Djursland

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Penisula in Denmark, Djursland
Ebeltoft gl. bydel grøn.JPG
Djursland: Historical city centre of Ebeltoft
Map showing the location of Penisula in Denmark, Djursland
Map showing the location of Penisula in Denmark, Djursland
Denmark in Northern Europe with red spot on Djursland
Coordinates 56°21′26.88″N 10°37′45.15″E / 56.3574667°N 10.6292083°E / 56.3574667; 10.6292083Coordinates: 56°21′26.88″N 10°37′45.15″E / 56.3574667°N 10.6292083°E / 56.3574667; 10.6292083
Area 1,417 km2 (547 sq mi)

Djursland is a 44 km x 33 km hilly lowland peninsula in Denmark at the entrance to the Baltic Sea between Denmark and Sweden in Northern Europe. Djursland protrudes into the sea, Kattegat, as part of another, larger, peninsula, Jutland - up from Central Europe, Germany. Djursland incorporates two municipalities, Norddjurs and Syddjurs.

Climate[edit]

The climate is mild temperate, coastal, influenced by the Gulf Stream. Westerly and south-westerly winds are the most common. The yearly precipitation is 700 mm,[1] making Djursland, as well as the rest of Denmark, well suited for agriculture. The average summer temperature is 16 degrees Celsius.[2] The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0.5 degrees.[3] Predominant crops are barley, wheat, canola, and in recent years corn, growing at its northern range, even though the average temperature has fallen 0,2 degrees over the last 60 years in Denmark.[4] A little over 10 pct of Djursland is covered with forest (plantations) and the most common trees are Norway spruce, Scots pine and beech.

Population[edit]

The population density of Djursland is 42 inhabitants per km2, with 126 for Denmark as a whole.[5] Neighboring Germany to the south, has 230 inhabitants per km2, England to the west 407, and Sweden to the east of Denmark 21 inhabitants per km2.[6] Denmark has 5.6 million inhabitants,[7] with 80.000 living n Djursland.

Landscape[edit]

Djursland's 50 km eastern coastline is stony, open and walkable
Grenå Beach

On hilly Djursland only few of the hills exceed 70 meters above sea level, non higher than 140 meters. As in the rest of Denmark, there is no surface bedrock (apart from the easternmost island in Denmark, Bornholm) Djurslands landscapes are formed by complex and non uniform ice sheet movements with related water flows, over the last 3 ice ages.

Coastlines: Djursland is surrounded by sea to 3 sides, and has 3 corresponding distinct types of coastline. Variation is a common denominator for Djurslands coastal geography, as well as the inland geography.

  • North Coast - The 35 km northern coastline of Djursland is a shallow all-sand coast, starting to the west as a shallow delta like marshy coast at the outlet of Denmarks largest river, Gudenaa, entering Randers Fjord, and the sea. The north coast is child friendly for bathing and paddling. An adult has to wade in the order of a hundred meters to reach swimming depth. The water heats up quickly in summer. Fishing for flatfish is good, but one needs a boat to reach sufficient fishing depth.
  • East Coast - The 50 km coastline facing Sweden, approx. 100 km to the east across the sea, Kattegat, is stony. The east coast has sufficient swimming depth close to the shore within 5 – 20 meters from land. The east coast is known among anglers and scuba divers. There are 2 major exceptions to the stony coastline. One is at the Cliffs of Sangstrup and Karlby where a 5 km stretch of coast consists of up to 12 meter high lime cliffs, similar to The Cliffs of Dover but on a smaller scale. The second exception is, Grenaa Beach, a sandy 5 km long beach with dunes. The beach lies by the coastal town, Grenaa, and is a popular bathing beech. Here and there on Djurslands eastern coast, there are steep inclines caused by active coastal erosion, such as at Gjerrild and Rugaard.
  • South Coast - The southern coastline of Djursland is dominated by bights and inlets, with varied stony and sandy stretches and mixed depth gradients. It is always possible to find bights and coves in shelter for any wind direction within a short driving distance. There are a number of sandy bathing beaches here.

The tide is moderate around Djursland, with a difference between ebb and flow usually below 30 cm.

Central Djursland[edit]

Border hills, Sound of Kolind

The Sound of Kolind - Kolindsund - is a dried out lake, that stretches 30 km into central Djursland, oriented east-west. The area was a lake until 1870,[8] and a saltwater sound until the Middle Ages,[9] making it possible to sail into central Djursland. Sand drift closed the estuary to the sea, Kattegat.[10]

The lakebed is fertile farmland with constant high yields of wheat and grass seed. The northern side of the sound is flanked by 25 km of border hills down to the lakebed contributing to the characteristics of the landscape.

The sound is drenched by 2 pumping stations lifting the water up into a Northern Canal, that becomes a river, which runs through the center of the town, Grenaa, before entering the sea, between Grenaa’s marina and seaport. The Sound of Kolind lies down to 2 meters below sea level.[11] The pumping elevation at the pumping stations is 5 meters.[12] The sound is flanked by canals that are popular among anglers. Especially sea trout, but also pike, perch and bream are common catches.

Southern Djursland[edit]

View, Ellemandsbjerg, southern Djursland

South of the Sound of Kolind lies a sandy ice age floodplain holding Djurslands airport, Aarhus Airport used by Denmarks second largest city, Aarhus (pop. 319.094] 41 km south-west of the airport.

Mols: Going further south one enters an area with the most abrupt hills on Djursland, Mols Hills, Mols Bjerge, ending at the bights and inlets of southern Djursland.

