|Prince Yu of the First Rank|
|Portrait of Dodo from the Palace Museum Archives|
|Prince Yu of the First Rank of the Qing Dynasty|
Lady Borjigit Dazhe
|Prince Yutong of the First Rank
|House||House of Aisin-Gioro|
|Born||2 April 1614|
|Died||29 April 1649
Dodo was born of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, the imperial clan of the Qing Dynasty. He was the 15th son of Nurhaci, khan of the Later Jin Dynasty (precursor of the Qing Dynasty). His mother was Nurhaci's primary spouse Lady Abahai, who also bore Dodo's full brothers Ajige and Dorgon.
Hong Taiji's reign
In 1620 Dodo was conferred the title of "Lord of the First Rank" (和碩額真). He became a doroi beile (多羅貝勒) at the age of 13 and was put in charge of the Plain White Banner, and started administrating affairs in the Rites and War ministries. In 1628, Dodo followed Hong Taiji on the conquest of Chahar, Mongolia, and was granted the title of eerkechuhuer (額爾克楚虎爾) for his achievements. The following year, he followed Hong Taiji again on the conquest of the Ming Dynasty, crossing the Great Wall and closing in on the Ming capital of Beijing.
In 1631 Dodo was involved in besieging the Ming army at Daling River. He lost his footing and fell from his horse during a battle and almost died at Jinzhou. The following year he participated in a campaign against Ligdan Khan of Chahar, and in 1635 he was appointed commander-in-chief for the first time at the Battle of Daling River.
In 1636 Dodo was promoted to the status of "Prince Yu of the First Rank" (和碩豫親王). He followed Hong Taiji on the campaign against the Joseon Dynasty and defeated the enemy at Mount Nanhan. Two years later, he was demoted two grades to doroi beile for bringing prostitutes with him in his army. In 1641, Dodo participated in the Battle of Songjin and led the Qing army in besieging Jinzhou in the first part of the battle. He led an ambush to wipe out the remnants of the enemy at Mount Song in the final battle and joined Hooge's forces in besieging Mount Song and captured the Ming general Hong Chengchou. He was promoted one grade to "Prince of the Second Rank" (多羅郡王) for his achievement.
Shunzhi Emperor's reign
In 1644 Dodo entered China proper after the Ming general Wu Sangui opened Shanhai Pass for the Qing armies. They defeated rebel forces under Li Zicheng at Shanhai Pass and occupied the Ming capital of Beijing, after which Dodo was reinstated as a "Prince of the First Rank" (和碩親王) and appointed "Great General Who Pacifies the Nation" (定國大將軍). Together with Kong Youde (孔有德) and Geng Zhongming (耿仲明), Dodo led an army of 200,000, comprising both Manchu and Han Chinese soldiers, to attack the remnants of Li Zicheng's rebel army, defeating and driving the enemy from Henan to Shaanxi.
In the first month of 1645 Dodo conquered Tong Pass and Xi'an, and in the second month he attacked the Southern Ming Dynasty (remnants of the fallen Ming Dynasty). In the fourth month, Dodo captured the city of Yangzhou and executed its defending official Shi Kefa, after which he ordered a massacre to be conducted. By the following month Dodo's army had crossed the Yangtze River and occupied Southern Ming's capital of Nanjing and captured its ruler, the Hongguang Emperor. In the sixth month Dodo conquered Zhejiang and returned to Beijing, after which he received the title of "Prince Deyu of the First Rank" (和碩德豫親王).
In 1646 Dodo was appointed "Great General Who Spreads Might" (揚威大將軍) and emerged victorious from suppressing a rebellion by the Sonid Mongols. A year later he conferred the title of "Uncle Who Assists in Governance and Prince Deyu of the First Rank" (輔政叔 和碩德豫親王).
Dodo died of smallpox in 1649 at the age of 36. Dodo was said to have a very close relationship with his brother Dorgon. Dorgon was attacking Jiang Xiang (姜瓖) in Shanxi when he heard that Dodo was severely ill, so he immediately turned and rushed back to Beijing, but when he arrived at Juyong Pass, he received news that Dodo had died. Dorgon was so grieved that he changed into plain robes and cried as he raced back to Beijing.
Posthumous demotion and restoration
In 1652 the Shunzhi Emperor posthumously demoted Dodo to the status of a "Prince of the Second Rank" for his affiliation with Dorgon, whom the emperor perceived to have had the intention of usurping the throne. In 1671 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Dodo was granted a posthumous name "Tong" (通), so his title became "Prince Yutong of the Second Rank" (多羅豫通郡王). In the first lunar month of 1778, the Qianlong Emperor posthumously restored Dodo to the status of a "Prince of the First Rank" and created a place for Dodo in the Qing ancestral temple. Seven months later, a shrine was built for Dodo in the Mukden Palace.
Parents and siblings
- Father: Nurhaci
- Primary spouses:
- Lady Borjigit (博爾濟吉特氏), daughter of Ming'antaiji (明安台吉).
- Lady Borjigit, personal name Dazhe (達哲). Her mother was the primary consort of Manggusi (莽古斯), Prince of the Khorchin Mongols. However the identity of her father is disputed because her mother remarried after Manggusi died. She bore Duoni and Duo'erbo.
- Lady Nara (那拉氏), daughter of Yanda'erhan (衍達爾漢).
- Secondary spouses:
- Tertiary spouses:
- Lady Nara (那拉氏), daughter of Faha (法哈).
- Lady Liang (良氏), daughter of Liang Guozhu (良國柱).
- Julan (珠蘭; 1635–1665), Dodo's eldest son.
- Doni (多尼; 1636–1661), Dodo's second son.
- Bakedu (巴克度; 1640–1668), Dodo's third son.
- Cani (察尼; 1641–1681), Dodo's fourth son.
- Dorbo (多爾博; 1643–1672), Dodo's fifth son.
- Zhakedu (扎克度; 1644–1689), Dodo's sixth son.
- Dunggo (董額; 1647–1706), Dodo's seventh son.
- Fiyanggu (費揚古; 1649–1723), Dodo's eighth son.
- This Feiyanggu was from the Nara clan, and was not the same person as Dodo's eighth son.
- Ebrey, Patricia (1993). Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook. Simon and Schuster.
- Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tigers' Jaws, Struve, Lynn A. Publisher：Yale University Press, 1998 ISBN 0-300-07553-7, ISBN 978-0-300-07553-3 312 pages
- Struve, Lynn A. "Voices from the Ming-Qing Cataclysm: China in Tiger's Jaws. London: Yale University Press, 1993.
- Liu Xiaomeng. "Twelve Princes of the Qing Dynasty" 正說清朝十二王. Zhonghua Publishers, 2006.