Doctor of Musical Arts
The Doctor of Musical Arts degree (D.M.A., D.M., D.Mus.A. or A.Mus.D.) is a doctoral academic degree in music. The D.M.A. combines advanced studies in an applied area of specialization (usually music performance, composition, or conducting) with graduate-level academic study in subjects such as music history, music theory, or music pedagogy. The D.M.A. degree usually takes about three to four years of full-time study to complete (in addition to the masters and bachelors degrees), preparing students to be professional performers, conductors, and composers. As a terminal degree, the D.M.A. qualifies its recipient to work in university, college, and conservatory teaching/research positions.
The D.M.A. is widely available in the concentrations of performance (sometimes with a specialization in pedagogy and/or literature), composition, and conducting. The D.M.A. degree was pioneered by Boston University, which offered its first D.M.A. program in 1955. In 2005, Boston University also expanded into online music education by launching the first online doctoral degree in music, a D.M.A. program (along with a Master of Music program) in music education. Some universities awarding doctoral degrees in these areas use the title Doctor of Music (D.M. or D.Mus.) or Doctor of Arts (D.A.) instead of D.M.A.
The D.M.A. program in music education at Boston University is one of several in the U.S., though the research-oriented Ph.D. is the more common terminal degree in this field. Other music education degree options include the Doctor of Music Education (D.M.E.) and the Ed.D. In composition, one may study for either the D.M.A. or the Ph.D., depending on the institution. The Ph.D. is the standard doctorate in music theory, musicology, and ethnomusicology.
A related program is the Doctor of Sacred Music (D.S.M.) which tends to be awarded by seminaries or university music schools that focus on church music, choral conducting and organ performance.
D.M.A. students typically complete applied studies, such as lessons or mentoring with a professor, and take courses within their area of specialization. In many D.M.A. programs, all of the different D.M.A. streams (e.g., performance, composition, conducting) take a common core of music theory and music history courses. Many D.M.A. programs require students to pass a comprehensive exam on their area of specialization and on subjects such as music history and music theory. The last stage of the D.M.A. degree is usually the completion of a thesis, dissertation, or research project and the performance of recitals, usually including at least one lecture-recital.
Some programs additionally require a sub-specialization in a cognate area within music, such as music history or performance practice, which contributes to their area of specialization. For example, a student doing a D.M.A. in Baroque violin might do a sub-specialization in Baroque music history or Baroque-era dance.
Some institutions permit D.M.A. students to do a sub-specialization in a field outside music that contributes to their professional and academic goals. For example, a student completing a D.M.A. in piano pedagogy may be able to do a sub-specialization in the university's department of psychology (e.g., on the psychology of learning and memory); a student completing a D.M.A. in electronic composition may be permitted to do a sub-specialization in the department of computer engineering (e.g., in computer programming).
While teaching experience is not an official part of most D.M.A. programs, most D.M.A. candidates will have the opportunity to work as a teaching assistant or lecturer for undergraduate students during their degree, either as a requirement of their scholarship/assistantship package or as a part-time employee of the university. D.M.A. students can teach in an area related to their D.M.A. program, or, if they have multiple skill areas (e.g., a person with an M.Mus. in piano performance who is doing a D.M.A. in composition), they may teach in another area.
Admission requirements 
To be admitted to a D.M.A. degree program, most institutions require a master's degree, such as a M.Mus. degree or an M.A. degree in music or an equivalent course of study, usually with a grade average of "B+" or higher. D.M.A. programs in performance usually require applicants to prepare solo literature that is the equivalent of a graduate recital—i.e. several advanced pieces from a wide range of styles—in addition to orchestral excerpts. Admission to doctoral programs in conducting often require a video recording of live rehearsals and performances as a pre-screening element. Composition programs usually require the submission of a portfolio of compositions, including scores and recordings of live performances. Programs in music education generally require two or more years of public school (or similar) teaching experience, and may further require an example of scholarly writing.
Newly-admitted D.M.A. students are usually required to pass a series of diagnostic tests in music history, theory, and sometimes ear-training to confirm thorough command of essential musical principles gained in prior study. Advanced courses in these areas is not permitted until the tests are passed and/or remedial coursework in deficient area(s) is completed. Often, the knowledge of a second language - one of languages of major influence in music history (such as German, French, Italian, Spanish, or Russian) - is required to complete the degree. The graduate admissions branch of many US universities require applicants to complete the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), a standardized test of abstract thinking skills in the areas of math, vocabulary, and analytical writing. While the outcome of the GRE test may affect an applicant's eligibility for some university-wide scholarships, it does not always affect admission to the music program of the university.
Brief history 
After World War II, there had been a sharp rise in music education at the university level. As was the case with many occupations, the music world was experiencing an unprecedented number of discharged musicians from the U.S. Armed Forces. The G.I. Bill was an impetus for many opting for college, causing a spike in demand for college professors, across all disciplines, and a spike in enrollment. In music education, universities had an opportunity to employ formidable musicians, but many, including those of international rank, lacked a terminal academic degree that would put them on equal footing with professors. Post World War II also a period of rise the quality of comprehensive music education at universities. The Nation's renowned conservatories, such a Juilliard and Curtis, at the time, saw no need for the degree — yet many alumni of those institutions, and many top musicians with no degree were the very people being sought by universities offering degrees in music and music education.
In 1952, after six years of deliberation, the National Association of Schools of Music, NASM, approved thirty-two schools for graduate degrees for graduate work "in one or more of the fields into which graduate music study has been divided." The NASM was, and still is, the only accrediting agency for music schools recognized by the American Council on Education. In 1952, 143 music schools had already established standards for undergraduate degrees. The national launch of DMA by institutions meeting criteria was 1953.
- Eastman School of Music (the DMA degree was approved by the State of New York Board of Regents in 1953)
- Boston University
- University of Southern California
The Dean of the University of Rochester Eastman School of Music, Howard Harold Hanson (1896–1981), who had been awarded an honorary doctorate in 1925, was one of several high-profile advocates of creating a performance oriented doctors degree.
Early Doctor of Musical Arts conferred
- 1954: Mathias "Matt" Higgins Doran, DMA (born 1921), University of Southern California
- 1955: Will Gay Bottje, DMA (born 1925), Eastman School of Music — some sources attribute Bottje as having been the first in the nation to earn the degree
- August 1955: Edward F. Gilday, Jr., DMA, Boston University
The alumni of Music conservatories in the United States also seek positions at universities. The conservatories that are not affiliated with the National Association of Schools of Music began offering DMAs in the late 1960s.
- 1971: Margaret Hee-Leng Tan, Juilliard — she is the first woman to earn a DMA from Juilliard; Juilliard added the degree in 1969, the year it moved to Lincoln Center
- As of November 2006
- The University of Mississippi - Department of Music
- NTSTC One of 32 Colleges for Graduate Study in Music, Dallas Morning News, December 31, 1942, Sec I, pg 6
- New Degrees to Musicians — Dissenters Claim Title Not Necessary, Omaha World Herald, November 15, 1953, pg. 9F
- Howard Hanson: In Theory and Practice, by Allen Laurence Cohen, pg. 14, Praeger (2004) OCLC 52559264 ISBN 9780313321351