perumal
21 Thirunagai Soundaryavalli Soundararaja Perumal
22 Thiruthanjai Mamanikoil Rakthapankajavalli Neelamega Perumal
Manikundram Ambujavalli Maniparvatha Perumal
Thanjaiyali Nagar Thanjanayagi Narasimha Perumal
23 Thiruvazhundur Rakthapankajavalli Devadhiraja Perumal
24 Thiruchirupuliyur Dhayanayagi Krupasamudra Perumal
25 Thiruthalaichanga Nanmadiyam Siras sanga Chandrasabahara Perumal
26 Thiruindalur Pundareegavalli Parimalaranganatha Perumal
27 Thirukazhicheerama Vinnagaram Loganayagi Lokanatha Thrivikrama Perumal
28 Thirukkavalambadi Pankajavalli Gopala Krishna Perumal
29 Thiruarimeya Vinnagaram Amrudhagadavalli Gadakeli Narthanaya Perumal
30 Thiruvanpurushothamam Purushothama Purushothama Perumal
31 Thirusemponsaikoil Sweda Pushpavalli Hemaranganatha Perumal
32 Thirumanimadakoil Pundareegavalli Sashvatha Deepaya Narayana Perumal
33 Thiruvaigunda Vinnagaram Vaigundavalli Vaikuntanatha Perumal
34 Thiruthetriambalam Rakthapankajavalli Lakshmiranga Perumal
35 Thirumanikoodam Boonayagi Varadharaja Perumal
36 Thiruparthanpalli Kamala Parthasarathy roopa, Kamalapathaye Perumal
37 Thiruvali & Thirunagari Amrudhagadavalli Kedarapathivaraya Perumal
38 Thiruthevanarthogai Samudradanaya Devanayaka Perumal
39 Thiruvellakulam Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
40 Thiruchitrakoodam Pundareegavalli Govindaraja Perumal
41 Thiruvaheendrapuram Hemabujavalli Devanatha Perumal
42 Thirukkovalur Pushpavalli Thrivikrama Perumal
43 Thirukkachi - Atthigiri Perundevi Devathiraja Perumal
44 Ashtabuyagaram Padmasani Gajendravarada Perumal
45 Thiruthanka Maragadhavalli Deepaprakasa Perumal
46 Thiruvelukkai Amruthavalli Sundharayoghanarasimha Perumal
47 Thiruneeragam Boovalli Jagadeeswara Perumal
48 Thiruppadagam Rukmani Sathyabama Pandavadootha Perumal
49 Thiru Nilathingal Thundam Chandrasoodavalli Chandrasooda Perumal
50 Thiruooragam Amudavalli Thrivikrama Perumal
51 Thiruvehka Komalavalli Yathokthakari Perumal
52 Thirukkaragam Padmamani Karunagara Perumal
53 Thirukkarvaanam Kamalavalli Neelamega Perumal
54 Thirukkalvanur Sundarabimbavalli Choranatha Perumal
55 Thiruppavalavannam Pravalavalli Pravalavarna Perumal
56 Thiruparamechura Vinnagaram Vaigundavalli Vaikundanatha Perumal
57 Thirupputkuzhi Maragadavalli Vijayaraghava Perumal
58 Thirunindravur Sudhavalli Bhaktavatsala Perumal
59 Thiruevvul Kanagavalli Vaidhya Veeraraghava Perumal
60 Thiruvallikeni Rukmani Venkatakrishna Perumal
61 Thiruneermalai Sundaravalli Jalathivarnaya Perumal
62 Thiruidaventhai Komalavalli Lakshmivaraha Perumal
63 Thirukkadalmallai Boosthalamangadevi Sthalasayana Perumal
64 Thirukkadigai Amruthabalavalli Yoganarasimha Perumal
65 Thiruvayothi Seethadevi Ramachandra Perumal
66 Thirunaimisaranyam Sriharilakshmi Devaraja Perumal
67 Thirupruthi Parimalavalli Paramapurushaya Perumal
68 Thirukkandamenum Kadinagar Pundareegavalli Neelamega Perumal
69 Thiruvadariyachramam Aravindavalli Badrinarayana Perumal
70 Thirusalakraamam Sridevi Srimoorthi Perumal
71 Thiruvadamadurai Sathyabama Govardhanagiridhari Perumal
72 Thiruvaipadi Rukmani Sathyabama Navamohanakrishna Perumal
73 Thirudwaragai Lakshmi Rukmanyadhi Ashtamahishi, Dwarakadeesa Perumal
