Dog breed

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Chihuahua mix and purebred Great Dane

Dog breeds are groups of closely related and visibly similar domestic dogs, which are all of the subspecies Canis lupus familiaris, having characteristic traits that are selected and maintained by humans, bred from a known foundation stock.[1] The term dog breed is also used to refer to natural breeds or landraces, which arose through time in response to a particular environment that included humans, with little or no selective breeding by humans.[2] Such breeds are undocumented, and are identified by their appearance and often by a style of working. Ancient dog breeds are some of the modern (documented) descendants of such natural breeds.

Description[edit]

Dog breeds are not scientifically defined biological classifications, but rather are groupings defined by clubs of hobbyists called breed clubs. A dog breed is represented by a sufficient number of individuals to stably transfer its specific characteristics over generations. Dogs of same breed have similar characteristics of appearance and behavior, primarily because they come from a select set of ancestors who had the same characteristics.[3] Dogs of a specific breed breed true, produce young that are very similar to their parents. An individual dog is identified as a member of a breed through proof of ancestry, using genetic analysis or written records of ancestry. Without such proof, identification of a specific breed is not reliable.[4] Such records, called stud books, may be maintained by individuals, clubs, or other organizations.

Classification[edit]

In biology, subspecies, race and breed are equivalent terms. Breed is usually applied to domestic animals; species and subspecies, to wild animals and to plants; and race, to humans.[5] Colloquial use of the term dog breed, however, does not conform to scientific standards of taxonomic classification. Breeds do not meet the criteria for subspecies since they are all one species; Canis lupus familiaris, which is considered a subspecies of the gray wolf. Interbreeding group of individuals who pass on characteristic traits and would likely merge back into a single homogenous group if external barriers were removed, like selective breeding. The recognition of distinct dog breeds is not maintained by a scientific organization; they are maintained by a number of independent kennel clubs that need not apply to scientific standards and are often inconsistent. For instance, the Belgian Shepherd Dog is separated into four distinct breeds by some clubs, but not in others. Further, some groups of dogs which clearly share a persistent set of characteristics and documented descent from a known foundation stock may still not be recognized by some clubs as breeds. For instance, the feist is a hunting dog raised in the Southern United States for hunting small game. Feists have a consistent set of characteristics that reliably differentiate them from other dog types and breeds. However, the United Kennel Club recognizes one breed of feist, the Treeing Feist, while the American Kennel Club does not recognize any feist breed.

A dog is said to be purebred if their parents were purebred and if the dog meets the standards of the breed. Purebred dog breeders of today "have inherited a breeding paradigm that is, at the very least, a bit anachronistic in light of modern genetic knowledge, and that first arose out of a pretty blatant misinterpretation of Darwin and an enthusiasm for social theories that have long been discredited as scientifically insupportable and morally questionable."[6] Morally questionable policies regarding purity of breed include obligatory surgical procedures to spay or neuter animals in numerous contexts. The American Kennel Club, for instance, allows mixed-breed dogs to be shown but requires these animals to be altered. It doesn't make such requirements for purebred dogs. California Assembly Act AB 1634 was a bill introduced in 2007 that would require all non-working dogs of mixed breed over the age of 6 months to be neutered or spayed.[7] The bill was morally controversial, leading the American Kennel Club to fight the bill.[8]

The clear genetic distinction between breeds of dog has made dogs of specific breeds good subjects for genetic and human medical research. "Using the dog as a discovery tool" in studying how cancer affects specific breeds may lead to identifying "susceptibility genes that have proved intractable in human families and populations."[9]

History of dog breeds[edit]

Initial dog selections centered on helpful behavior such as barking at unfamiliar creatures and people, guarding livestock, or hunting game. Some dog breeds (such as Saluki[10] or New Guinea Singing Dogs) have been bred for thousands of years. Some working dog breeds such as German Shepherd Dog or Labrador Retriever[11] were established in the last few hundred years. More recently, dogs have been selected for attractiveness and distinctive features, resulting in a vast variety of breeds. Similar dog breeds are classified by dog registries in dog breed groups.

