Dnieper River

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For other uses, see Dnieper (disambiguation) .
Coordinates: 46°30′00″N 32°20′00″E / 46.50000°N 32.33333°E / 46.50000; 32.33333
Dnieper
Belarusian: Дняпро (Dniapro)
Russian: Днепр (Dnepr)
Ukrainian: Дніпро (Dnipro)
River
Countries Russia, Belarus, Ukraine
Tributaries
 - left Sozh, Desna, Trubizh, Supiy, Sula, Psel, Vorskla, Samara, Konka, Bilozerka
 - right Drut, Berezina, Prypiat, Teteriv, Irpin, Stuhna, Ros, Tiasmyn, Bazavluk, Inhulets
Cities Dorogobuzh, Smolensk, Mahilyow, Kiev, Cherkasy, Dnipropetrovsk
Source
 - location Valdai Hills, Russia
 - elevation 220 m (722 ft)
 - coordinates 55°52′00″N 33°41′00″E / 55.86667°N 33.68333°E / 55.86667; 33.68333
Mouth Dnieper Delta
 - coordinates 46°30′00″N 32°20′00″E / 46.50000°N 32.33333°E / 46.50000; 32.33333
Length 2,145 km (1,333 mi)
Basin 504,000 km2 (194,595 sq mi)
Discharge for Kherson
 - average 1,670 m3/s (58,975 cu ft/s)
Dnieper River drainage basin

The Dnieper River /ˈnpər/ is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length), rising near Smolensk and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and Belarus. The total length ranges between 2,145 km (1,333 mi)[1] and 2,201 km (1,368 mi)[2][3][4][5] with a drainage basin of 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi). The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations. The Dnieper is an important navigable waterway for the economy of Ukraine and is connected via the Dnieper–Bug Canal to other waterways in Europe.

In antiquity, the river was known to the Greeks as the Borysthenes and was part of the Amber Road. Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.

Etymology[edit]

Human representation of the Dnepr river (known as Borysthenes) on an Ancient Greek coin of Pontic Olbia, 4th–3rd century BC.

The name Dnieper is derived from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side".[6] (By contrast, the Dniester derives from "the close river".) According to V. Abaev (foremost Soviet expert on Scytho-Sarmatian languages) the name Dnieper derives from Scythian Dānu apr (Dānapr) "deep river", while the name Dniester is combination of Scythian Dānu (river) and Thracian Ister, the old name of Dniester.[7]

In the three countries through which it flows it has essentially the same name, albeit pronounced differently:

The Dnieper River in Kherson, Ukraine.
The Dnieper River in Kremenchuk, Ukraine.
The Dnieper River in Dorogobuzh, Russia, before 1917.

The river is mentioned by the Ancient Greek historian Herodotus in the 5th century BC as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης), as well as by Strabo; this name is Scythian (cf. Iranian *varu-stāna) and translates as "wide land", referring most likely to the Ukrainian steppe.[citation needed] The late Greek and Roman authors called it Δάναπρις - Danapris and Danaper respectively - (dana in Old Persian meant "river"); this form is derived from Sarmatian Dānu apara "the river on the far side".[6][citation needed] Its Old East Slavic name used at the time of Kievan Rus' was Slavuta or Slavutych, the Huns called it Var,[8] and Bulgars - Buri-Chai.[citation needed] The name in Crimean Tatar: Özü.[9]

Geography[edit]

The total length of the river is 2,145 kilometres (1,333 mi),[1] of which 485 km (301 mi) are within Russia, 700 km (430 mi) are within Belarus,[1] and 1,095 km (680 mi) are within Ukraine. Its basin covers 504,000 square kilometres (195,000 sq mi), of which 289,000 km2 (112,000 sq mi) are within Ukraine,[10] 306,600 km2 (118,400 sq mi) are within Belarus.[1]

The source of the Dnieper is the turf swamps of the Valdai Hills in central Russia, at an elevation of 220 m (720 ft).[10] For 115 km (71 mi) of its length, it serves as the border between Belarus and Ukraine. It is connected with the Bug River by the Dnieper–Bug Canal. Its estuary, or liman, used to be defended by the strong fortress of Ochakiv.[citation needed]

On the Dnepr River to the South of Komarin urban-type settlement, Braghin District, Gomel Region the southern extreme point of Belarus is situated.[11]

Tributaries of the Dnieper[edit]

The Dnieper has many tributaries. The main ones, in orographic sequence, are:

Dnieper basin showing peoples in the ninth century

Many small direct tributaries also exist, such as, in the Kiev area, the Syrets (right bank) in the north of the city, the historically significant Lybid (right bank) passing west of the centre, and the Borshahivka (right bank) to the south.

