Dr. Strangelove

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Dr. Strangelove or:
How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
Drstrangelove1sheet-.jpg
Original film poster by Tomi Ungerer
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Produced by Stanley Kubrick
Screenplay by Stanley Kubrick
Peter George
Terry Southern
Based on Red Alert 
by Peter George
Starring Peter Sellers
George C. Scott
Sterling Hayden
Keenan Wynn
Slim Pickens
Music by Laurie Johnson
Cinematography Gilbert Taylor
Editing by Anthony Harvey
Studio Hawk Films
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release dates
  • January 29, 1964 (1964-01-29)
Running time 94 minutes[1]
Country United Kingdom
United States
Language English
Budget $1.8 million
Box office $9,440,272

Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, more commonly known simply as Dr. Strangelove, is a 1964 British-American black comedy film which satirizes the nuclear scare. It was directed, produced, and co-written by Stanley Kubrick, stars Peter Sellers and George C. Scott, and features Sterling Hayden, Keenan Wynn, and Slim Pickens. The film is loosely based on Peter George's Cold War thriller novel Red Alert (also known as Two Hours to Doom).

The story concerns an unhinged United States Air Force general who orders a first strike nuclear attack on the Soviet Union. It follows the President of the United States, his advisers, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and a Royal Air Force (RAF) officer as they try to recall the bombers to prevent a nuclear apocalypse. It separately follows the crew of one B-52 bomber as they try to deliver their payload.

In 1989, the United States Library of Congress included it in the first group of films selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. It was listed as number three on AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs list.

Plot[edit]

United States Air Force Brigadier General Jack D. Ripper is commander of Burpelson Air Force Base, which houses the SAC 843rd Bomb Wing equipped with B-52 bombers. The 843rd is currently on airborne alert, in flight just hours from the Soviet border.

General Ripper explains to Group Captain Mandrake how he first discovered the Communist plot to pollute Americans' "precious bodily fluids."

Ripper orders his executive officer, Group Captain Lionel Mandrake of the UK Royal Air Force, to put the base on alert, asserting that it is not a drill, and orders him to issue Wing Attack Plan R to the patrolling aircraft, including one commanded by Major T. J. "King" Kong. All of the aircraft commence an attack flight on Russia, and allow communications only through the CRM 114 discriminator.

Mandrake discovers that no order for war has been received, and tries to stop Ripper, who locks them both in his office. Ripper tells Mandrake that he believes the Soviets have been using fluoridation of United States' water supplies to pollute the "precious bodily fluids" of Americans.

At the Pentagon, General Buck Turgidson briefs President Merkin Muffley and several other top officers and aides about the attack in the "War Room". Muffley is shocked to learn that such orders could be given without his authorization, but Turgidson reminds him that Plan R – enabling a senior officer to launch a strike against the Soviets if all superiors up to the President have been killed in a first strike on Washington D.C. – allows such an action. Turgidson reports that his men are cycling through every CRM code to issue the stand-down order but this could take over two days. Muffley orders Turgidson to storm the base and seize Ripper, though Turgidson warns that Ripper may have already alerted his men to this possibility.

Turgidson attempts to convince Muffley to let the attack continue, as their first strike on the Soviets would wipe out the majority of the Soviet missiles, and the few remaining would only cost a few million American lives. Muffley refuses, and instead brings Soviet ambassador Alexei de Sadeski (Peter Bull) into the War Room, despite Turgidson's protest, to get Soviet premier Dimitri Kisov on the "Hot Line." The President tells the Premier, who is drunk, about the situation, and suggests that the USSR fire upon the planes to stop the attack.

After a heated discussion, the ambassador explains that the Soviet Union has created a doomsday device consisting of 50 buried bombs with "Cobalt Thorium G" set to detonate should any nuclear attack strike their country. The Soviets had conceived of this system after reading a New York Times article claiming the United States was working on such a device. The President's wheelchair-bound scientific advisor, former Nazi Dr. Strangelove, is skeptical, noting that a doomsday device would only be an effective deterrent if everyone knew about it. Sadeski admits they had plans to reveal its existence the following week at a Soviet party conference in honor of the Premier, "who loves surprises."

Aircraft commander Major T. J. "King" Kong riding the bomb.

United States Army forces arrive at Burpelson, but, as predicted, the base's troops take the troops to be Soviets in disguise and open fire. The Army forces eventually take over the base and Ripper shoots himself, fearing he will be tortured into revealing the recall code. Colonel "Bat" Guano forces his way into Ripper's office. He suspects Mandrake of being the enemy until Mandrake convinces him otherwise.