74 Thirusingavelkundram Amruthavalli Senchulakshmi Lakshminarasimha Perumal
75 Thiruvengadam(Mel Thirupathi) Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
76 Thirunavai Padmavathi Narayana Perumal
77 Thiruvithuvakodu Vithuvakoduvalli Sri Abhayapradhaya Perumal
78 Thirukatkarai Vathsalyavalli Katkaraswami Perumal
79 Thirumoozhikkalam Madhuraveni Sookthinatha Perumal
80 Thiruvallavazh Vathsalyavalli Sundaraya Perumal
81 Thirukkadithalam Karpagavalli Amruthanarayana Perumal
82 Thiruchengundrur Rakthapankajavalli Devathideva Perumal
83 Thiruppuliyur Hemalatha Mayashaktiyuthaswamy Perumal
84 Thiruvaranvilai Padmasani Vamana Perumal
85 Thiruvanvandoor Kamalavalli Kamalanatha Perumal
86 Thiruvananthapuram Harilakshmi Ananthapadmanabha Perumal
87 Thiruvattaru Maragadhavalli Adhikesava Perumal
88 Thiruvanparisaram Kamalavalli Vamanaya Perumal
89 Thirukkurungudi vamanashetravalli Vamanakshetrapoornaya Perumal
90 Thirucheeravaramangai Chireevaramangaivalli Thothadhrinatha Perumal
91 Thiruvaigundam (Navathirupathi) Boonayagi, Vaigundavalli Vaikuntanatha Perumal
92 Thiruvaragunamangai (navathirupathi) Varagunavalli Vijayasana Perumal
93 Thiruppuliangudi (Navathirupathi) Boonayagi Boomipalaya Vairinedharchidha Gopaya Perumal
94 Thirutholaivillimangalam(Navathirupathi) Visalakrishnakshidevi Aravindhalochana Perumal
95 Thirukkulandai(Navathirupathi) Baligavalli Padmavathi Srinivasa Perumal
96 Thirukkolur(Navathirupathi) Kolurvalli Nikshepavithaya Perumal
97 Thirupperai (Navathirupathi) Kundalakarnadevi Dheerga Magarakundaladharaya Perumal
98 Thirukkurugur (Navathirupathi) Aadhinathavalli Aadhinatha Perumal
99 Thiruvillipputhur Kodhadevi Vadapathrasayee Perumal
100 Thiruthangal Rakthapankajavalli Narayana Perumal
101 Thirukkoodal Madhuravalli Sangamasundharaya Perumal
102 Thirumaliruncholai Sundaravalli Chorasundara Perumal
103 Thirumogur Mohavalli Kalamega Perumal
104 Thirukkoshtiyur Mahalakshmi Uraga Mrudusayanaya Perumal
105 Thiruppullani Kalyanavalli, Padmasani Kalyana Jagannatha Perumal
106 Thirumeyyam Ujjeevana Sathyagirinatha Perumal
107 Thirupparkadal BooSamudradhanaya Ksheerabdhinatha Perumal
108 Thirupparamapadham Mahalakshmya Paramapadhanathaya Perumal

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Maps[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram – Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  3. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450. 
  4. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–18. 
  5. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. 
  6. ^ Krishna (2009). Book Of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627. 
  7. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  8. ^ B.S. 2011, pp. 47-48
  9. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539. 
  10. ^ Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352–354. ISBN 9788170223757. 
  11. ^ "108 Divya Desams". srivaishnava.org. Retrieved 2007-07-16. 
  12. ^ Govindāchārya 1902, p. 59-69
  13. ^ http://srividesikan.web.officelive.com/Documents/Divya%20Desa%20Divya%20Thambathigal%20Namavali.pdf

References[edit]

External links[edit]