Django (web framework)

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Django
Django logo.svg
Original author(s) Lawrence Journal-World
Developer(s) Django Software Foundation
Initial release 21 July 2005; 9 years ago (2005-07-21)[1]
Stable release 1.7.3[2] (January 13, 2015; 12 days ago (2015-01-13)) [±]
Preview release 1.8 alpha 1[3] (January 16, 2015; 9 days ago (2015-01-16)) [±]
Development status Active
Written in Python
Size 7.6 MB
Type Web application framework
License 3-clause BSD
Website djangoproject.com

Django (/ˈæŋɡ/ JANG-goh)[4] is a free and open source web application framework, written in Python, which follows the model–view–controller architectural pattern.[5][6] It is maintained by the Django Software Foundation (DSF), an independent organization established as a 501(c)(3) non-profit.

Django's primary goal is to ease the creation of complex, database-driven websites. Django emphasizes reusability and "pluggability" of components, rapid development, and the principle of don't repeat yourself. Python is used throughout, even for settings, files, and data models. Django also provides an optional administrative create, read, update and delete interface that is generated dynamically through introspection and configured via admin models.

Some well-known sites that use Django include Pinterest,[7] Instagram,[8] Mozilla,[9] The Washington Times,[10] Disqus,[11] and the Public Broadcasting Service.[12]

History[edit]

Django was born in the fall of 2003, when the web programmers at the Lawrence Journal-World newspaper, Adrian Holovaty and Simon Willison, began using Python to build applications.[13] It was released publicly under a BSD license in July 2005. The framework was named after guitarist Django Reinhardt.[13]

In June 2008, it was announced that a newly formed Django Software Foundation (DSF) would maintain Django in the future.[14]

Features[edit]

Components[edit]

Screenshot of the Django admin interface for modifying a user.

Despite having its own nomenclature, such as naming the callable objects generating the response "views",[5] the core Django framework can be seen as MVC.[6] It consists of an object-relational mapper which mediates between data models (defined as Python classes) and a relational database ("Model"); a system for processing requests with a web templating system ("View") and a regular-expression-based URL dispatcher ("Controller").

Also included in the core framework are:

  • A lightweight and standalone web server for development and testing.
  • A form serialization and validation system which can translate between HTML forms and values suitable for storage in the database.
  • A template system that utilizes the concept of inheritance borrowed from object-oriented programming.
  • A caching framework which can use any of several cache methods.
  • Support for middleware classes which can intervene at various stages of request processing and carry out custom functions.
  • An internal dispatcher system which allows components of an application to communicate events to each other via pre-defined signals.
  • An internationalization system, including translations of Django's own components into a variety of languages.
  • A serialization system which can produce and read XML and/or JSON representations of Django model instances.
  • A system for extending the capabilities of the template engine.
  • An interface to Python's built in unit test framework.

Bundled applications[edit]

The main Django distribution also bundles a number of applications in its "contrib" package, including:

Extensibility[edit]

Django's configuration system allows third party code to be plugged in a regular project, provided they follow the reusable app[17] conventions. More than 2500 packages[18] are available to extend the framework original behavior, providing solutions to issues the original tool didn't: registration, search, API provision and consumption, CMS, etc.

This extensibility is, however, mitigated by internal components dependencies on each others. While Django philosophy implies loose coupling,[19] the template filters and tags assume one engine implementation, and both the auth and admin bundled applications require the use of the internal ORM. None of them are mandatory to run a Django project, but reusable apps tends to depend on them, encouraging the developers to keep using the official stack in order to benefit fully from the apps ecosystem.

Server arrangements[edit]

Django can be run in conjunction with Apache, NGINX using WSGI, Gunicorn, or Cherokee using flup (a Python module).[20][21] Django also includes the ability to launch a FastCGI server, enabling use behind any web server which supports FastCGI, such as Lighttpd or Hiawatha. It is also possible to use other WSGI-compliant web servers.[22] Django officially supports four database backends: PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle. Microsoft SQL Server can be used with django-mssql but only in Microsoft operating systems, while similarly external backends exist for IBM DB2, SQL Anywhere and Firebird. There is a fork named django-nonrel which supports NoSQL databases, such as MongoDB and Google App Engine's Datastore.

Django may also be run in conjunction with Jython on any Java EE application server such as GlassFish or JBoss. In this case django-jython must be installed in order to provide JDBC drivers for database connectivity, which also provides functionality to compile Django in to a .war suitable for deployment.

Google App Engine includes support for Django version 1.x.x[23] as one of the bundled frameworks.

