Paper cup

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Plain paper cup
Insulated paper cup for hot drinks, cut away to show air layer

A paper cup is a cup made out of paper and often lined with plastic or wax to prevent liquid from leaking out or soaking through the paper.[1][2][3] It may be made of recycled paper[4] and is widely used around the world.

History[edit]

Paper cups have been documented in imperial China, where paper was invented by 2nd century BC.[5] Paper cups were known as chih pei and were used for the serving of tea.[6] They were constructed in different sizes and colors, and were adorned with decorative designs. Textual evidence of paper cups appears in a description of the possessions of the Yu family, from the city of Hangzhou.[6]

The modern paper cup was developed in the 20th century. In the early 20th century, it was common to have shared glasses or dippers at water sources such as school faucets or water barrels in trains. This shared use caused public health concerns. One notable investigation into their use was the study by Alvin Davison, biology professor at Lafayette College, published with the sensational title "Death in School Drinking Cups" in Technical World Magazine in August 1908, based on research carried out in Easton, Pennsylvania's public schools. The article was reprinted and distributed by the Massachusetts State Board of Health in November 1909.[7]

Based on these concerns, and as paper goods (especially after the 1908 invention of the Dixie Cup) became cheaply and cleanly available, local bans were passed on the shared-use cup. One of the first railway companies to use disposable paper cups was the Lackawanna Railroad, which began using them in 1909. By 1917, the public glass had disappeared from railway carriages, replaced by paper cups even in jurisdictions where public glasses had yet to be banned.[8]

Paper cups are also employed in hospitals for health reasons. In 1942 the Massachusetts State College found in one study that the cost of using washable glasses, re-used after being sanitized, was 1.6 times the cost of using single-service paper cups.[9] These studies, as well as the reduction in the risk of cross-infection, encouraged the use of paper cups in hospitals.

Dixie cups[edit]

Dixie Cup is the brand name for a line of disposable paper cups that were first developed in the United States in 1907 by Lawrence Luellen, a lawyer in Boston, Massachusetts, who was concerned about germs being spread by people sharing glasses or dippers at public supplies of drinking water. Luellen developed an ice-cooled water-vending machine with disposable cups,[7] and with another Bostonian, Hugh Moore, embarked on an advertising campaign to educate the public and to market his machine, principally to railroad companies. Professor Davison's study was instrumental in abolishing the public glass and opening the door for the paper cup. Soon, the devices, which would dispense cool water for a cent, became standard equipment on trains.

The Dixie Cup was first called "Health Kup", but from 1919 it was named after a line of dolls made by Alfred Schindler's Dixie Doll Company in New York. Success led the company, which had existed under a variety of names, to call itself the Dixie Cup Corporation and move to a factory in Wilson, Pennsylvania. Atop the factory was a large water tank in the shape of a cup.[10]

Dixie merged with the American Can Company in 1957. The James River Corporation purchased American Can's paper business in 1982. The assets of James River are now part of Georgia-Pacific, a subsidiary of Koch Industries, the second largest privately owned company in the United States. In 1983, production moved to a modern factory in Forks, Pennsylvania. The original factory in Wilson has sat vacant ever since. The closing of the factory also prompted Conrail to abandon the Easton & Northern railroad branch, of which Dixie Cups was the last major customer.

The Dixie Cup logo was created in 1969 by Saul Bass, a graphic designer known for his motion picture title sequences.

In Canada, "dixie cup" is a common slang term for the red plastic cups used at parties and games such as beer pong.

The coupon collector's problem is sometimes called the Dixie cup problem.

Manufacture[edit]

The world's largest "paper" cup in front of what was once the Lily-Tulip manufacturing company, later Sweetheart Cup Company.[11] Made of poured concrete, the cup stands about 68.1 feet (20.8 m) tall.