Mandrake identifies Ripper's CRM code from his desk blotter doodles ("OPE," a variant from both "Peace on Earth" and "Purity of Essence"). He contacts the President with difficulty, on a payphone, the only working method of communication, and SAC is able to contact the bombers and direct them away from Soviet air space. The War Room celebrates. However, Sadeski reports that the Soviets cannot account for one of the four planes they believed they had shot down, Major Kong's. In fact a surface to air missile had ruptured the plane's fuel tank and left "all radio gear kaput, including the CRM-114." President Muffley tells the Soviets the plane's target to help them find it, but due to the shortened range of the crippled aircraft Major Kong has selected a closer target, a nuclear missile complex at Kodlosk.

On approaching the new target, the bomb doors will not open. Major Kong climbs on a bomb and adjusts the wiring. The doors open and the bomb releases, with Kong straddling it and riding it like a rodeo cowboy, waving his hat, as it falls.

Sadeski notes that, within ten months of the activation of the doomsday device, the surface of the earth will be uninhabitable. Dr. Strangelove recommends that the President gather several hundreds of thousands of people, with a high female-to-male ratio, to live in deep mineshafts in order to escape the radiation, and to then institute a breeding program to allow the United States to repopulate the surface after a hundred years have passed. Gen. Turgidson warns that the Soviets will likely do the same, and worries about a "mineshaft gap."

Dr. Strangelove shouts that he has a plan, gets up from his wheelchair, takes a few halting steps and shouts, "Mein Führer! I can walk!" The film finally cuts to a montage of nuclear detonations, accompanied by Vera Lynn's recording of "We'll Meet Again."

Cast and characters[edit]

Peter Sellers' multiple roles[edit]

Columbia Pictures agreed to finance the film on condition that Peter Sellers play at least four major roles. This condition stemmed from the studio's opinion that much of the success of Kubrick's previous film Lolita (1962) was based on Sellers' performance, in which his single character assumes a number of identities. Sellers had also played three roles in The Mouse That Roared (1959). Kubrick accepted the demand, later explaining that "such crass and grotesque stipulations are the sine qua non of the motion-picture business."[4][5]

Peter Sellers' roles

Group Captain Mandrake sitting at an IBM 7090 console[6]
President Merkin Muffley
Dr. Strangelove

Sellers ended up playing three of the four roles written for him. He had been expected to play Air Force Major T. J. "King" Kong, the B-52 Stratofortress aircraft commander, but from the beginning Sellers was reluctant. He felt his workload was too heavy and he worried he would not properly portray the character's Texas accent. Kubrick pleaded with him and asked screenwriter Terry Southern (who had been raised in Texas) to record a tape with Kong's lines spoken in the correct accent. Using Southern's tape, Sellers managed to get the accent right, and started shooting the scenes in the airplane. But then Sellers sprained an ankle and could not work in the cramped cockpit set.[4][5][7]

Sellers is said to have improvised much of his dialogue, with Kubrick incorporating the ad-libs into the written screenplay so that the improvised lines became part of the canonical screenplay, a practice known as retroscripting.[8]

Group Captain Lionel Mandrake

According to film critic Alexander Walker, the author of biographies of both Sellers and Kubrick, the role of Lionel Mandrake was the easiest of the three for Sellers to play, as he was aided by his experience of mimicking his superiors while serving in the RAF during World War II.[8] There is also a heavy resemblance to Sellers' friend and occasional co-star Terry-Thomas and prosthetic-limbed RAF ace Douglas Bader.

President Merkin Muffley

For his performance as President Merkin Muffley, Sellers flattened his natural English accent to resemble an American Midwesterner. Sellers drew inspiration for the role from Adlai Stevenson,[8] a former Illinois governor who was the Democratic candidate for the 1952 and 1956 presidential elections and the U.N. ambassador during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

In early takes, Sellers faked cold symptoms to emphasize the character's apparent weakness. This caused frequent laughter among the film crew, ruining several takes. Kubrick ultimately found this comic portrayal inappropriate, feeling that Muffley should be a serious character.[8] In later takes Sellers played the role straight, though the President's cold is still evident in several scenes.

In keeping with Kubrick's satirical character names, a "merkin" is a pubic hair wig. The president is bald, and his last name is "Muffley"; both are additional homages to a merkin.

