Doctor Strange

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This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Doctor Strange (disambiguation).
Doctor Strange
Art by Steve Ditko.
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Strange Tales #110 (July 1963)
Created by Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
In-story information
Alter ego Stephen Vincent Strange
Team affiliations New Avengers
Illuminati
Defenders
The Order
Midnight Sons
Notable aliases Stephen Sanders, Vincent Stevens
Abilities Mastery of magic, including extended longevity and flight
Genius-level intellect
Skilled neurosurgeon
Trained martial artist

Doctor Stephen Vincent Strange (known as Doctor Strange) is a superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. Doctor Strange is a former neurosurgeon who serves as the Sorcerer Supreme — the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Debuting in the Silver Age of comics, the character featured in several self-titled series and Marvel-endorsed products including video games; animated television series; a direct-to-DVD film; and merchandise such as trading cards.

Publication history[edit]

1960s[edit]

Co-created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Steve Ditko, Dr. Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963),[1] a split book shared with fellow Marvel character the Human Torch. In issue #135 (August 1965), the Torch was replaced by Nick Fury until issue #168 (May 1968). Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the character's eight-page origin story appeared in #115 (December 1963). The character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program that aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s.[2]

Ditko drew the feature through Strange Tales #146 (July 1966), and during this period he and Lee introduced many of Strange's allies, such as his eventual lover Clea, who debuted, initially unnamed, in Strange Tales #126 (November 1964); and enemies, such as Nightmare in #110, and the flame-headed Dormammu, in #126 (November 1964). The stories showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote,

"The Dr. Strange stories of the 1960s constructed a cohesive cosmology that would have thrilled any self-respecting theosophist. College students, minds freshly opened by psychedelic experiences and Eastern mysticism, read Ditko and Lee's Dr. Strange stories with the belief of a recent Hare Krishna convert. Meaning was everywhere, and readers analyzed the Dr. Strange stories for their relationship to Egyptian myths, Sumerian gods, and Jungian archetypes."[3]

"People who read 'Doctor Strange' thought people at Marvel must be heads [i.e., drug users]," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But … I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."[4]

As co-plotter and later sole plotter, (in the "Marvel Method"), Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In an epic 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130–146 (March 1965–July 1966), Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette whose outlines are filled with the cosmos.[5] As historian Bradford W. Wright described,

"Steve Ditko contributed some of his most surrealistic work to the comic book and gave it a disorienting, hallucinogenic quality. Dr. Strange's adventures take place in bizarre worlds and twisting dimensions that resembled Salvador Dalí paintings. Inspired by the pulp-fiction magicians of Stan Lee's childhood as well as by contemporary Beat culture, Dr. Strange remarkably predicted the youth counterculture's fascination with Eastern mysticism and psychedelia. Never among Marvel's more popular or accessible characters, Dr. Strange still found a niche among an audience seeking a challenging alternative to more conventional superhero fare."[6]

Splash page for the "Doctor Strange" story in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963). Art by Steve Ditko.

In keeping with Lee's emphasis on continuity, Strange guest-starred in The Fantastic Four #27 (June 1964) and The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #2 (1965), and encountered the Norse god Loki, foster brother of Thor, in Strange Tales #123 (August 1964).

The series continued with Lee dialoging Ditko's plots through Strange Tales #142, followed by Roy Thomas and Denny O'Neil (two issues each). Golden Age artist/writer Bill Everett succeeded Ditko as artist with issues #147–152, followed by Marie Severin through #160 and Dan Adkins through #168, the final issue before the Nick Fury feature moved to its own title and Strange Tales was renamed Doctor Strange.[7]

Lee returned to write episodes in Strange Tales #151–157; followed by Thomas (#158–159); and two writers who did virtually no other Marvel work, Raymond Marais (#160–161) and Jim Lawrence (#162–166). Another cosmic entity, the Living Tribunal, was introduced in issue #157 (June 1967) and the evil Umar, sister of Dormammu, in #150 (November 1966).

