Doctrine (from Latin: doctrina or possibly from Sanskrit: dukrn) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism.
Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine. In some organizations, doctrine is simply defined as "that which is taught", in other words the basis for institutional teaching of its personnel internal ways of doing business.
Examples of religious doctrines include:
- Christian Trinity and Virgin birth
- Christian Original Sin and its cure, the Redemption of Jesus Christ
- Roman Catholic theology (for example: Transubstantiation and Immaculate Conception)
- Calvinist predestination
- Methodist Prevenient Grace
- Hinduism The Doctrine of epoch or Yuga
- Jainism The Doctrine of Postulation or Syādvāda
- Buddhist Doctrine
As a measure of religiosity in the sociology of religion
According to the sociologist Mervin Verbit, doctrine may be understood as one of the key components of religiosity. And doctrine itself may be broken down into four dimensions:
The content of a doctrine may vary from one religion to the next, as will the degree to which it may occupy the person's mind (frequency), the intensity of the doctrine, and the centrality of the doctrine (in that religious tradition).
The term also applies to the concept of an established procedure to a complex operation in warfare. The typical example is tactical doctrine in which a standard set of maneuvers, kinds of troops and weapons are employed as a default approach to a kind of attack.
Examples of military doctrines include:
- Blitzkrieg of World War II
- Guerre de course
- Hit-and-run tactics
- Mahanian of late 19th up to mid-20th century
- Manhunting doctrine, or assured individual destruction
- Reagan Doctrine of the Cold War
- Shock and Awe
- Soviet deep battle of World War II
- Trench warfare of World War I
Almost every military organization has its own doctrine, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten. Some military doctrines are transmitted through training programs. More recently, in modern peacekeeping operations, which involve both civilian and military operations, more comprehensive (not just military) doctrines are now emerging such as the 2008 United Nations peacekeeping operations' "Capstone Doctrine" which speaks to integrated civilian and military operations.
By definition, political doctrine is "[a] policy, position or principle advocated, taught or put into effect concerning the acquisition and exercise of the power to govern or administrate in society." The term political doctrine is sometimes wrongly identified with political ideology. However, doctrine lacks the actional aspect of ideology. It is mainly a theoretical discourse, which "refers to a coherent sum of assertions regarding what a particular topic should be" (Bernard Crick). Political doctrine is based on a rationally elaborated set of values, which may precede the formation of a political identity per se. It is concerned with philosophical orientations on a meta-theoretical level.
A legal doctrine is a body of inter-related rules (usually of common law and built over a long period of time) associated with a legal concept or principle. For example the doctrine of frustration of purpose now has many tests and rules applicable with regards to each other and can be contained within a "bubble" of frustration. In a court session a defendant may refer to the doctrine of justification.
It can be seen that a branch of law contains various doctrines, which in turn contain various rules or tests. The test of non-occurrence of crucial event is part of the doctrine of frustration which is part of contract law. Doctrines can grow into a branch of law; restitution is now considered a branch of law separate to contract and tort.
The term indoctrination came to have awkward connotations during the 20th century, but it is necessary to retain it, in order to distinguish it from education. In education one is asked to stand as much as possible outside the body of accumulated knowledge and analyze it oneself. In indoctrination on the other hand, one stands within the body of knowledge and absorbs its teachings without critical thought.
- Doctrine - Definition at WordIQ.com 2010
- "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (Roman Catholic Church) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith". Ewtn.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- "The Roman Curia - Index". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Verbit, M. F. (1970). The components and dimensions of religious behavior: Toward a reconceptualization of religiosity. American mosaic, 24, 39.
- Küçükcan, T. (2010). Multidimensional Approach to Religion: a way of looking at religious phenomena. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 4(10), 60-70.
- Glock, C. Y. (1972) ‘On the Study of Religious Commitment’ in J. E. Faulkner (ed.) Religion’s Influence in Contemporary Society, Readings in the Sociology of Religion, Ohio: Charles E. Merril: 38-56.
- Capstone Doctrine
- "Political doctrine (definition)". Eionet.europa.eu. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Dr. Daniel Șandru. "Ideology, Between the Concept and the Political Reality". The Knowledge Based Society Project. Sfera Politicii nr. 169. Retrieved March 10, 2013.