Dr. Strangelove

Dr. Strangelove is an ex-Nazi scientist, suggesting Operation Paperclip, the US effort to recruit top German technical talent at the end of World War II.[9][10] He serves as President Muffley's scientific adviser in the War Room. When General Turgidson wonders aloud what kind of name "Strangelove" is, saying to Mr. Staines (Jack Creley) that it is not a "Kraut name," Staines responds that Strangelove's original German surname was "Merkwürdigliebe," without mentioning that "Merkwürdigliebe" translates to "Strangelove" in English. Twice in the film, Strangelove "accidentally" addresses the president as "Mein Führer". Dr. Strangelove did not appear in the book Red Alert.[11]

The character is an amalgamation of RAND Corporation strategist Herman Kahn, mathematician and Manhattan Project principal John von Neumann, rocket scientist Wernher von Braun (a central figure in Nazi Germany's rocket development program recruited to the US after the war), and Edward Teller, the "father of the hydrogen bomb."[12] There is a common misconception that the character was based on Henry Kissinger, but Kubrick and Sellers denied this;[13] Sellers said, "Strangelove was never modeled after Kissinger—that's a popular misconception. It was always Wernher Von Braun."[14]

The wheelchair-bound Strangelove furthers a Kubrick trope of the menacing, seated antagonist, first depicted in Lolita through the character "Dr. Zaempf."[15] Strangelove's accent was influenced by that of Austrian-American photographer Weegee, who worked for Kubrick as a special photographic effects consultant.[8] Strangelove's appearance echoes the mad scientist archetype as seen in the character Rotwang in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis (1927). Sellers' Strangelove takes from Rotwang the single black gloved hand (which in Rotwang's case is mechanical because of a lab accident), the wild hair and, most importantly, his inability to be completely controlled by political power.[16] According to film critic Alexander Walker, Sellers improvised Dr. Strangelove's lapse into the Nazi salute, borrowing one of Kubrick's black leather gloves for the uncontrollable hand that makes the gesture. Dr. Strangelove apparently suffers from diagnostic apraxia (alien hand syndrome). Kubrick wore the gloves on the set to avoid being burned when handling hot lights, and Sellers, recognizing the potential connection to Lang's work, found them to be menacing.[8]

Slim Pickens as Major T. J. "King" Kong[edit]

Capt. "Ace" Owens, Lt. W. D. Kivel, and Major T. J. "King" Kong about to open Wing Attack Plan R.

Slim Pickens, an established character actor and veteran of many Western films, was eventually chosen to replace Sellers as Major Kong after Sellers' injury. Terry Southern's biographer, Lee Hill, said the part was originally written with John Wayne in mind, and that Wayne was offered the role after Sellers was injured but he immediately turned it down.[17] Dan Blocker of the Bonanza western television series was approached to play the part, but according to Southern, Blocker's agent rejected the script as being "too pinko."[18] Kubrick then recruited Pickens, whom he knew from Pickens's work in Marlon Brando's One-Eyed Jacks.[17]

Fellow actor James Earl Jones recalls, "He was Major Kong on and off the set—he didn't change a thing—his temperament, his language, his behavior." Pickens was not told that the movie was a comedy and was only given the script for scenes he was in, to get him to play it "straight."[19]

Kubrick biographer John Baxter explains, in the documentary Inside the Making of Dr. Strangelove:

As it turns out, Slim Pickens had never left the United States. He had to hurry and get his first passport. He arrived on the set, and somebody said, "Gosh, he's arrived in costume!," not realizing that that's how he always dressed ... with the cowboy hat and the fringed jacket and the cowboy boots—and that he wasn't putting on the character—that's the way he talked.

Pickens, who had previously played only minor supporting and character roles, said his appearance as Maj. Kong greatly improved his career. He later commented, "After Dr. Strangelove the roles, the dressing rooms and the checks all started getting bigger."[20]

George C. Scott as General Buck Turgidson[edit]

General Buck Turgidson imitating a low-flying B-52 "frying chickens in a barnyard."

Kubrick tricked Scott into playing the role of Gen. Turgidson far more ridiculously than Scott was comfortable doing. Kubrick talked Scott into doing over the top "practice" takes, which Kubrick told Scott would never be used, as a way to warm up for the "real" takes. Kubrick used these takes in the final film, causing Scott to swear never to work with Kubrick again.[21]

During the filming, Kubrick and Scott had different opinions regarding certain scenes, but Kubrick got Scott to conform largely by repeatedly beating him at chess, which they played frequently on the set.[22] Scott, a skilled player himself, later said that while he and Kubrick may not have always seen eye to eye, he respected Kubrick immensely for his skill at chess.