Fauna[edit]

The river is part of the Quagga mussel's native range.[12] The mussel has been accidentally introduced around the world where it has become an invasive species.[13]

Reservoirs and hydroelectric power[edit]

The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations.

The most noted was the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station or (DniproHES) near Zaporizhia, built in 1927–1932 with an output of 558 MW.[citation needed] It was destroyed during the Second World War, and rebuilt in 1948 with an output of 750 MW.[citation needed]

The others are: Kremenchuk (1954–60), Kiev (1960–64), Dniprodzerzhynsk (1956–64), Kaniv (1963–75).[citation needed]

Those dams that used to generate hydroelectric power of ten percent of Ukraine's total electricity, form water reservoirs.

The reservoirs are Kiev (922 km2 or 356 sq mi), Kaniv (675 km2 or 261 sq mi), Kremenchuk (2,250 km2 or 870 sq mi), Dniprodzerzhynsk (567 km2 or 219 sq mi), Dnipro (420 km2 or 160 sq mi), and Kakhovka (2,155 km2 or 832 sq mi).[citation needed]

Cities and towns on the Dnieper[edit]

Satellite image of the Dnieper and its tributaries.

Major cities, over 100,000 in population, are in bold script. Cities and towns located on the Dnieper are listed in order from the river's source (in Russia) to its mouth (in Ukraine):

Arheimar, a capital of the Goths, was located on the Dnieper, according to the Hervarar saga.[14]

Navigation[edit]

The Dnieper is important for the transport and economy of Ukraine[citation needed]: its reservoirs have large ship locks, allowing vessels of up to 270 by 18 metres (886 ft × 59 ft) to access as far as the port of Kiev and thus create an important transport corridor.[citation needed] The river is used by passenger vessels as well. Inland cruises on the rivers Danube and Dnieper have been a growing market in recent decades.

Upstream from Kiev, the Dnieper receives the water of the Pripyat River. This navigable river connects to the Dnieper-Bug canal, the link with the Bug River. Historically, a connection with the Western European waterways was possible, but a weir without a ship lock near the town of Brest has interrupted this international waterway. Poor political relations between Western Europe and Belarus mean there is little likelihood of re-opening this waterway in the near future.[15]

Navigation is interrupted each year by freezing in winter, and severe winter storms.

Popular culture[edit]

Ecology[edit]

The Dnieper River is close to the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant radioactive dumps, and susceptible to leakages of radioactive waste.

See also[edit]

References and footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Main characteristics of the largest rivers of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. Data of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  2. ^ Zastavnyi, F.D. Physical Geography of Ukraine. Rivers of Ukraine. Dnieper. Kiev: "Forum", 2000
  3. ^ Masliak, P., Shyshchenko, P. Geography of Ukraine. Kiev: "Zodiak-eko", 1998
  4. ^ Website about Dnieper
  5. ^ Mishyna, Liliana. Hydrographic research of Dnieper river. Derzhhidrohrafiya.
  6. ^ a b Mallory, J.P. and Victor H. Mair. The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West. London: Thames and Hudson, 2000. p. 106
  7. ^ Абаев В. И. Осетинский язык и фольклор (Ossetian language and folklore). Moscow: Publishing house of Soviet Academy of Sciences, 1949. P. 236
  8. ^ Jordanes, Getica 269.
  9. ^ crh:Özü özeni
  10. ^ a b Kubiyovych, Volodymyr; Ivan Teslia. "Dnieper River". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. Retrieved January 19, 2007. 
  11. ^ "Main Geographic Characteristics of the Republic of Belarus. Coordinates of the extreme points of the state frontier". Land of Ancestors. The Scientific and Production State Republican Unitary Enterprise “National Cadastre Agency” of the State Property Committee of the Republic of Belarus. 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Benson, AJ. "Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897". Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  13. ^ Benson, AJ. "Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897". Nonindigenous Aquatic Species. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  14. ^ An English translation of Hervar saga by Kershaw at the Wayback Machine (archived March 28, 2006)[dead link]
  15. ^ NoorderSoft Waterways Database[dead link]
  16. ^ Work on the subject Ukrainian national symbols. Library of Ukrainian literature.
  17. ^ "...the Zaporohjans whose name meant 'those who live beyond the cataracts'...", Henryk Sienkiewicz, With Fire and Sword, chap. 7.
  18. ^ Releases | Turisas: The Official Battleground
  19. ^ Hey, Dnipro, Dnipro on YouTube

External links[edit]

  • “Комсомольская правда” об угрозах плотины Киевской ГЭС и водохранилища[1]
  • “Аргументы и факты” о реальных угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС[2]
  • “Известия” о проблематике плотины Киевского водохранилища и ГЭС [3]
  • Эксперт УНИАН об угрозах дамбы Киевского водохранилища[4]