Expanded to 20 pages per issue, the Doctor Strange solo series ran 15 issues, #169–183 (June 1968–November 1969), continuing the numbering of Strange Tales.[7][8] Thomas wrote the run of new stories, joined after the first three issues by the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer through the end. Colan drastically altered the look of the series, as Thomas recounted: "…he had his own view of what these other worlds should look like. Everyone else sort of copied Ditko's versions of those extra dimensions, which were great and wonderful. When Gene came on, he didn't feel a real rapport with that, I guess, so his extra dimensions tended to be just blackness and smoke and things of that sort… Sometimes it was a little strange for a dimension Doc Strange had been to before to look different when drawn by Gene, but nobody complained."[9] In #177, Thomas and Colan attempted to boost sales by revamping Strange's appearance to more closely resemble those of other superheroes, giving him a form-fitting blue costume, a full-head mask and a secret identity as Dr. Stephen Sanders. The cancellation with #183 was abrupt (there was a "Next issue" blurb in the last issue), and outstanding storylines were resolved in Sub-Mariner #22 (February 1970) and The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #126 (April 1970).

Thomas recalled in 2000 that he had eloped in July 1968 to marry his first wife, Jean, and returned to work a day late from a weekend comic book convention to find that Marvel production manager Sol Brodsky had assigned Doctor Strange to writer Archie Goodwin, newly ensconced at Marvel and writing Iron Man. Thomas convinced Brodsky to allow him to continue writing the title. "I got very possessive about Doctor Strange," Thomas recalled. "It wasn't a huge seller, but [by the time it was canceled] we were selling the low 40 percent range of more than 400,000 print run, so it was actually selling a couple hundred thousand copies [but] at the time you needed to sell even more."[10]

1970s–1990s[edit]

Doctor Strange #177 (Feb. 1969), the debut of Strange's short-lived new look. Cover art by Gene Colan and Tom Palmer.

After plans were announced for a never-realized split book series featuring Doctor Strange and Iceman each in solo adventures,[11] Strange next appeared in the first three issues (December 1971–June 1972) of the quarterly showcase title Marvel Feature. He appeared in both the main story detailing the formation of superhero "non-team" the Defenders,[12] and the related back-up story. The character then starred in a revival solo series in Marvel Premiere #3–14 (July 1972–March 1974).[13] This arc marked the debut of another recurring foe, the entity Shuma-Gorath, created by writer Steve Englehart and artist Frank Brunner. In issues #8–10 (May–September 1973), Strange was forced to shut down the Ancient One's mind, causing his mentor's physical death. Strange then assumed the title of Sorcerer Supreme.[14] Englehart and Brunner created another multi-issue storyline featuring sorcerer Sise-Neg ("Genesis" spelled backward) going back through history, collecting all magical energies, until he reaches the beginning of the universe, becomes all-powerful and creates it anew, leaving Strange to wonder whether this was, paradoxically, the original creation. Stan Lee, seeing the issue after publication, ordered Englehart and Brunner to print a retraction saying this was not God but a god, to avoid offending religious readers. The writer and artist concocted a fake letter from a fictitious minister praising the story, and mailed it to Marvel from Texas. Marvel unwittingly printed the letter and dropped the retraction.[15]

The Marvel Premiere series segued to the character's second ongoing title, Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts, also known as Doctor Strange vol. 2, which ran 81 issues (June 1974–February 1987).[16] Doctor Strange #14 featured a crossover story with The Tomb of Dracula #44, another series which was being drawn by Gene Colan at the time.[17] In Englehart's final story, he sent Dr. Strange back in time to meet Benjamin Franklin.[18] In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Englehart's work on Doctor Strange with artists Brunner and Colan ninth on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels."[19]

Strange met his allies Topaz in #75 (February 1986) and Rintrah in #80 (December 1986). The series ended with a cliffhanger as his home, the Sanctum Sanctorum was heavily damaged during a battle. Among the losses was Doctor Strange's entire collection of mystic books and other important artifacts. As a consequence, Strange was now considerably weaker and several spells designed to protect humanity from vampires and the evil serpent god Set expired.