Production[edit]

Novel and screenplay[edit]

Stanley Kubrick started with nothing but a vague idea to make a thriller about a nuclear accident, building on the widespread Cold War fear for survival.[23] While doing research, Kubrick gradually became aware of the subtle and paradoxical "balance of terror" between nuclear powers. At Kubrick's request, Alastair Buchan (the head of the Institute for Strategic Studies), recommended the thriller novel Red Alert by Peter George.[24] Kubrick was impressed with the book, which had also been praised by game theorist and future Nobel Prize in Economics winner Thomas Schelling in an article written for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and reprinted in The Observer,[25] and immediately bought the film rights.[26] In 2006, Schelling wrote that conversations between Kubrick, Schelling, and George in late 1960 about a treatment of Red Alert updated with intercontinental missiles eventually led to the making of the film.[27]

In collaboration with George, Kubrick started writing a screenplay based on the book. While writing the screenplay, they benefited from some brief consultations with Schelling and, later, Herman Kahn.[28] In following the tone of the book, Kubrick originally intended to film the story as a serious drama. But, as he later explained during interviews, he began to see comedy inherent in the idea of mutual assured destruction as he wrote the first draft. Kubrick said:

My idea of doing it as a nightmare comedy came in the early weeks of working on the screenplay. I found that in trying to put meat on the bones and to imagine the scenes fully, one had to keep leaving out of it things which were either absurd or paradoxical, in order to keep it from being funny; and these things seemed to be close to the heart of the scenes in question.[29]

Among the titles Kubrick considered for the film were Dr. Doomsday or: How to Start World War III Without Even Trying, Dr. Strangelove's Secret Uses of Uranus, and Wonderful Bomb.[30] After deciding to make the film a black comedy, Kubrick brought in Terry Southern as a co-writer. The choice was influenced by reading Southern's comic novel The Magic Christian, which Kubrick had received as a gift from Peter Sellers,[4] and which itself became a Sellers film in 1969.

Sets and filming[edit]

Dr. Strangelove was filmed at Shepperton Studios, near London, as Sellers was in the middle of a divorce at the time and unable to leave England.[31] The sets occupied three main sound stages: the Pentagon War Room, the B-52 Stratofortress bomber and the last one containing both the motel room and General Ripper's office and outside corridor.[4] The studio's buildings were also used as the Air Force base exterior. The film's set design was done by Ken Adam, the production designer of several James Bond films (at the time he had already worked on Dr. No). The black and white cinematography was by Gilbert Taylor, and the film was edited by Anthony Harvey and Stanley Kubrick (uncredited). The original musical score for the film was composed by Laurie Johnson and the special effects were by Wally Veevers. The theme of the chorus from the bomb run scene is a modification of When Johnny Comes Marching Home.

Model of the War Room constructed for the film.
The War Room with the Big Board.

For the War Room, Ken Adam first designed a two-level set which Kubrick initially liked, only to decide later that it was not what he wanted. Adam next began work on the design that was used in the film, an expressionist set that was compared with The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari and Fritz Lang's Metropolis. It was an enormous concrete room (130 feet (40 m) long and 100 feet (30 m) wide, with a 35-foot (11 m)-high ceiling[26]) suggesting a bomb shelter, with a triangular shape (based on Kubrick's idea that this particular shape would prove the most resistant against an explosion). One side of the room was covered with gigantic strategic maps reflecting in a shiny black floor inspired by the dance scenes in old Fred Astaire films. In the middle of the room there was a large circular table lit from above by a circle of lamps, suggesting a poker table. Kubrick insisted that the table be covered with green baize (although this could not be seen in the black and white film) to reinforce the actors' impression that they are playing 'a game of poker for the fate of the world.'[32] Kubrick asked Adam to build the set ceiling in concrete to force the director of photography to use only the on-set lights from the circle of lamps. Moreover, each lamp in the circle of lights was carefully placed and tested until Kubrick was happy with the result.[33]

Lacking cooperation from the Pentagon in the making of the film, the set designers reconstructed the aircraft cockpit to the best of their ability by comparing the cockpit of a B-29 Superfortress and a single photograph of the cockpit of a B-52, and relating this to the geometry of the B-52's fuselage. The B-52 was state-of-the-art in the 1960s, and its cockpit was off-limits to the film crew. When some United States Air Force personnel were invited to view the reconstructed B-52 cockpit, they said that "it was absolutely correct, even to the little black box which was the CRM."[8] It was so accurate that Kubrick was concerned whether Ken Adam's production design team had done all of their research legally, fearing a possible investigation by the FBI.[8]