The base paper for paper cups are called "cup board" and are made on special multi ply paper machines and have a barrier coating for waterproofing. The paper needs high stiffness and strong wet sizing. The cup board grades have a special design for the cup manufacturing processes. The mouth roll forming process requires good elongation properties of the board and the plastic coating. A well formed mouth roll provides good stiffness and handling properties in the cup. The basis weights of the cup boards are 170–350 g/m2.[12]

To meet hygiene requirements, paper cups are generally manufactured from virgin (non-recycled) materials.[citation needed] The one exception to this rule is when the paper cup features an extra insulating layer for heat retention, which never comes into contact with the beverage, such as a corrugated layer wrapped round a single-wall cup.

Waterproofing[edit]

Originally, paper cups for hot drinks were glued together and made waterproof by dropping a small amount of clay in the bottom of the cup, and then spinning at high speed so that clay would travel up the walls of the cup, making the paper water-resistant. However, this resulted in drinks smelling and tasting of cardboard.

Cups for cold drinks could not be treated in the same way, as condensation forms on the outside, then soaks into the board, making the cup unstable. To remedy this, cup manufacturers developed the technique of spraying both the inside and outside of the cup with wax. Clay-coated cups disappeared with the invention of polyethylene (PE) coated cups; this process covers the surface of the board with a very thin layer of PE, waterproofing the board and welding the seams together.

Printing on paper cups[edit]

Originally paper cups were printed using rubber blocks mounted on cylinders, with a different cylinder for each colour. Registration across different colours was very difficult, but later flexography plates became available and with the use of mounting systems it became easier to register across the colours, allowing for more complex designs. Printing flexographic has become ideal for long runs and manufacturers generally use this method when producing over a million cups. Machines such as Comexi are used for this, which have been adapted to take the extra large reels that are required by paper cup manufacturers. Ink technology has also changed and where solvent-based inks were being used, water-based inks are instead being utilised. One of the side effects of solvent-based inks is that hot drink cups in particular can smell of solvent, whereas water-based inks have eliminated this problem. Other methods of printing have been used for short runs such as offset printing, which can vary from anything from 10,000 to 100,000 cups. Offset printing inks have also been developed and although in the past these were solvent based, the latest soya-based inks have reduced the danger of cups smelling. The latest development is DirectXprinting, which allows printing on very small quantities, typically from 1,000 cups, and is used by companies including The Paper Cup Company offering small quantities in short lead times. Rotogravure can also be used, but this is extremely expensive and is normally only utilised for items requiring extremely high quality printing like ice cream containers.

Environmental impact[edit]

Recycling. Most paper cups are designed for a single use and then disposal. Very little recycled paper is used to make paper cups because of contamination concerns and regulations. Because most paper cups are coated with plastic, both composting and recycling of paper cups is uncommon. However, UK-based business group James Cropper, have developed the world’s first facility for the effective recycling of the estimated 2.5 billion paper coffee cups used and disposed of by British businesses each year, and have become one of 14 international companies to formally join the Paper Recovery and Recycling Group (PCRRG). James Cropper's Reclaimed Fibre Facility was opened by HM The Queen in July 2013, and recovers both the plastic and paper from the cups ensuring nothing is wasted from the recycling process. [13] Although paper cups are made from renewable resources (wood chips 95% by weight), paper products in a landfill may not decompose, or may release methane if decomposed anaerobically. The manufacture of paper usually requires inorganic chemicals and creates water effluents. Paper cups may consume more non-renewable resources than cups made of polystyrene foam (whose only significant effluent is pentane).[14][15]

Paper vs plastic. A life cycle inventory of a comparison of paper vs plastic cups shows environmental effects of both with no clear winner.[16] PE is a petroleum based coating on paper cups that can slow down the process of biodegrading of the paper it coats. PLA is a biodegradable bio-plastic coating used on some paper cups. PLA is a renewable resource and is certified compostable, which means that when it biodegrades it does not leave behind any toxic residues.[17] PLA-lined cups are thus the only paper cups which can be composted fully. All paper cups can only be recycled at a specialised treatment facility regardless of the lining.[18]

A number of cities – including Portland, Oregon – have banned XPS foam cups in take-out and fast food restaurants.[19]

