Do the Right Thing
|Do the Right Thing|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Spike Lee|
|Produced by||Spike Lee|
|Written by||Spike Lee|
|Music by||Bill Lee|
|Edited by||Barry Alexander Brown|
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
|Running time||120 minutes|
|Box office||$37.3 million|
Do the Right Thing is a 1989 American comedy-drama film produced, written, and directed by Spike Lee, who also played the part of Mookie in the film. Other members of the cast include Danny Aiello, Ossie Davis, Ruby Dee, Richard Edson, Giancarlo Esposito, Bill Nunn, John Turturro, and Samuel L. Jackson. It is also notably the feature film debut of both Martin Lawrence and Rosie Perez. The movie tells the story of a neighborhood's simmering racial tension, which comes to a head and culminates in tragedy on the hottest day of summer.
The film was a commercial success and received numerous accolades and awards, including an Academy Award nomination for Lee for Best Original Screenplay and one for Best Supporting Actor for Aiello's portrayal of Sal the pizzeria owner. It is often listed among the greatest films of all time. In 1999, it was deemed to be "culturally significant" by the U.S. Library of Congress, and was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry, one of just six films to have this honor in their first year of eligibility.
||This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. (April 2014)|
Mookie (Spike Lee) is a young black man living in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn with his sister, Jade (Joie Lee). He and his girlfriend, Tina (Rosie Perez), have a son. He's a pizza delivery man at the local pizzeria, but lacks ambition.
Sal (Danny Aiello), the pizzeria's Italian-American owner, has been in the neighborhood for twenty-five years. His older son, Pino, intensely dislikes blacks. He and Mookie do not get along. Pino (John Turturro) is at odds with his younger brother, Vito (Richard Edson), who is friendly with Mookie.
The neighborhood is full of distinct personalities. A drunk called Da Mayor (Ossie Davis) tries to win the affections of Mother Sister (Ruby Dee), who watches the neighborhood from her brownstone. Radio Raheem (Bill Nunn) blasts his boombox wherever he goes. Smiley (Roger Guenveur Smith), a mentally disabled man, meanders around the neighborhood holding up hand-colored pictures of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. Three men known as "the Corner Men" (Robin Harris, Frankie Faison, Paul Benjamin) act as a sort of Greek chorus, commenting on the day's events. Four teenagers—Cee (Martin Lawrence), Punchy (Leonard L. Thomas), Ahmad (Steve White) and Ella (Christa Rivers)--deal with the heat as well.
While at Sal's, Buggin' Out (Giancarlo Esposito) questions Sal about the "Wall of Fame", a wall decorated with photos of famous Italian-Americans. Buggin' Out demands that Sal put up pictures of black celebrities since Sal's pizzeria is in a black neighborhood. Sal replies that he doesn't need to feature anyone but Italians as it is his restaurant. The two argue. Buggin' Out attempts to start a protest over the "Wall of Fame". Only Radio Raheem and Smiley support him.
During the day tensions rise. Teenagers open a fire hydrant and police officers intervene. Radio Raheem "argues" with some Puerto Rican men simply by blaring their radios at each other. Buggin' Out instigates an argument with Clifton (John Savage), a white man who accidentally steps on his Air Jordan shoes, and Da Mayor saves a boy from being run over by a car. Sal argues with Radio Raheem. Mookie and Pino begin arguing over race, which leads to a series of scenes in which the characters spew racial insults into the camera.
Pino and Sal talk about the neighborhood with Pino expressing his hatred and Sal insisting that he is not leaving. Then Sal watches as Pino yells at Smiley outside. Sal almost fires Mookie, but Jade intervenes. Outside, Mookie confronts her for being too close to Sal. As they are closing the restaurant, Mookie demands his pay from Sal.