In several shots of the B-52 flying over the polar ice en route to Russia, the shadow of the actual camera plane, a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, is visible on the snow below. The B-52 was a scale model composited into the Arctic footage which was sped up to create a sense of jet speed.[34] Home movie footage included in Inside the Making of Dr. Strangelove on the 2001 Special Edition DVD release of the film shows clips of the B-17 with a cursive "Dr. Strangelove" painted over the rear entry hatch on the right side of the fuselage.

Fail-Safe[edit]

Red Alert author Peter George collaborated on the screenplay with Kubrick and satirist Terry Southern. Red Alert was more solemn than its film version and it did not include the character of Dr. Strangelove, though the main plot and technical elements were quite similar. A novelization of the actual film, rather than a re-print of the original novel, was published by George, based on an early draft in which the film was meant to be bookended by aliens trying to understand what happened after arriving at a wrecked Earth.

During the filming of Dr. Strangelove, Stanley Kubrick learned that Fail-Safe, a film with a similar theme, was being produced. Although Fail-Safe was to be an ultra-realistic thriller, Kubrick feared that its plot resemblance would damage his film's box office potential, especially if it were released first. Indeed, the novel Fail-Safe (on which the film of the same name is based) is so similar to Red Alert that Peter George sued on charges of plagiarism and settled out of court.[35] What worried Kubrick most was that Fail-Safe boasted acclaimed director Sidney Lumet and first-rate dramatic actors Henry Fonda as the American President and Walter Matthau as the advisor to the Pentagon, Professor Groeteschele. Kubrick decided to throw a legal wrench into Fail-Safe's production gears. Lumet recalled in the documentary, Inside the Making of Dr. Strangelove: "We started casting. Fonda was already set ... which of course meant a big commitment in terms of money. I was set, Walter [Bernstein, the screenwriter] was set ... And suddenly, this lawsuit arrived, filed by Stanley Kubrick and Columbia Pictures."

Kubrick argued that Fail-Safe's own 1960 source novel Fail-Safe had been plagiarized from Peter George's Red Alert, to which Kubrick owned creative rights, and pointed out unmistakable similarities in intentions between the characters Groeteschele and Strangelove. The plan worked, and Fail-Safe opened eight months behind Dr. Strangelove, to critical acclaim but mediocre ticket sales.

Ending[edit]

The end of the film shows Dr. Strangelove exclaiming "Mein Führer, I can walk!" before cutting to footage of nuclear explosions, with Vera Lynn singing "We'll Meet Again." This footage comes from nuclear tests such as shot BAKER of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll, the Trinity test, the bombing of Nagasaki, a test from Operation Sandstone and the hydrogen bomb tests from Operation Redwing and Operation Ivy. In some shots, old warships (such as the German heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen), which were used as targets, are plainly visible. In others the smoke trails of rockets used to create a calibration backdrop can be seen.

Former Goon Show writer, and friend of Sellers, Spike Milligan, was credited with suggesting the Vera Lynn music for the ending.

Original ending: the pie fight[edit]

The cream pie fight was removed from the final cut

It was originally planned for the film to end with a scene that was filmed, with everyone in the war room involved in a pie fight.

Accounts vary as to why the pie fight was cut. In a 1969 interview, Kubrick said: "I decided it was farce and not consistent with the satiric tone of the rest of the film."[31] Critic Alexander Walker observed that "the cream pies were flying around so thickly that people lost definition, and you couldn't really say whom you were looking at."[8] Nile Southern, son of screenwriter Terry Southern, suggested the fight was intended to be less jovial. "Since they were laughing, it was unusable, because instead of having that totally black, which would have been amazing, like, this blizzard, which in a sense is metaphorical for all of the missiles that are coming, as well, you just have these guys having a good old time. So, as Kubrick later said, 'it was a disaster of Homeric proportions.'"[8]

Kennedy assassination[edit]

A first test screening of the film was scheduled for November 22, 1963, the day of the John F. Kennedy assassination. The film was just weeks from its scheduled premiere, but because of the assassination the release was delayed until late January 1964, as it was felt that the public was in no mood for such a film any sooner.