Groups of individuals that have dogs of the same breed often unite into national breed clubs, describing their dogs in specific language by writing a breed standard.[12] Breed standards prescribe the most desirable specimen attributes and working abilities for purebred dogs of that breed as well as undesirable traits. National breed clubs promote their breeds via the local breed registry and international organizations. Dogs recognized by the main breed registries are said to be "purebred".

Development of dog breeds[edit]

For the history and development of the dog, see Origin of the domestic dog, Ancient dog breeds, and Dog type.

There is much speculation but little evidence about why canids came to live with or near humans, possibly as long as 100,000 years ago.[13] With the beginnings of agriculture around 12,000 years ago, humans began making use of dogs in various ways, resulting in physical differences between dogs and their wolf ancestors.[14] In earlier times, little was written about dogs, although there were known dog types or landrace dogs, which developed over time with minimal human intervention, to fit in with the environment (including human culture) in which the dogs lived or live.[15][16] Dog breeds in the modern sense date only to the accurate documenting of pedigrees with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873, in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses.[17]

Many dog breeds today have names of original landrace types, such as the Border Collie. Other landrace types, such as retrievers, have been made more uniform in appearance through selective breeding, and developed into a variety of distinctive breeds.[18] Varieties of purebred dogs kept for working purposes can vary in appearance from purebred dogs of the same breed kept as showdogs and pets.[19]

New dog breeds are being continually created. They are either accidentally or purposely crossbred from existing breeds, developed for a specific style of work, or created just for marketing purposes. Recently discovered semi-feral and landrace types such as the New Guinea Singing Dog have been documented and registered as breeds for purposes of preservation. The Canadian department of agriculture has strict standards for the documenting of what it calls "emerging breeds".[20] Many registries which require minimal documentation are available for registering new and existing breeds of dog.[21] In general, a dog can only be guaranteed to be of a specific breed if it is documented in the stud book of a major dog registry or breed registry.[22]

Genetics[edit]

Dog breeds can now be analyzed through genetics. Genetic markers (microsatellite markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms) have been analyzed and a representative sample of 85 breeds were placed into four clusters, each cluster having shared ancestors. Cluster 1 is thought to be the oldest, including African and Asian dogs. Cluster 2 is mastiff type dogs; cluster 3 is herding dogs, and cluster 4 modern hunting type dogs (mostly developed in Europe in the 1800s.)[23]

  • Note: Relationships uncovered through genetics may not match "official" breed histories. The following breed lists are based on genetic research, not traditional beliefs about dog breeds.

Dog breed documentation[edit]

Stud books[edit]

Dog breeds are documented in lists of antecedents called a stud book.[25]

Dog breeds that have been documented may be accepted into one or more of the major registries (kennel clubs) of dog breeds, including the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (covering 84 countries), The Kennel Club (UK), the Canadian Kennel Club, the American Kennel Club, the United Kennel Clubs International, the Australian National Kennel Council and the New Zealand Kennel Club, and other national registries. The registry places the breed into the appropriate category, called a group. Some Groups may be further subdivided by some registries. When the breed is fully accepted, the stud book is closed and only dogs bred from dogs in the stud book will be accepted for registration.[26] These dogs are referred to as purebred.

Dog breed clubs, especially of dogs bred for a particular kind of work, may maintain an open stud book and so may not be included in major registries. The dogs are still considered a breed. An example of this would be the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America.

Some dog breeds fit the definition of breed, especially breeds that develop naturally on islands or in isolated areas, but are few in number or have not been sufficiently documented to be registered with one of the major registries. An example of this would be the Kintamani Dog and other rare or independent breeds.