Emissions. A study of one paper coffee cup with sleeve (16 ounce) shows that the CO2 emissions is about .11 kilograms (.25 pounds) per cup with sleeve – including paper from trees, materials, production and shipping.[20]

Habitat loss trees used. The loss of natural habitat potential from the paper coffee cup (16 ounce) with a sleeve is estimated to be .09 square meters (.93 square feet).[21]

Over 6.5 million trees were cut down to make 16 billion paper cups used by US consumers only for coffee in 2006, using 4 billion US gallons (15,000,000 m3) of water and resulting in 253 million pounds of waste. Overall, North Americans use 58% of all paper cups, amounting to a staggering 130 billion cups.[13][22]

Lids[edit]

Paper cups may have various types of lids. The paper cups that are used as containers for yogurt, for example, generally have two types of lids: a press-on, resealable, lid (used for large "family size" containers, 250 ml to 1000 ml, where not all of the yogurt may be consumed at any one time and thus the ability to re-close the container is required) and heat-seal foil lids (used for small "single serving" containers, 150 ml to 200 ml).[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Waxed Paper Food Containers & Lids". Solocup.com. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  2. ^ Kennedy, Garry: Dixie Cup entry, Apollo Glossary, NASA. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
  3. ^ "Paper Products & Dispensers". Toiletpaperworld.com. Retrieved 2007-06-09. 
  4. ^ Raloff, Janet (2006-02-11). "Wind Makes Food Retailers Greener". Science News. 
  5. ^ Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). "Paper and Printing". Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 5 part 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 38. 
  6. ^ a b Joseph Needham (1985). Science and Civilisation in China: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-521-08690-5. At this time tea was served from baskets made of rushes which held... a set of several tens of paper cups (chih pei) in different sizes and colors with delicate designs 
  7. ^ a b "Dixie Cup Company History". Lafayette College Libraries. August 1995. 
  8. ^ White, John H. (1985) [1978]. The American Railroad Passenger Car 2. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 432. ISBN 0801827477. OCLC 11469984. 
  9. ^ Beulah France (February 1942). "Uses for Paper Cups and Containers". The American Journal of Nursing 42 (2): 154–156. doi:10.2307/3416163. JSTOR 3416163. 
  10. ^ Former Dixie Cup Factory, Wilson, Pa (photograph)
  11. ^ Lily-Tulip Cup Corporation, Springfield-Greene County Library, Springfield, Missouri
  12. ^ Savolainen, Antti (1998). "6". Paper and Paperboard Converting. Papermaking Science and Technology 12. Finland: Fapet OY. pp. 170–172. ISBN 952-5216-12-8. 
  13. ^ a b "Paper Cups = Unsustainable Consumption". aboutmyplanet.com. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
  14. ^ Don R. Hansen and Maryanne M. Mowen (2005). Management Accounting: The Cornerstone of Business Decisions. Thomson South-Western. p. 503. ISBN 0-324-23484-8. 
  15. ^ Chris T. Hendrickson, Lester B. Lave, and H. Scott Matthews (2006). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-output Approach. Resources for the Future. p. 5. ISBN 1-933115-23-8. 
  16. ^ Hocking, M. B. (1 February 1991). "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice". Science 251 (4993): 504–5. doi:10.1126/science.251.4993.504. PMID 17840849. 
  17. ^ "Composting". Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  18. ^ "Paper Cup Recycling". Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  19. ^ M. William Helfrich & Justin Wescoat Sanders (2003-08-13). "The Coming Cup-tastrophe". The Portland Mercury. 
  20. ^ "Report of the Alliance for Environmental Innovation". edf.com. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
  21. ^ "ecological effects of a paper cup". ecofx.org. Retrieved Feb 6, 2008. 
  22. ^ Spitzer, Nina. "The impact of disposable coffee cups on the environment". Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  23. ^ Adman Y. Tamime and Richard K. Robinson (1999). Yoghurt: science and technology. Woodhead Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 1-85573-399-4. 

Bibliography[edit]