One line by Slim Pickens—"a fella could have a pretty good weekend in Dallas with all that stuff"—was dubbed to change "Dallas" to "Vegas", since Dallas was the city where Kennedy was killed.[36] The original reference to Dallas survives in the French-subtitled version of the film.

The assassination also serves as another possible reason why the pie-fight scene was cut. In the scene, after Muffley takes a pie in the face, General Turgidson exclaims: "Gentlemen! Our gallant young president has been struck down in his prime!" Editor Anthony Harvey stated that "[the scene] would have stayed, except that Columbia Pictures were horrified, and thought it would offend the president's family."[37] Kubrick and others have said that the scene had been cut earlier because it was not consistent with the rest of the film.[36]

1994 re-release[edit]

In 1994 the film was re-released. While the 1964 release used the 1.85:1 aspect ratio, the new print was in the slightly squarer 1.66:1 (5:3) ratio that Kubrick had originally intended.[38]

Themes[edit]

Satirizing the Cold War[edit]

Dr. Strangelove takes passing shots at numerous Cold War attitudes, such as the "missile gap", but it primarily focuses its satire on the theory of mutual assured destruction (MAD),[39] in which each side is supposed to be deterred from a nuclear war by the prospect of a universal cataclysmic disaster regardless of who "won". Military strategist and former physicist Herman Kahn, in his 1960 On Thermonuclear War, used the theoretical example of a doomsday machine to illustrate the concept of MAD;[40] in effect, Kahn argued, both sides already had a sort of doomsday machine, since their nuclear arsenals were large enough to destroy most life on Earth. Kahn, a leading 1950s critic of American strategy, urged America to plan for a limited nuclear war, and later in the 1960s became one of the architects of the MAD doctrine. Kahn held that a nuclear war was inherently suicidal (because it is unwinnable) thus neither side would be willing to engage in all-out nuclear war. Kahn came over as cold and calculating, for example in his willingness to estimate how many human lives the USA could lose and still rebuild economically.[41] This attitude is reflected in Turgidson's remark to the president about the outcome of a preemptive nuclear war: "Mr. President, I'm not saying we wouldn't get our hair mussed. But I do say no more than ten to twenty million killed, tops, uh, depending on the breaks." Turgidson has a binder that is labelled "World Targets in Megadeaths", a term coined in 1953 by Kahn and popularized in his 1960 book On Thermonuclear War.

The plan to regenerate the human race from the people sheltered in mineshafts is a parody of Nelson Rockefeller's, Edward Teller's, Herman Kahn's, and Chet Holifield's 1961 plan to spend billions of dollars on a nationwide network of concrete-lined underground fallout shelters capable of holding millions of people.[42] This proposed fallout shelter network has similarities and contrasts to that of the very real and robust Swiss civil defense network. Switzerland has an overcapacity of nuclear fallout shelters for the country's population size, and by law, new homes must still be built with a fallout shelter.[43][44]

To refute early 1960s novels and Hollywood films like Fail-Safe and Dr. Strangelove which raised questions about U.S. control over nuclear weapons, the Air Force produced a documentary film—SAC Command Post—to demonstrate its responsiveness to presidential command and its tight control over nuclear weapons.[45]

Reception[edit]

The film was a popular success, earning US$4,420,000 in rentals in North America during its initial theatrical release.[46]

It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 2000 readers of Total Film magazine voted it the 24th greatest comedic film of all time. It holds a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 61 reviews.[47] It is ranked number 21 in the All-Time High Scores chart of Metacritic's Video/DVD section with an average score of 96.[48] It is also listed as number 26 on Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.

Dr. Strangelove is on Roger Ebert's list of Great Movies,[49] described as "arguably the best political satire of the century." It is also rated as the fifth greatest film in Sight & Sound’s directors’ poll—the only comedy in the top ten.[50]

Awards and honors[edit]

The film was nominated for four Academy Awards and also seven BAFTA Awards, of which it won four.

Academy Awards nominations[51]
BAFTA Awards
  • Best British Actor: Peter Sellers (nom)
  • Best British Art Direction (Black and White): Ken Adam (won)
  • Best British Film (won)
  • Best British Screenplay: Stanley Kubrick, Peter George, Terry Southern (nom)
  • Best Film From Any Source (won)
  • Best Foreign Actor: Sterling Hayden (nom)
  • UN award

In addition, the film won the best written American comedy award from the Writers Guild of America and a Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and the Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association.

Kubrick won two awards for best director, from the New York Film Critics Circle and the Italian National Syndicate of Film Journalists, and was nominated for one by the Directors Guild of America.