The title was discontinued so that the character's adventures could be transferred to another split book format series, Strange Tales vol. 2, #1–19 (April 1987–October 1988), which was shared with street heroes Cloak and Dagger. This new Doctor Strange series resolved Strange's quest to reclaim his power and missing artifacts, as well as resurrect the Defenders, who had died in the last issue of that team's title.

Strange was returned to his own series, this time titled Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme, which ran 90 issues (November 1988–June 1996).[20] The initial creative team was writer Peter B. Gillis and artists Richard Case and Randy Emberlin, with storylines often spanning multiple issues. Strange lost the title of "Sorcerer Supreme" in issues #48–49 (December 1992–January 1993) when he refused to fight a war on behalf of the Vishanti, the mystical entities that empower his spells. During this time the series became part of the "Midnight Sons" group of Marvel's supernatural comics,[21] and Doctor Strange found new sources of magical strength in the form of chaos magic,[22] as well as a magic construct he used as a proxy.[23] He would form the Secret Defenders with a rotating roster of heroes,[24] and reunite with the original Defenders. Strange regained his title in Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80 (Aug. 1995).

Strange appeared — together with the Human Torch and the Thing — in the one-shot publication Strange Tales vol. 3, #1 (Nov. 1994).

The character was featured in several limited series. The first was Doctor Strange: The Flight of Bones #1–4 (February–May 1999), with a series of spontaneous combustions by criminals instigated by old foe Dormammu. Strange was the catalyst for the creation of a trio of sorceresses in Witches #1–4 (August–November 2004). The Strange limited series (November 2004–July 2005) by writers J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes updated the character's origin.[25] Another limited series, Doctor Strange: The Oath #1–5 (December 2006 – April 2007), written by Brian K. Vaughan and illustrated by Marcos Martin, focused on Strange's responsibilities as sorcerer and doctor.

Doctor Strange appeared in four graphic novels over the years: Doctor Strange: Into Shamballa (1986); Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment (1989); Spider-Man/Dr. Strange: The Way to Dusty Death (1992); and Dr. Strange: What Is It That Disturbs You, Stephen? (October 1997).

2000s[edit]

Strange appeared as a supporting character in the 2000s. In New Avengers #7 (July 2005), writer Brian Michael Bendis retconned Marvel history and established that in the past, several superhumans, including Strange, formed a secret council called the Illuminati to deal with future threats to Earth. In present-day continuity, during the 2006–2007 company-wide Civil War storyline involving the introduction of a federal Superhuman Registration Act, which splits the superhero community, Strange is opposed to mandatory registration and later secretly shelters in his residence the anti-registration splinter group of the Avengers.[26] Strange then sought out a successor Sorcerer Supreme and after he had considered several magicians such as Wiccan, the Scarlet Witch, Magik and Doctor Doom, the Eye of Agamotto chose Brother Voodoo.[27]

2010s[edit]

Doctor Strange appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010–2013 New Avengers series, from issue #1 (August 2010) through the final issue #34 (January 2013).

Renamed Doctor Voodoo, the newly appointed Sorcerer Supreme sacrifices himself in order to stop the powerful mystical entity Agamotto from reclaiming the Eye.[28] The following issue, a guilt-ridden Strange, rejoining the New Avengers, offers the team his servant Wong to act as their housekeeper. Strange and Wong are seen working with improvised teams of Avengers in later incidents.[29] He eventually regains his position of Sorcerer Supreme when the ghost of Doctor Voodoo's brother, Daniel Drumm, attempts to attack Strange by possessing various Avengers and Strange manages to defeat him with the use of dark magic without being corrupted by it. The spirit of the Ancient One appears to Strange to inform him that his willingness to fight for the world even when not officially Sorcerer Supreme, coupled with his ability to use black magic when necessary and then avoid its corruptive influence, has proven that he deserves the mantle.[30]

Fictional character biography[edit]

Doctor Stephen Strange is a brilliant but egotistical neurosurgeon who only cares about wealth from his career. However, a car accident damages his hands, shattering the bones. The damage effectively ends his ability to conduct surgery, since his hands now tremble uncontrollably. Too proud to take on a teaching job, Strange desperately begins to search for a way to restore his hands, consulting various doctors, homeopathic treatments and traveling around the world to remote regions for exotic cures, all to no avail.