Breeds of dogs can be deliberately created in a relatively short period of time. When they breed true and have been sufficiently documented, they can be accepted by major registries. An example of this is the Cesky Terrier.[27]

Breed standards[edit]

Each dog breed has a written breed standard, a list of attributes that standardises the appearance of the breed, written by the breed's founder or breed club. Dog are judged in Conformation dog shows on the basis of how closely the individual dog conforms to the breed standard. As the breed standard only covers external aspects of the dog's appearance, breeding working dogs for show competition may cause appearance to be emphasised to the detriment of working ability.

Groups of dogs mistaken for breeds[edit]

Groups of dogs that may be mistaken for breeds include working dogs that are categorized by working style rather than appearance, even though they may be of various ancestry and may not breed true. The difference between a named group of working dogs and a breed of dogs can be unclear. Examples would be the huntaway and other livestock dogs of New Zealand, the feist dogs of the southern United States, and the Patagonian sheepdogs of Argentina, which are collies mixed with other working dogs.[28]

Landrace dogs are another grouping that often have been named, but they're not always considered breeds.[29] "Landrace" is a term used for early types domesticated animals, including dogs, where isolated populations of dogs are selected according to human goals; developing over time rather than through modern breeding techniques.[30] An example of a landrace dog would be the dog described as 'Basset' as early as 1585.[31] The landrace Basset was developed into the modern breeds of Dachshund and Basset Hound, as well as modern day terrier breeds.[32]

Another group of dogs that may be mistaken for breeds are the progeny of intentional crossbreedings of two purebred dogs. The popularity of these crosses are often the result of fads. Examples include the Puggle and the Labradoodle.[33] Mixed breed dogs may be offered a form of registration to allow them to participate in organized dog events. Often given the name All-American or AMBOR dog, the name does not signify that dogs so registered are a breed. Dogs must be spayed or neutered to be registered.[34]

Individual dogs or small groups of dogs may use an existing breed name or be given an invented breed name and listed with little or no documentation for a fee with "registry" companies with minimal verification requirements. The dogs are then bred and marketed as a "registered" breed, sometimes as a "rare" or new breed of dogs.[35]

List[edit]

