In biochemistry, Docosanoids are signaling molecules made by oxygenation of twenty-two-carbon essential fatty acids (EFAs), especially Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They include some resolvins and the docosatrienes.
Docosatrienes contain conjugated triene structures generated from DHA as a defining feature.
The protectins comprise docosatrienes and resolvins of the D series that are both neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory. Neuroprotectin D1 is formed in retinal pigment epithelial cells when they are confronted with oxidative stress, in the brain during experimental stroke, and in the human brain from Alzheimer's disease patients as well as in human brain cells in culture. Neuroprotectin D1 displays potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective bioactivity.
These substances are extremely potent. Neuroprotectin D1 and the 17S series resolvins are potent into the picomolar range.
Neurofurans are docosanoids formed nonenzymatically by free radical mediated peroxidation of DHA.
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