He exhausts his funds and is reduced to homelessness and is forced to perform "back alley" medical procedures for cash. Depressed and still searching, Strange locates a hermit called the Ancient One (who is actually the Earth's Sorcerer Supreme) in the Himalayas. The Ancient One refuses to help Strange because of his selfishness, but senses a good side that he attempts to bring to the surface. He fails, but Strange's goodness appears when he discovers the Ancient One's disciple, Baron Mordo, attempting to kill the old man. After Strange selflessly thwarts Mordo, (who becomes Strange's most enduring antagonist),[31] the Ancient One teaches him the mystic arts.[32]

As the Ancient One's disciple, Strange encounters the entity Nightmare,[33] and miscellaneous other mystical foes before meeting Dormammu, a warlord from an alternate dimension called the "Dark Dimension". Strange is aided by a nameless girl, later called Clea,[34] who is eventually revealed to be Dormammu's niece.[35] When Strange helps a weakened Dormammu drive off the rampaging Mindless Ones and return them to their prison, he is allowed to leave unchallenged.[36]

Powers and abilities[edit]

Strange's residence, the Sanctum Sanctorum, has been a part of the character's mythos since his introduction. Strange's personal servant, Wong, guards the residence in Strange's absence.[37]

Strange draws his powers from various mystical entities, such as the Vishanti (Hoggoth, Oshtur, and Agamotto),[citation needed] the Octessence (Balthakk, Cyttorak, Farallah, Ikonn, Krakkan, Raggadorr, Valtorr, and Watoomb),[citation needed] and miscellaneous entities such as the Faltine, the Seraphim, and Balthakk. These entities lend their power to a particular effect, such as the Crimson Bands of Cyttorak,[38] the Winds of Watoomb, the Images of Ikkon, the Flames of the Faltine, the Shield of the Seraphim, and the Bolts of Balthakk.

As a practicing sorcerer, Strange wields various artifacts, such as the Cloak of Levitation which enables him to fly,[39] the Eye of Agamotto whose light is used to negate evil magic,[32] the Book of the Vishanti which contains knowledge of white magic,[40] and the Orb of Agamotto which is used as a crystal ball.[41]

Doctor Strange has been described as "the mightiest magician in the cosmos",[42] and as "more powerful by far than any of your fellow humanoids" by Eternity, the sentience of the Marvel Universe.[43] He has held the title of Sorcerer Supreme from 1973, (with the death of the Ancient One),[14] to the present, except during an interruption from 1992[44] to 1995.[45] He relinquished the title once again in 2009,[27] but reclaimed it in 2012 when he proved himself willing to protect the world even without the title.[30]

In addition to his magical abilities, Strange is also a skilled neurosurgeon, although he can no longer practice due to minor nerve damage to his hands rendering him unable to perform the finer details of such operations.[volume & issue needed] He is trained in several martial arts disciplines.[citation needed]

Recalled issue[edit]

Jackson Guice's cover for Doctor Strange #15 (March 1990) used Christian music singer Amy Grant's likeness without her permission,[46] leading to a complaint saying that the cover gave the appearance that she was associating with witchcraft. A US District Court sealed an out-of-court settlement between Grant and Marvel in early 1991, with a consent decree in which Marvel did not admit to liability or wrongdoing.[47][48][49]

Other versions[edit]

The character has starred in several alternate universe titles. In the miniseries Marvel 1602 #1–8 (November 2003–June 2004), Sir Stephen Strange is both the court physician and magician to Queen Elizabeth I. The title Spider-Man 2099 introduced a female version of Strange who shares her body with a demon in issue #33 (July 1995). The miniseries Strange #1–6 (November 2004–April 2005), written by J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artwork by Brandon Peterson, reimagined the character's origin, allies and enemies in a contemporary setting.

In the miniseries Marvel Zombies #1–5 (February–June 2006), Strange is infected with a zombie virus along with many other heroes. He reappears in the second sequel, Marvel Zombies 3 #1–4 (December 2008 – March 2009)

In the alternate future universe of the Marvel imprint MC2, Doctor Strange is no longer the Sorcerer Supreme, the title there held by Doc Magnus. Doctor Strange uses his remaining power to reform the superhero team the Defenders in A-Next #3 (December 1998) and to fight the Norse god of mischief, Loki, Last Hero Standing #4 (February 2005).