The film ranked #32 on TV Guide's list of the 50 Greatest Movies on TV (and Video).[52]

American Film Institute recognition

Potential sequel[edit]

In 1995 Kubrick enlisted Terry Southern to script a sequel titled Son of Strangelove. Kubrick had Terry Gilliam in mind to direct. The script was never completed, but index cards laying out the story's basic structure were found among Southern's papers after his October 1995 death; it was set largely in underground bunkers, where Dr. Strangelove had taken refuge with a group of women. In 2013 Gilliam commented: "I was told after Kubrick died – by someone who had been dealing with him – that he had been interested in trying to do another Strangelove with me directing. I never knew about that until after he died but I would have loved to."[53]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "DR. STRANGELOVE (A)". British Board of Film Classification. 1964-01-09. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ The distinctive bikinied torso on the cover dates this as the real June 1962 issue, which features the pictorial "A Toast to Bikinis" (being a play on the testing-site atoll for nukes), shown as the pinups on the inside of the B-52's safe door. Grant B. Stillman, "Last Secrets of Strangelove Revealed", 2008.
  3. ^ For the pose, Reed lay flat on her chest and had the January 1963 (Vol. 41, No. 2) issue of Foreign Affairs covering her buttocks. Despite this modest pose, her mother was furious. In the novel and advertising posters the Playboy model is referred to as "Miss Foreign Affairs." Brian Siano, "A Commentary on Dr. Strangelove", 1995 and "Inside the Making of Dr. Strangelove," a documentary included with the 40th Anniversary Special Edition DVD of the film.
  4. ^ a b c d Terry Southern, "Notes from The War Room", Grand Street, issue #49
  5. ^ a b Lee Hill, "Interview with a Grand Guy": interview with Terry Southern
  6. ^ Tulsa TV Memories. U.N.C.L.E., SAGE, SABRE, Strangelove & Tulsa: Connections
  7. ^ In the fictionalized biopic The Life and Death of Peter Sellers, it is suggested that Sellers faked the injury as a way to force Kubrick to release him from the contractual obligation to play this fourth role.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Inside the Making of Dr. Strangelove," a documentary included with the 40th Anniversary Special Edition DVD of the film
  9. ^ Dan Geddes, "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964)"; The Satirist, December 2011.
  10. ^ Beverly Merrill Kelley, Reelpolitik II: Political Ideologies in '50s and '60s Films; Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004; p. 263.
  11. ^ Jeffrey Townsend, et al., 'Red Alert' in John Tibbetts & James Welsh (eds), The Encyclopedia of Novels into Films, New York, 1999, pp. 183–186
  12. ^ Paul Boyer, 'Dr. Strangelove' in Mark C. Carnes (ed.), Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies, New York, 1996.
  13. ^ http://www.moviediva.com/MD_root/reviewpages/MDDrStrangelove.htm
  14. ^ Starr, Michael Seth (1991). Peter Sellers: A Film History. McFarland & Company. p. 100. ISBN 0899505120. 
  15. ^ http://www.criterion.com/current/posts/836-lolita
  16. ^ Frayling, Christopher. Mad, Bad, and Dangerous?: The Scientist and the Cinema. London: Reaktion, 2006. p.26
  17. ^ a b Lee Hill, A Grand Guy: The Life and Art of Terry Southern (Bloomsbury, 2001), pp.118–119
  18. ^ Biography for Dan Blocker at Internet Movie Database
  19. ^ "Movie Night!". Phenry.org. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  20. ^ Slim Pickens biography
  21. ^ James Earl Jones (2004-11-16). "A Bombardier's Reflection". Opinionjournal.com. Retrieved 2010-03-06. 
  22. ^ "Kubrick on The Shining" from Michel Ciment, 'Kubrick', Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; 1st American ed edition (1983), ISBN 0-03-061687-5
  23. ^ Brian Siano, "A Commentary on Dr. Strangelove", 1995
  24. ^ Alexander Walker, "Stanley Kubrick Directs," Harcourt Brace Co, 1972, ISBN 0-15-684892-9, cited in Brian Siano, "A Commentary on Dr. Strangelove", 1995
  25. ^ Phone interview with Thomas Schelling by Sharon Ghamari-Tabrizi, published in her book The Worlds of Herman Kahn; The Intuitive Science of Thermonuclear War (Harvard University Press, 2005) "Dr. Strangelove"
  26. ^ a b Terry Southern,"Check-up with Dr. Strangelove", article written in 1963 for Esquire but unpublished at the time