Name/Name FCI FCI No. English Name Picture
Affenpinscher 186 Affenpinscher Affenpinscher.jpg
Afghan Hound 228 Afghan Hound Afghan Hound.jpg
Aidi 247 Aidi Aidi.jpg
Airedale Terrier 7 Airedale Terrier Airedale Terrier.jpg
Akita Inu 255 Akita Inu Akita inu.jpeg
Alaskan Husky Alaskan Husky Goose-Alaskan Husky.jpg
Alaskan Klee Kai Alaskan Klee Kai Standard Alaskan Klee Kai.jpg
Alaskan Malamute 243 Alaskan Malamute Alaskanmalamute0b.jpg
Alpine Dachsbracke 254 Alpine Dachsbracke Alpejski gończy krótkonożny g99.jpg
Altdeutscher Hütehund Old German Cattledog Gelbbacke.jpg
American Akita 344 American Akita Great japanese dog00.jpg
American Bulldog American Bulldog American Bulldog 600.jpg
American Cocker Spaniel 167 American Cocker Spaniel AmericanCockerSpaniel wb.jpg
American Eskimo Dog American Eskimo Dog American Eskimo Dog.jpg
American Foxhound 303 American Foxhound AmericanFoxhound2.jpg
American Hairless Terrier American Hairless Terrier TagnonPond9-6-03.jpg
American Pit Bull Terrier American Pit Bull Terrier American Pit Bull Terrier (Bubu).jpg
American Staffordshire Terrier 286 American Staffordshire Terrier
American Toy Terrier American Toy Terrier Americantoyterrier.jpg
American Water Spaniel 301 American Water Spaniel American water spaniel 01.jpg
Anatolian Greyhound Anatolian Greyhound
Anglo-Français de Petite Vénerie 325 Medium-sized Anglo-French Hound Anglo-Français de petite vénerie.jpg
Appenzeller Sennenhund 46 Appenzeller Sennenhund Appenz.jpg
Ariégeois 20 Ariege Hound Gończy 059.jpg
Australian Cattle Dog 287 Australian Cattle Dog Australian Cattle Dog Naava.jpg
Australian Kelpie 293 Australian Kelpie Australien Kelpie.jpg
Australian Shepherd 342 Australian Shepherd Australian Shepherd.jpg
Australian Silky Terrier 236 Australian Silky Terrier Australian Silky Terrier.jpg
Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog 251 Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog
Australian terrier 8 Australian terrier Australian Terrier2.jpg
Azawakh 307 Azawakh Chart afrykański azawakh 31.jpg
Bangkaew Dog Bangkaew Dog
Barbet 105 Barbet Barbet.jpg
Bardino, Perro de Ganado Majorero Bardino Bardina-Donna-1.jpg
Basenji 43 Basenji Basenji 600.jpg
Basset Artésien Normand 34 Norman Artesian Basset Basset artezyjsko-normandzki. Umbra z Romiszówki.jpg
Basset Bleu de Gascogne 35 Blue Gascony Basset Basset bleu de Gascogne.jpg
Basset Fauve de Bretagne 36 Fawn Brittany Basset Basset Fauve de Bretagne 600.jpg
Basset Hound 163 Basset Hound Basset Hound 600.jpg
Bayerischer Gebirgsschweißhund 217 Bavarian Mountain Hound 2005-12 Zoran2.jpg
Beagle 161 Beagle Beagle 600.jpg
Bearded Collie 271 Bearded Collie Bearded Collie 600.jpg
Beauceron 44 Beauceron Beauceron Mouton2.jpg
Bedlington Terrier 9 Bedlington Terrier Bedlington terrier 234.jpg
Belgian Griffon (Griffons belges) 80, 81, 82 Brussels Griffon Gryfonik brukselski 980.jpg
Bergamasco 194 Bergamasco Bergamasco 600.jpg
Berger Blanc Suisse, (Weißer Schweizer Schäferhund) 347 White Swiss Shepherd Weißer schäferhund.jpg
Berger Picard 176 Picardy Shepherd PicardPortrait.jpg
Berger des Pyrénées 138 and 141 Pyrenean Shepherd Berger-des-Pyrenees Adeux 0565x0404.jpg