Radio Raheem, Smiley, and Buggin' Out march into Sal's and demand that Sal change the Wall of Fame. Raheem's boombox is blaring and Sal demands that they turn the radio down, but the men refuse. Sal, in a fit of frustration, calls Raheem a "nigger," then destroys Raheem's boombox. Raheem attacks Sal. Pino and Vito as well as several customers get involved. The fight spills out onto the street, attracting a crowd. Da Mayor yells at them to stop.
The police arrive, break up the fight, and apprehend Radio Raheem and Buggin' Out. One officer places Raheem in a chokehold, killing him. The officers kick an already-dead Raheem, thinking he's faking. Realizing they have killed Raheem in front of onlookers, the officers take Raheem's body back to the squad car, while another police officer beats Buggin' Out. The crowd chases the police, who leave the scene. Sal, Vito, and Pino are left unprotected.
The onlookers, enraged about Radio Raheem's death, blame Sal and his sons. When Da Mayor intervenes and tells the crowd to disperse, the crowd threatens him. Mookie grabs a trashcan and throws it through the window of Sal's restaurant. A race riot ensues and Da Mayor pulls Sal, Pino and Vito out of the mob's way.
The crowd rushes into the restaurant and destroys it. Then Smiley sets the restaurant on fire. The mob then heads for the Korean market. Sonny (Steve Park), the owner, tries to fight them off, stating that he is not white. The rioters decide to spare his store. Firefighters arrive as riot patrol holds the crowd back. After several warnings, the firefighters turn their hoses on the rioters, further enraging them.
Police officers fight with and arrest many rioters. The mob attacks some of the firemen. Da Mayor gets in the middle of the ensuing chaos and pulls a screaming Mother Sister out of harm's way as Mookie and Jade watch in horror. Meanwhile, Smiley wanders back into the smoldering restaurant and hangs a picture of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. on what is left of Sal's "Wall of Fame."
The next day, Mister Señor Love Daddy (Samuel L. Jackson), a local DJ, discusses what transpired. After having an argument with Tina, Mookie returns to Sal, who feels that Mookie betrayed him. They get into an argument, then cautiously reconcile. Mookie demands his weekly pay and gets it. Love Daddy dedicates a song to Raheem.
The film ends with two quotes about violence from Martin Luther King and Malcolm X before fading to a photograph of them shaking hands.
- Spike Lee as Mookie
- Danny Aiello as Sal
- Ossie Davis as Da Mayor
- Ruby Dee as Mother Sister
- Steve Park as Sonny
- Bill Nunn as Radio Raheem
- Richard Edson as Vito
- Giancarlo Esposito as Buggin' Out
- John Turturro as Pino
- Rosie Perez as Tina
- Martin Lawrence as Cee
- Paul Benjamin as ML
- Frankie Faison as Coconut Sid
- Robin Harris as Sweet Dick Willie
- Miguel Sandoval as Officer Mark Ponte
- Rick Aiello as Officer Gary Long
- Joie Lee as Jade
- Samuel L. Jackson as Mister Señor Love Daddy
- Roger Guenveur Smith as Smiley
- Steve White as Ahmad
- Leonard L. Thomas as Punchy
- Christa Rivers as Ella
- Luis Antonio Ramos as Stevie
- John Savage as Clifton
- Frank Vincent as Charlie
- Richard Parnell Habersham as Eddie
- Ginny Yang as Kim
- Nicholas Turturro (extra) (uncredited)
Spike Lee wrote the screenplay in two weeks. The original script of Do the Right Thing ends with a stronger reconciliation between Mookie and Sal. Sal's comments to Mookie mirror Da Mayor's earlier comments in the film and hint at some common ground and perhaps Sal's understanding of why Mookie was motivated to destroy his restaurant. It is unclear why Lee changed the ending.
The film was shot entirely on Stuyvesant Avenue between Quincy Street and Lexington Avenue in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn. The street's color scheme was heavily altered by the production designer, who used a great deal of red and orange paint in order to help convey the sense of a heatwave.