Mols contains, National Park Mols Bjerge, that includes coastlines, parts of seabeed, the town, Ebeltoft, and a hilly non-farmed landscape with views over the bights and inlets of Southern Djursland. The non-farming part of the park is maintained as an open, after ice-age landscape. This is done by grazing and cutting down excessive tree growth that would otherwise cause natural, and dense, forestation, obstructing views and accessibility. The Park was established in 2009, mostly on privately owned land. Establishing the park did not involve buying or expropriating land, but an intention to strengthen information about nature-related issues in the area, and to widen use and access to the park.

The main bights and sub-bights on southern Djursland are: Bight of Ebeltoft, Bight of Begtrup, Bight of Aarhus, Bight of Knebel and Bight of Egens.

Northern Djursland[edit]

Randers Fjord, river outlet, reed delta

The area north of The sound of Kolind, Kolindsund 15 km north up to the coast, consists mainly of low hills with predominantly sandy soil that is quite good farmland. Northeren Djursland is the most forested, and least inhabited part of Djursland.

Randers Fjord: At the north eastern corner on Northeren Djursland is bordered by Randers Fjord, a long and narrow outlet to the sea from Denmarks largest river Gudenå entering the sea, Kattegat via the fjord. The land bordering Randers Fjord is in some places marsh planes with reed, that to some extent is cut and used for traditional thatching of house roofs.

Two small car ferries cross Randers Fjord at Udbyhøj and Voer. The smallest one, at Voer, is a cable ferry that caries under 10 cars at a time on the open deck. The crossings over the fjord are under half a kilometre long.

Forests[edit]

Eye Lake in Skramsø Forest

Djursland has three main wooded areas:

These 3 woods are approximately 50 km2 in seize each. Wildlife on Djursland includes 4 species of deer, with row deer the smallest and most common, and red deer the largest. The 2 others are, fallow deer, and sika deer. Hares, foxes, badgers and pheasants are common.

In recent years ravens have become more widespread, just as some species of large birds of prey not breeding here for many decades, such as kites, have reinhabited Djursland. There are no large predators such as wolves or bears on Djursland or in Denmark as a whole.

Towns[edit]

Waterland, Grenaa Marina

Grenaa- a seaport on the central eastern coast - is the largest town on Djursland with a population of 14.454.[13] Grenaa has ferry connections to Varberg in Sweden and the island, Anholt. There is an, in recent years expanded, commercial seaport. The 5 km sandy Grenaa beach is important for the areas tourism, with a hinterland of summer cottages with many rentals. Grenaa has a lingering production industry just as the rest of the western world. Development of tourism and educational institutions is sought to play a larger role for the economy in the future. Grenaa is a regional shopping centre for central-eastern Djursland.

Ebeltoft, at the Bight of Ebeloft, to the south-east on Djursland, is the second largest town, with 7528 inhabitants.[14] Tourism is the single most important source of income. There are over 8000 summer cottages in the Ebeltoft-area[15] with many rentals. Tourism in the Ebeltoft-area is in part based on a pittoresque historical and rural town centre, and the hilly coastal landscapes of Mols with accessible coastline and beaches with many bights and inlets. Ebeltoft is connected by ferry to Zealand - the eastern main island of Denmark, holding the capital, Copenhagen (pop. 1.237.280)[16]

Smaller towns on Djursland with shopping centres include Rønde, Hornslet, Auning, Mørke, Ryomgård, Kolind, Allingåbro, Fjellerup Strand, Pindstrup and Glesborg.

Tourism[edit]

There is public access to all coastlines in Denmark by law, here at The Bight of Begtrup, southern Djursland

Accessibility Denmarks and Djurslands coastlines are accessible to everybody - by law. Good accessibility, which is also due to a mild topography without steep cliffs and other types og obstacles, such as a tradition for fencing in, is probably the single most important factor favoring tourism in the area.

Djursland has 22 sandy beaches,[17] each one with adjacent areas of summer rentals and cottages. The beaches are protected from the tides, strong currents, and large waves of Atlantic shores. The water quality is controlled and good due to national waste water treatment standards, and a low population density. The low population density of 51 inhabitants per km2, as compared to Germanys 230 and Englands 410, is a contributing factor in making Djursland attractive for visitors. Another factor is climate. Less rainy than England, and rarely with the sweltering summer heat that can be a challenge in Mediterranean coastal regions. Foreign tourists primarily are from Germany, Norway, Sweden and Holland. Ebeltoft also gets many Danish tourists. Germans are known for visiting outside the high season, and for seeking landscape and nature oriented attractions of coast and countryside. There is a distribution of marinas along the coasts of Djursland and surrounding coasts, contributing to yachting-tourism. Angling such as for sea trout and plaice is common as well as diving and scuba diving. Not least from the east coast, where it gets deep fast.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  2. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  3. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  4. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  5. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  6. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  7. ^ Den Store Danske Encyclopædi
  8. ^ Kolindsund, Finn Hansen
  9. ^ Kolindsund, Finn Hansen
  10. ^ Kolindsund, Finn Hansen
  11. ^ Kolindsund, Finn Hansen
  12. ^ Kolindsund, Finn Hansen
  13. ^ Danmarks Statistik
  14. ^ Danmarks Statistik
  15. ^ Homepage Ebeltoft Municpality
  16. ^ Danmarks Statistik
  17. ^ Kystkort Djursland