Berner Sennenhund,
Bouvier bernois, Bernenski pies pasterski
45 Bernese Mountain Dog Berneński pies pasterski.jpg
Bichon Frisé, Bichon à poil frisé 215 Bichon Frisé Bichon Frise 600.jpg
Bichon Havanais 250 Havanese Havanese black particolour.jpg
Billy 25 Billy
Black and Tan Coonhound 300 Black and Tan Coonhound Black and Tan Coonhound.jpg
Tchiorny Terrier 327 Black Russian Terrier Czarny terier rosyjski 64.jpg
Blue Picardy Spaniel 106 Blue Picardy Spaniel Epagneul bleu de picardie 868.jpg
Bluetick Coonhound Bluetick Coonhound BluetickCoonhound.jpg
Boerboel Boerboel Boerboel.jpg
Bohemian Spotted Dog Bohemian Spotted Dog Horaklabor.jpg
Bichon bolonais 196 Bolognese Bolończyk 5e3.jpg
Bolonka franzuska Bolonka franzuska Bolonka-Franzuska.jpg
Bolonka Zwetna Bolonka Zwetna.jpg
Border Collie 297 Border Collie Border Collie 600.jpg
Border Terrier 10 Border Terrier Border Terrier.jpg
Borzoi 193 Borzoi Borzoi female.jpg
Bosanski Ostrodlaki Gonic Barak 155 Bosnian Coarse-Haired Hound Gonic.jpg
Boston Terrier 140 Boston Terrier BostonTerrierBrindleStand w.jpg
Bouvier des Flandres 191 Bouvier des Flandres
Bouledogue Français 101 French Bulldog Buldog francuski pszeniczny.jpg
Boykin Spaniel Boykin Spaniel Boykin spaniel.jpg
Braque francais type Pyrenees 134 French Pointing Dog - Pyrenean type Wyżeł pirenejski 308.jpg
Bracco Italiano 202 Bracco Italiano Bracco Italiano.jpg
Brandlbracke 63 Austrian Black and Tan Hound Brandlbracke.jpg
Braque d' Auvergne 180 Auvergne Pointing Dog Braque d'auvergne 323.jpg
Braque du Bourbonnais 179 Bourbonnais Pointing Dog Braque du Bourbonnais.jpg
Braque Saint-Germain 177 Braque Saint-Germain Braque saint-germain 666.jpg
Briard, Berger de Brie 113 Briard Aramis-briard.JPG
Briquet Griffon Vendeen 19 Medium Vendeen Griffon Briquet Griffon Vendeen.jpg
Broholmer 315 Broholmer Ivarr.JPG
Bulldog 149 Bulldog Bulldog standing.JPG
Bull Terrier 11 Bull Terrier Bull terrier 2.jpg
Bullmastiff 157 Bullmastiff
Ca de Bou fr: dogue de Majorque 249 Majorca Mastiff Ca de bou 347.jpg
Ca de Bestiar 321 Majorca Shepherd Dog Ca de Bestiar.JPG
Cairn Terrier 4 Cairn Terrier Cairn-terriers.jpg
Can de Palleiro Galician Palleiro Dog, Palleiro Shepherd Dog, Galician Cattledog, Palleiro Cadeliño palleiro GFDL8.jpg
Canaan Dog 273 Canaan Dog CanaanDog3.jpg
Canadian Inuit Dog Canadian Inuit Dog, Canadian Eskimo Dog Canadian Inuit Dog.jpg
Cane Corso Italiano 343 Cane Corso, Italian Corso Dog CaneCorso (23).jpg
Cane da pastore Maremmano-Abbruzzese 201 Maremma and Abruzzes Sheepdog Maremma.jpg
Cane pecoraio siciliano Sicilian Sheepdog Canedimannara.jpg
Caniche, Pudel 172 Poodle Pudel miniatura 342.jpg
Cão de Água Português 37 Portuguese Water Dog Cão de agua Português 2.jpg
Cão Fila de São Miguel 340 Azores Cattle Dog Caofila.jpg
Cao de Serra de Aires 93 Portuguese Sheepdog Cao de Serra de Aires600.jpg
Caravan hound Caravan Hound Caravan hound Dolly1.jpg
Carolina Dog Carolina Dog Carolina Dog 1.jpg
Catahoula Leopard Dog Catahoula Leopard Dog
Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog - Red Leopard.jpg
Catahoula Bulldog Catahoula Bulldog Catahoula Bulldog red tan.jpg