Spike Lee campaigned for Robert De Niro as Sal the pizzeria owner, but De Niro had to decline due to prior commitments. The character of Smiley was not in the original script; he was created by Roger Guenveur Smith, who was pestering Spike Lee for a role in the film. Four of the cast members were stand-up comedians – Martin Lawrence, Steve Park, Steve White, and Robin Harris.
The film was released to protests from many reviewers, and it was openly stated in several newspapers that the film could incite black audiences to riot. Lee criticized white reviewers for implying that black audiences were incapable of restraining themselves while watching a fictional motion picture.
One of many questions at the end of the film is whether Mookie "does the right thing" when he throws the garbage can through the window, thus inciting the riot that destroys Sal's pizzeria. Critics have seen Mookie's action both as an action that saves Sal's life, by redirecting the crowd's anger away from Sal to his property, and as an "irresponsible encouragement to enact violence". The question is directly raised by the contradictory quotations that end the film, one advocating nonviolence, the other advocating violent self-defense in response to oppression.
Spike Lee has remarked that he himself has only ever been asked by white viewers whether Mookie did the right thing; black viewers do not ask the question. Lee believes the key point is that Mookie was angry at the death of Radio Raheem, and that viewers who question the riot's justification are implicitly failing to see the difference between property and the life of a black man.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2014)|
Awards and nominations
- Best Actor in a Supporting Role – Danny Aiello (nominated)
- Best Writing, Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen – Spike Lee (nominated)
- Grand Prix (nominated)
- Palme d'Or – Spike Lee (nominated)
- Best Director – Spike Lee (won)
- Best Picture (won)
- Best Supporting Actor – Danny Aiello (won)
- Best Director (Motion Picture) – Spike Lee (nominated)
- Best Motion Picture – Drama (nominated)
- Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in a Motion Picture – Danny Aiello (nominated)
- Best Screenplay (Motion Picture) – Spike Lee (nominated)
- Outstanding Lead Actress in a Motion Picture – Ruby Dee (won)
- Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture – Ossie Davis (won)
- Best Director – Spike Lee (won)
- Best Music – Bill Lee (won)
- Best Picture (won)
- Best Supporting Actor – Danny Aiello (won)
- Best Cinematographer – Ernest Dickerson (won)
2010 – The 20/20 Awards
- Best Picture – (nominated)
- Best Director – Spike Lee (won)
- Best Supporting Actor – Danny Aiello (nominated)
- Best Supporting Actor – John Turturro (nominated)
- Best Original Screenplay – Spike Lee (nominated)
- Best Editing – Barry Alexander Brown (won)
- Best Original Song – Fight The Power – Public Enemy (won)
- The American Film Institute from a poll of more than 1,500 artists and leaders in the American film industry voted it the 96th greatest film of all time in its 10th Anniversary Edition, 2007
Additional AFI titles include:
- AFI's 100 ...Cheers Nominated
- AFI's 100... Thrills Nominated
- AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies Nominated
- AFI's 100 Songs... Public Enemy Fight The Power No. 40
- National Film Registry (1999)
- The Bucket of Excellence (lifetime achievement award, 2006)
|Do the Right Thing [Score]|
|Film score by Bill Lee|
|Recorded||December 12, 1988 – December 16, 1988|
|Producer||Spike Lee (exec.)|
|Do the Right Thing [Soundtrack]|
|Soundtrack album by Various artists|
|Producer||Gregory "Sugar Bear" Elliott (exec.), Ted Hopkins (exec.), Mark Kibble (exec.), Spike Lee (exec.), Johnny Mercer (exec.)|
The film's score (composed and partially performed by jazz musician Bill Lee, father of Spike Lee) and soundtrack were both released in July 1989 on Columbia Records and Motown Records, respectively. The soundtrack was successful, reaching the number eleven spot on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart, and peaking at sixty-eight on the Billboard 200. On the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart, the Perri track "Feel So Good" reached the fifty-first spot, while Public Enemy's "Fight the Power" reached number twenty, and Guy's "My Fantasy" went all the way to the top spot. "My Fantasy" also reached number six on the Hot Dance Music/Maxi-Singles Sales chart, and sixty-two on Billboard's Hot 100. "Fight the Power" also charted high on the Hot Dance Music chart, peaking at number three, and topped the Hot Rap Singles chart.
