Doctor of both laws
A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil law and church law. The degree was common among Catholic and German scholars of the Middle Ages and early modern times. Today the degree is awarded by the Pontifical Lateran University in the State of the Vatican City after a period of six years study, by the University of Wuerzburg, and by the University of Fribourg.
Prior to ca. 1800, people who studied law in Europe, studied canon law, Roman law, and feudal law. These laws were the constituent parts of the Ius commune. The Ius commune was a pan-European legal system that held sway over Europe from approximately the twelfth through the eighteenth century. Graduates earned the decree of Doctor of both laws, because they had to study both canon law and civil law, in order to master the Ius commune.
After his second term as President of the United States, Grover Cleveland was given the J.U.D. as an honorary degree by the Augustinian College of St. Thomas of Villanova (Villanova University) in 1902.
Doctors of Civil and Canon Law
- Agliardi, Antonio, Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
- Arregui Yarza, Antonio, Metropolitan Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guayaquil, Ecuador
- Pope Benedict XIV
- Bevilacqua, Anthony, Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia (USA)
- Cafardi, Nicholas P., Dean emeritus and Professor of Law of the Duquesne University School of Law (USA)
- Carafa, Pierluigi (iuniore), Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Dean of the College of Cardinals
- James Conn, Professor, Boston College
- Pietro Gasparri, Cardinal, Secretary of State
- Waldery Hilgeman, Postulator for the Causes of Saints, Ecclesiastical Judge of the Interdiocesan Tribunal of Utrecht.
- Listecki, Jerome Edward, Archbishop of Milwaukee (USA)
- Rev Denzil Meuli, priest of the diocese of Auckland
- J. K. Paasikivi, President of Finland
- Peters, Edward N., Catholic University of America, 1991
- Mario Francesco Pompedda, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
- Pietro Respighi, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran
- K. J. Ståhlberg, President of Finland
- Alessandro Verde, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Italy)
- Carlo Maria Viganò, Archbishop at the centre of the Vatileaks scandal
- Gottfried Leibniz held the degree. Ross, G. (1980). Leibniz and Superstition. Delivered to the Northern Association for Philosophy, 26 January 1980. Accessed 29 May 2008.
- Pennington, Kenneth. Course Description: Roman Law and the Ius Commune
- New York Times (1902). To Honor Mr. Cleveland. New York: New York Times.
- John Courtney Murray Citation. http://www.ctsa-online.org/pdf_doc_files/JOHN_COURTNEY_MURRAY_AWARD_2011.pdf
- Official Biography. http://archphila.org/offices/Fitzgerald.php