The Ultimate Marvel title Ultimate Marvel Team-Up introduced a version of the character called "Stephen Strange, Jr.," the son of the original Doctor Strange, in Ultimate Marvel Team-Up #12 (July 2002). The character was killed in battle by the Ultimate Marvel version of Dormammu in the miniseries Ultimatum #1–5 (January–September 2009).

Two months before the debut of the sorcerer-hero Doctor Strange, Stan Lee (editor and story-plotter), Robert Bernstein (scripter, under the pseudonym "R. Berns"), and Jack Kirby (artist) introduced a criminal scientist and Ph.D. with the same surname (called "Carl Strange"). Making his sole appearance in the Iron Man story "The Stronghold of Dr. Strange" in Tales of Suspense #41 (May 1963), the character gained mental powers in a freak lightning strike.[50]

In other media[edit]

Television[edit]

  • Peter Hooten starred as Dr. Stephen Strange in the live-action TV movie Dr. Strange, which premiered on Sept. 6, 1978. In this film, Stephen Strange was a psychiatry resident rather than an experienced neurosurgeon. John Mills acted out Thomas Lindmer, whom director-writer Philip DeGuere added to the story as a stand-in for the Ancient One.[citation needed]
  • The 1997 episode "Mind Over Anti-Matter" of The Incredible Hulk animated series features Doctor Strange, voiced by Maurice LaMarche. He helps She-Hulk at the time when an unnamed evil entity has possessed Hulk turning him into the Dark Hulk.
  • Doctor Strange appears in The Super Hero Squad Show episodes "Enter Dormammu," "A Brat Walks Among Us," "Night in the Sanctorum," "Invader from the Dark Dimension," and "Election of Evil," voiced by Roger Rose.[51]
  • Doctor Strange is featured in the Ultimate Spider-Man season one episode "Strange," voiced by Jack Coleman. He helps Spider-Man and Iron Fist at the time when Nightmare has caused everyone in Manhattan to end up in a deep sleep. He appears in his Astral form in season two episode "Journey of the Iron Fist" visiting K'un-L'un. He then appears in the season three episode "Cloak and Dagger".
  • Doctor Strange appeared in the Hulk and the Agents of S.M.A.S.H. episode "Stranger in a Strange Land."[52] The character is voiced again by Jack Coleman.[53] Hulk hooks A-Bomb up with Doctor Strange in order to tutor A-Bomb in magic.

Film[edit]

  • The 1992 film Doctor Mordrid began development as a Doctor Strange adaptation, but the studio's license expired before production began.[54][55] The project was rewritten to change the main character's name and slightly alter his origin.[54]
  • Doctor Strange has a brief non-speaking cameo in the film Planet Hulk. He and members of the Illuminati regretfully inform Hulk of the decisions made to ensure his removal from Earth.