|1.||"Mookie Goes Home"||1:21|
|2.||"We Love Roll Call Y-All"||1:40|
|3.||"Father to Son"||4:24|
|4.||"Da Mayor Drinks His Beer"||1:03|
|5.||"Delivery for Love Daddy"||1:08|
|7.||"Magic, Eddie, Prince Ain't Niggers"||1:58|
|11.||"Da Mayor Loves Mother Sister"||1:23|
|12.||"Da Mayor Buys Roses"||1:14|
|14.||"Malcolm and Martin"||1:46|
|15.||"Wake Up Finale"||7:26|
|1.||"Fight the Power"||Public Enemy||Hank Shocklee, Carl Ryder, Eric Sadler||5:23|
|2.||"My Fantasy"||Teddy Riley, Guy||Riley, Gene Griffin||4:57|
|3.||"Party Hearty"||E.U.||Kent Wood, JuJu House||4:43|
|4.||"Can't Stand It"||Steel Pulse||David R. Hinds, Sidney Mills||5:06|
|5.||"Why Don't We Try?"||Keith John||Vince Morris Raymond jones larry decarmine||3:35|
|6.||"Feel So Good"||Perri||Paul Laurence, Jones||5:39|
|7.||"Don't Shoot Me"||Take 6||Mervyn E. Warren||4:08|
|8.||"Hard to Say"||Lori Perry, Gerald Alston||Laurence||3:21|
|9.||"Prove to Me"||Perri||Jones, Sami McKinney||5:24|
|10.||"Never Explain Love"||Al Jarreau||Jones||5:58|
|11.||"Tu y Yo/We Love [Jingle]"||Rubén Blades||Blades||5:12|
- "Do the Right Thing - Box Office Data, DVD and Blu-ray Sales, Movie News, Cast and Crew Information". The Numbers. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "Do the Right Thing (1989)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
- "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition)". American Film Institute. Retrieved December 1, 2010.
- Thompson, Anne. "Lists: 50 Best Movies of All Time, Again". Variety (Internet Archive). Retrieved October 23, 2010.
- "100 Essential Films by the National Society of Film Critics". National Society of Film Critics. Published by AMC FilmSite.org. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Retrieved December 1, 2010.
- Original script for Do the Right Thing[dead link]
- Do The RIght Thing DVD Audio Commentary
- Klein, Joe. "Spiked?" New York June 26, 1989: 14–15.
- 'Spike Lee's Last Word', special feature on the Criterion Collection DVD (2000)
- Mark A. Reid (1997). Spike Lee's Do the right thing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-0-521-55954-6. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
- Do The Right Thing DVD, Director's commentary
- "The 25 Most Controversial Movies Ever," Entertainment Weekly (August 27, 2008).
- "Festival de Cannes: Do the Right Thing". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Do the Right Thing (Soundtrack): Billboard Albums". Allmusic. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- "Do the Right Thing (Soundtrack): Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- "Fear of a Black Planet: Billboard Singles". Allmusic. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
- Aftab, Kaleem. Spike Lee: That's My Story and I'm Sticking to It. England: Faber and Faber Limited, 2005. ISBN 0-393-06153-1.
- Spike Lee's Last Word. Documentary on the Criterion Collection DVD of Do the Right Thing. 2000.
- Spike Lee et al. Commentary on the Criterion Collection DVD of Do the Right Thing. 2000.
- Further reading
- Spike Lee; Lisa Jones (1989). Do the right thing: a Spike Lee joint. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-68265-1. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
- Mark A. Reid (1997). Spike Lee's Do the right thing. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55954-6. Retrieved September 25, 2010.
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