  27. ^ Schelling, Thomas C. (2006). Strategies of Commitment and Other Essays. Harvard University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0674025679. 
  28. ^ Sharon Ghamari-Tabrizi, "The Worlds of Herman Kahn; The Intuitive Science of Thermonuclear War", Harvard University Press, 2005.
  29. ^ Macmillan International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, vol. 1, p. 126
  30. ^ Usher, Shaun (2012-04-03). "Dr. Strangelove". Lists of Note. Retrieved April 16, 2012. 
  31. ^ a b "An Interview with Stanley Kubrick (1969)", published in Joseph Gelmis, The Film Director as Superstar, 1970, Doubleday and Company: Garden City, New York.
  32. ^ "A Kubrick Masterclass," interview with Sir Ken Adam by Sir Christopher Frayling, 2005; excerpts from the interview were published online at Berlinale talent capus and the Script Factory website
  33. ^ Interview with Ken Adam by Michel Ciment, published in Michel Ciment, "Kubrick," Holt, Rinehart, and Winston; 1st American ed edition (1983), ISBN 0-03-061687-5
  34. ^ The camera ship, a former USAAF B-17G-100-VE, serial 44-85643, registered F-BEEA, had been one of four Flying Fortresses purchased from salvage at Altus, Oklahoma in December 1947 by the French Institut géographique national and converted for survey and photo-mapping duty. It was the last active B-17 of a total of fourteen once operated by the IGN, but it was destroyed in a take-off accident at RAF Binbrook in 1989 during filming of the film Memphis Belle. "1944 USAAF Serial Numbers (44-83886 to 44-92098)". USAAS-USAAC-USAAF-USAF Aircraft Serial Numbers—1908 to Present. Joseph F. Baugher. Retrieved 2007-05-04. 
  35. ^ "Red Alert—Peter Bryant—Microsoft Reader eBook". eBookMall, Inc. Retrieved 2006-11-27. 
  36. ^ a b Eric D. Snider, "What's the big deal?: Dr. Strangelove (1964)"; Seattle Pi, 25 October 2010.
  37. ^ "No Fighting in the War Room Or: Dr. Strangelove and the Nuclear Threat", a documentary included with the 40th Anniversary Special Edition DVD of the film
  38. ^ LoBrutto, Vincent. "Stanley Kubrick: A Biography". Da Capo Press, 1995, p. 250
  39. ^ King, Mike (2009). The American cinema of excess: extremes of the national mind on film. McFarland. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7864-3988-1. 
  40. ^ See On Thermonuclear War pp. 144–155
  41. ^ Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, Volume 1. Simon and Schuster. 2001. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-684-80657-0. 
  42. ^ Fortune magazine November 1961 pages 112–115 et al.
  43. ^ Ball, Deborah (2011-06-25). "Swiss Renew Push for Bomb Shelters". The Wall Street Journal. 
  44. ^ Foulkes, Imogen (2007-02-10). "Swiss still braced for nuclear war". BBC News. 
  45. ^ SAC Command Post
  46. ^ "Big Rental Pictures of 1964", Variety, 6 January 1965 p 39. Please note this figure is rentals accruing to distributors not total gross.
  47. ^ "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 22, 2010. 
  48. ^ "DVD/Video: All-Time High Scores". Metacritic. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  49. ^ Roger Ebert, "Dr. Strangelove (1964)", 11 July 1999
  50. ^ Sight & Sound’s directors’ poll
  51. ^ "The 37th Academy Awards (1965) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-08-24. 
  52. ^ "The 50 Greatest Movies on TV (and Video)". TV Guide (TV Guide Magazine). 1998. 
  53. ^ Brown, Todd (October 12, 2013). "Stanley Kubrick Wanted Terry Gilliam To Direct SON OF STRANGELOVE". Twitch Film. Retrieved October 13, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Dolan, Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-86124-229-7.
  • Hardwick, Jack and Schnepf, Ed. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation Movies." The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
  • Henriksen, Margot A. (1987). Dr. Strangelove's America: Society and Culture in the Atomic Age. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-08310-5. 
  • Oriss, Bruce. When Hollywood Ruled the Skies: The Aviation Film Classics of World War II. Hawthorne, California: Aero Associates Inc., 1984. ISBN 0-9613088-0-X.
  • Rice, Julian (2008). Kubrick's Hope: Discovering Optimism from 2001 to Eyes Wide Shut. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8108-6206-9. 

External links[edit]