Michael France was then commissioned to write a script. Despite interest from Chuck Russell and Stephen Norrington as directors, Columbia dropped the project.[62] By June 2001, Dimension Films acquired the film rights with Goyer back on board as writer and director. Goyer hinted that scheduling conflicts might ensue with a film adaptation of Murder Mysteries,[63] and promised not to be highly dependent on computer-generated imagery.[60] By August 2001, Miramax Films acquired the film rights from Dimension,[64] but by March 2002, Goyer dropped out of the project.[65]
A 2005 release date was announced in March 2003,[66] while in June 2004, a script had yet to be written. Avi Arad was in search of an A-list writer.[67] In April 2005, Paramount Pictures acquired Doctor Strange from Miramax, with a planned budget of $50–$165 million.[68] Guillermo del Toro was attached to direct in February 2008, approaching Neil Gaiman to write the script.[69]
In June 2010, Marvel Studios hired Thomas Dean Donnelly and Joshua Oppenheimer to write Dr. Strange.[70] While promoting for Transformers: Dark of the Moon, actor Patrick Dempsey indicated he was lobbying to play the title character.[71] In January 2013, Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige confirmed that Doctor Strange would appear in some capacity as part of "Phase Three" of the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[72] In May 2013, Feige stated that a Doctor Strange feature film is in development at Marvel Studios,[73][74] and reiterated this in November.[75] In February 2014, The Hollywood Reporter reported Marvel was considering Mark Andrews, Jonathan Levine, Nikolaj Arcel and Dean Israelite to direct the film, as well as Jonathan Aibel and Glenn Berger to pen the script.[76] However, while Feige confirmed that Marvel was considering prospective candidates, he stated The Hollywood Reporter article "was not true about who we're meeting or what level anybody is."[77] By March 2014, the director candidate list was shortened to Andrews, Levine and Scott Derrickson.[78] In April 2014, Feige stated that Doctor Strange would be the "doorway" into the supernatural side of the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[79] In June 2014, Derrickson was chosen to direct the film.[80] Also in June, it was revealed that Marvel was looking at Tom Hardy and Benedict Cumberbatch for leads in the film and that Donnelly and Oppenheimer were still attached to write the screenplay.[81] Later in the month, Jon Spaihts entered negotiations to rewrite the script, and Jared Leto was also being considered for the titular role.[82] On June 20, 2014, Feige told Total Films at CineEurope in Barcelona that filming will start in Spring 2015 and casting will be announced soon.[83] By the end of July, Joaquin Phoenix entered talks to play Doctor Strange.[84] The film is scheduled for release on July 8, 2016.[85]

Video games[edit]

  • Doctor Strange appears as a playable character in Marvel Heroes.
  • Doctor Strange appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes,[89] with James Horan reprising the role. In a bonus mission at the Sanctum Sanctorum, Human Torch and Invisible Woman arrive to help Doctor Strange when Dormammu traps Doctor Strange in a mirror. When Human Torch and Invisible Woman destroy the artifacts, Doctor Strange is freed as he helps Human Torch and Invisible Woman to fight Dormammu and an army of skeletons. The heroes defeat Dormammu who is then sent back to the Dark Dimension.

Novels[edit]

  • In the late 1970s, Pocket Books published Doctor Strange, Master of the Mystic Arts: Nightmare, by William Rotsler. It was reasonably faithful to the comics' characters and concepts.
  • In the 2006 novel Spider-Man: The Darkest Hours, Strange appears briefly as a fellow superhero from whom Spider-Man seeks assistance when struggling against three vengeful siblings of Morlun.

Toys[edit]

  • Doctor Strange was a playable character in the Galactic Guardians set of Marvel Heroclix.[90]

Collected editions[edit]

Various Doctor Strange stories have been collected into separate volumes.

Further reading[edit]

Brevoort, Tom; DeFalco, Tom; Manning, Matthew, eds. (2008). Marvel Chronicle: A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ DeFalco in "1960s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 93

    "When Dr. Strange first appeared in Strange Tales #110, it was only clear that he dabbled in black magic and had the ability to project his consciousness into an astral form that could leave his physical body."

  2. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 114. ISBN 9780810938212. "Inspired by the Mutual Network radio show Chandu the Magician, which [Stan] Lee had enjoyed during his childhood, Dr. Strange was in fact a more impressive character than Chandu." 
  3. ^ Benton, Mike (1991). Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Dallas, Texas: Taylor Publishing Company. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-87833-746-0. 
  4. ^ Green, Robin (September 16, 1971). "Face Front! Clap Your Hands, You're on the Winning Team!". Rolling Stone (via fan site Green Skin's Grab-Bag) (91): page 31 of print version. Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Strange Tales #134". Grand Comics Database.  "Indexer notes: Part 5 of 17. First mention of Eternity. Strange would finally find it in Strange Tales #138 (Nov. 1965)."
  6. ^ Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: Transformation of a Youth Culture. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. 
  7. ^ a b DeFalco in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 128

    "Hailing 1968 as the beginning of the 'Second Age of Marvel Comics,' and with more titles to play with, editor Stan Lee discarded his split books and gave more characters their own titles…Strange Tales #168 [was followed] by Dr. Strange #169."