Caucasian Ovcharka 328 Caucasian Ovcharka, Caucasian Mountain Dog Owczarek kaukaski 65.jpg
Cavalier King Charles Spaniel 136 Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Cavalier-king-charles-spaniels.jpg
Central Asian Shepherd Dog 335 Central Asia Shepherd Dog Owczarek środkowoazjatycki.jpg
Český fousek 245 Bohemian wire-haired Pointing Griffon Czeski fousek bg6.jpg
Český Teriér 246 Czech Terrier Terier czeski 123 LM.jpg
Cierny Sery 8s45heryprobaobraz 018.jpg
Československý vlčiak, Tschechoslowakischer Wolfhund 332 Czechoslovakian Wolfdog TWH-jolly.JPG
Chart Polski 333 Polish Greyhound, Polish Sighthound Chart polski 67u7.jpg
Chesapeake Bay Retriever 263 Chesapeake Bay Retriever Chesapeakebayretriever01-l.jpg
Chien de Montagne des Pyrénées, Patou 137 Pyrenean Mountain Dog Pyrenean Mountain Dog 600.jpg
Chien de Berger Belge, Groenendael 15 Belgian Shepherd Groenendael Belgian Groenendael 600.jpg
Chien de Berger Belge, Laekenois 15 Belgian Shepherd Laekenois Belgian Laekenois 600.jpg
Chien de Berger, Malinois 15 Belgian Shepherd Malinois Belgian Malinois male Flickr.jpg
Chien de Berger Belge, Tervuren 15 Belgian Shepherd Tervuren Tervueren.jpg
Cão da serra da Estrela 173 Estrela Mountain Dog Cao da serra da estrela 777.jpg
Cao de castro laboreiro 170 Portuguese Cattle Dog Cao de castro laboreiro.jpg
Chien de Saint-Hubert 84 Bloodhound Bloodhound 800.jpg
Chien d'Artois 28 Artois Hound
Chihuahua 218 Chihuahua Can047eue.jpg
Chinese Crested Dog 288 Chinese Crested Dog IndyStands.jpg
Chinook Chinook Wikichinook.JPG
Chodský pes Bohemian Shepherd Chodsky pies 54.jpg
Chortaj Hortaya Borzaya.jpg
Chow Chow 205 Chow Chow Chowchow.jpg
Ciobanesc Românesc Carpatin 350 Romanian Carpathian Shepherd Dog Carpathian Sheepdog-1.jpg
Ciobanesc Romanesc de Bucovina 357 Romanian de Bucovina Shepherd Dog Bucovina Sheepdog.jpg
Ciobanesc Romanesc Mioritic 349 Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog Mioritic.jpg
Cirneco dell'Etna 199 Cirneco dell'Etna Cirneco dell Etna 611.jpg
Clumber Spaniel 109 Clumber Spaniel Clumber spaniel 767.jpg
Çoban Köpeği 331 Anatolian Shepherd Dog Kangal-welpen-de 003.jpg
Continental Toy Spaniel Papillon 77 Papillon Dog1515.jpg
Coton de Tulear 283 Coton de Tulear Coton de Tular 1.jpg
Crete Hound Cretan Hound Kritikosichnilatis 1.jpg
Cursinu Cursinu Cursinu JPG.jpg
Curly Coated Retriever 110 Curly Coated Retriever Curly Coated Retriever.jpg
Dachshund, Dackel, Teckel 148 Dachshund MiniDachshund1 wb.jpg
Dalmatiner Dalmatinac 153 Dalmatian Dalmatiner 2.jpg
Dandie Dinmont Terrier 168 Dandie Dinmont Terrier Dandie Dinmont Terrier 600.jpg
Dansk-Svensk Gaardshund 356 Danish/Swedish Farm Dog DanishFarmDog.jpg
Deerhound 164 Deerhound Deerhound 305.jpg
Deutsche Bracke 299 German Hound DeutscheBracke.jpg
Deutscher Boxer 144 Boxer Boxer female brown.jpg
Deutsche Dogge 235 Great Dane Dogge Odin.jpg
Deutsch-Langhaar 117 German Longhaired Pointer DeutschLanghaarneu.jpg
Deutsch Stichelhaar 232 German Rough-haired Pointing Dog 03030288 Deutsch Stichelhaa.jpg
Deutscher Pinscher fr:Pinscher allemand 184 German Pinscher German Pinscher.JPG