Using Django[edit]

Online resources[edit]

Books[edit]

Integrated development environments for Python[edit]

While a number of Django developers use text editors such as Vim, Emacs, TextMate or Sublime with Django Bundle for their projects, others prefer python-specific tools providing debugging, refactoring, unit testing, etc.[24]

Versions[edit]

Meaning
Red Not supported
Yellow Still supported
Green Current version
Version history
Version Date Notes
0.90[26] 16 Nov 2005
0.91[27] 11 Jan 2006 "new-admin"
0.95[28] 29 Jul 2006 "magic removal"
0.96[29] 23 Mar 2007 "newforms", testing tools
1.0[30] 3 Sep 2008 API stability, decoupled admin, unicode
1.1[31] 29 Jul 2009 Aggregates, transaction based tests
1.2[32] 17 May 2010 Multiple db connections, CSRF, model validation
1.3[33] 23 Mar 2011 Class based views, staticfiles
1.4[34] 23 Mar 2012 Timezones, in browser testing, app templates. Long-term support release, supported until at least March 2015
1.5[35] 26 Feb 2013 Python 3 Support, configurable user model
1.6[36] 6 Nov 2013 Dedicated to Malcolm Tredinnick, db transaction management, connection pooling
1.7[37] 2 Sep 2014 Migrations, application loading and configuration

Community[edit]

DjangoCon[edit]

There is a semiannual conference for Django developers and users, named "DjangoCon", that has been held since September 2008. DjangoCon is held annually in Europe, in May or June;[38] while another is held in the United States in September, usually in Portland, Oregon.[39] The 2012 DjangoCon took place in Washington D.C from 3 to 8 September. 2013 DjangoCon was held in Chicago at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and the post-conference Sprints were hosted at Digital Bootcamp, computer training center.[40]

Django mini-conferences were held in Hobart, Australia in July 2013 and Brisbane, Australia in August 2014.[41]

Other languages[edit]

Django's template design has been ported to other languages besides Python, providing decent cross-platform support. Some of these options are more direct ports, while others are inspired by Django, retaining its concepts but taking greater liberties to deviate from Django's design.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Django FAQ". Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  2. ^ Graham, Tim (13 January 2015). "Security releases issued". Django Weblog. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Graham, Tim (16 January 2015). "Django 1.8 alpha 1 released". Django Weblog. Retrieved 17 January 2015. 
  4. ^ What does "Django" mean, and how do you pronounce it?
  5. ^ a b Django FAQ about MVC in Django
  6. ^ a b Adrian Holovaty, Jacob Kaplan-Moss, et al. The Django Book. Django follows this MVC pattern closely enough that it can be called an MVC framework 
  7. ^ Pinterest: What technologies were used to make Pinterest? - Quora
  8. ^ "What Powers Instagram: Hundreds of Instances, Dozens of Technologies". 
  9. ^ Python | MDN
  10. ^ Opensource.washingtontimes.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-30.
  11. ^ "Scaling Django to 8 Billion Page Views". 
  12. ^ "20 Creative Websites Running Django". 
  13. ^ a b "Django's History". The Django Book. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  14. ^ Announcing the Django Software Foundation
  15. ^ "Security in Django". Django Project. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  16. ^ Socol, James (2012). "Best Basic Security Practices (Especially with Django)". Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  17. ^ What is a reusable app?
  18. ^ djangopackages.com, an open source package repository for the Django framework
  19. ^ Django design philosophies
  20. ^ Django documentation of deployment
  21. ^ Cookbook: Setting up Django
  22. ^ How to use Django with Apache and mod_wsgi. Official Django documentation.
  23. ^ Running Pure Django Projects on Google App Engine. Code.google.com (2010-11-01). Retrieved on 5 December 2011.
  24. ^ Django development IDEs discussion at Stackoverflow
  25. ^ NetBeans Django Plugin
  26. ^ "Introducing Django 0.90". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  27. ^ "Django 0.91 released". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  28. ^ "Introducing Django 0.95". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  29. ^ "Announcing Django 0.96!". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  30. ^ "Django 1.0 released!". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  31. ^ "Django 1.1 released". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  32. ^ "Django 1.2 released". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  33. ^ "Django 1.3 released". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  34. ^ "Django 1.4 released". Django weblog. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  35. ^ "Django 1.5 released" Django weblog. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  36. ^ "Django 1.6 released" Django weblog. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  37. ^ "Django 1.7 released" Django weblog. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  38. ^ DjangoCon EU series, Lanyrd.com
  39. ^ DjangoCon US series, Lanyrd.com
  40. ^ "DjangoCon". DjangoCon. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  41. ^ DjangoCon AU 2013. Djangocon.com.au. Retrieved on 2014-05-30.