  8. ^ Doctor Strange at the Grand Comics Database
  9. ^ Field, Tom (2005). Secrets in the Shadows: The Art & Life of Gene Colan. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1893905450. 
  10. ^ Thomas (interviewer) (Autumn 2000). "So You Want a Job, Eh? The Gene Colan Interview". Alter Ego 3 (6): 13–14. 
  11. ^ "Marvel News". Marvelmania Magazine (5): 30. 1970. 
  12. ^ Sanderson, Peter in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 151

    "[Roy] Thomas and artist Ross Andru reunited [Doctor] Strange, the Hulk, and Namor as a brand new Marvel superhero team—the Defenders."

  13. ^ Sanderson "1970s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 156

    "Dr. Strange began a new series of solo adventures. He got off to an impressive start with [a] story scripted by Stan Lee and illustrated by Barry Windsor-Smith."

  14. ^ a b Englehart, Steve (w), Brunner, Frank (p), Crusty Bunkers (i). "Finally, Shuma-Gorath!" Marvel Premiere 10 (September 1973)
  15. ^ Cronin, Brian (December 22, 2005). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #30". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2008. "We cooked up this plot—we wrote a letter from a Reverend Billingsley in Texas, a fictional person, saying that one of the children in his parish brought him the comic book, and he was astounded and thrilled by it, and he said, 'Wow, this is the best comic book I've ever read.' And we signed it 'Reverend so-and-so, Austin Texas'—and when Steve was in Texas, he mailed the letter so it had the proper postmark. Then, we got a phone call from Roy, and he said, 'Hey, about that retraction, I'm going to send you a letter, and instead of the retraction, I want you to print this letter.' And it was our letter! We printed our letter!" 
  16. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  17. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "His Name Is Doctor Strange" The Tomb of Dracula 44 (May 1976)
    Englehart, Steve (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Tomb of Dr. Strange!" Doctor Strange v2, 14 (May 1976)
    Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 175

    "The great Marvel artist Gene Colan was doing suberb work illustrating both Doctor Strange and The Tomb of Dracula. So it made sense for Strange writer Steve Englehart and Tomb author Marv Wolfman to devise a crossover story."

  18. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 174

    "The year 1976 was the 200th anniversary of the United States' Declaration of Independence. So it was appropriate that several of the major events in Marvel history that year dealt with political themes… In September, just before departing from Marvel for DC Comics, writer Steve Englehart sent Dr. Strange back through time to meet one of the men responsible for the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Franklin.

  19. ^ Sacks, Jason (September 6, 2010). "Top 10 1970s Marvels". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  20. ^ Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme at the Grand Comics Database
  21. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60-68
  22. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80-90
  23. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60-75
  24. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 262

    "Writer Roy Thomas and penciller Andre Coates created this new series that ran until 1995.

  25. ^ Manning "2000s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 323

    "Scribes J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artist Brandon Peterson, retold Dr. Strange's mystical origin for a new generation of fans in this six-issue limited series.

  26. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Yu, Leinil Francis (p), Yu, Leinil Francis (i). "Revolution Part One" The New Avengers 27 (April 2007)
  27. ^ a b Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Tan, Billy (p), Banning, Matt (i). "You shouldn't be here, Jericho" The New Avengers 54 (August 2009)
  28. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Immonen, Stuart (p), Von Grawbadger, Wade (i). "Um… Sshh! We are ready" The New Avengers v2, 6 (January 2011)
  29. ^ Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Adams, Neal (p), Pamer, Tom (i). "Look at me, Norman" The New Avengers v2, 16.1 (November 2011)
  30. ^ a b Bendis, Brian Michael (w), Deodato, Mike (p), Deodato, Mike (i). The New Avengers v2, 34 (January 2013)
  31. ^ DeFalco "1960s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 93

    "Dr. Strange's archenemy, Baron Mordo, was introduced in Strange Tales #111.

  32. ^ a b Lee, Stan (w), Ditko, Steve (p), Ditko, Steve (i). "The Origin of Dr. Strange" Strange Tales 115 (December 1963)
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