Deutscher Spitz 97 German Spitz Keeshond Majic.jpg
Deutscher Wachtel 104 German Spaniel Deutscher Wachtel 2.jpg
Deutsch Kurzhaar 119 German Shorthaired Pointer GermanShorthPtr wb.jpg
Deutscher Schäferhund 166 German Shepherd Dog GermanShep1 wb.jpg
Deutsch Drahthaar 98 German Wirehaired Pointer GermanWirehrPtr1 wb.jpg
Do-Khyi 230 Tibetan Mastiff 11m-czny mastif.jpg
Dobermann 143 Doberman Pinscher Dobermann.jpg
Dogo Argentino 292 Argentine Dogo Dogo Argentino.jpg
Dogo Canario 346 Canary Dog Perro-de-Presa-Canario.jpg
Dogue de Bordeaux 116 Dogue de Bordeaux, French Mastiff Dogue de Bordeaux standing.jpg
Drentse Patrijshond 224 Dutch Partridge Dog Drentse Patrijshond.jpg
Drever 130 Drever Drever NUCh Tanjo.jpg
Dunker 203 Norwegian Hound Dunker.jpg
Elo Elo Elo.jpg
English cocker spaniel 5 English Cocker Spaniel EnglishCockerSpaniel wb.jpg
English Coonhound English Coonhound English Coonhound.jpg
English Foxhound 159 English Foxhound English Foxhound portrait.jpg
English-Springer-Spaniel 125 English Springer Spaniel English-Springer-Spaniel.jpg
English Pointer 1 Pointer English pointer.jpg
English Setter Setter anglais 2 English Setter English setter.jpg
English Toy Terrier 13 English Toy Terrier, King Charles Spaniel English Toy Terrier 600 01.jpg
Entlebucher Sennenhund 47 Entelbuch Mountain Dog Entlebucher2 wb.jpg
Epagneul Breton 95 Brittany Epagneul Breton.jpg
Epagneul Français 175 French Spaniel Epagneulfrancais.jpg
Epagneul Picard 108 Picardy Spaniel Epagneul picard 685.jpg
Epagneul de Pont-Audemer 114 Pont Audemer Spaniel Epagneul de pont-audemer h67.jpg
Erdélyi Kopó 241 Transylvanian Hound Erdelyi kopo VadaszNimrodSzeder01.jpg
Eurasier 291 Eurasier Eurasier Image 001.jpg
Fila Brasileiro 225 Brazilian Mastiff Mastif brazylijski g56.jpg
Flat Coated Retriever 121 Flat-Coated Retriever Flat-Coated Retriever large.jpg
Fox Terrier 12 and 169 Fox Terrier Elias1červen2006.jpg
Galgo español fr:lévrier espagnol 285 Spanish Greyhound Galgo Español hembra 03.jpg
Gammel Dansk Hønsehund 281 Old Danish Pointer Wyżeł duński 123.jpg
Glen of Imaal Terrier 302 Glen of Imaal Terrier Adult Glen of Imaal terrier.jpg
Golden Retriever 111 Golden Retriever Golden Retriever standing Tucker.jpg
Gończy Polski 354 Polish Hunting Dog, Polish Scenthound PolishScenthoundChPl-DRAN-GoniecPomorski-wl.M.Dydel.jpg
Gordon Setter fr:Setter gordon 6 Gordon Setter Orrvilas enska w800px.jpg
Gos-d'Atura-Catala 87 Catalan Sheepdog Gos-d'Atura-Catala.jpg
Grand anglo-français tricolore 322 Great Anglo-French Tricolour Hound Grand anglo francais tricol.jpg
Grand anglo-français blanc et orange 324 Great Anglo-French White and Orange Hound 06101298 Grand anglo francais orange.jpg
Grand anglo-français blanc et noir 323 Great Anglo-French White and Black Hound Grand anglo francais noir.jpg
Grand Basset Griffon Vendéen 33 Large Vendeen Griffon Basset G Basset Griffon Vendeen 600.jpg
Grand Griffon Vendeen 282 Rosa Bonheur Grand Griffon Vendeen.jpg
Grand Bleu de Gascogne 22 Great Gascony Hound, Great Gascony Blue Oldblue.jpg
Grønlandshund 274 Greenland Dog Pies grenlandzki 871.jpg
Greyhound 158 Greyhound Greyhound 894.jpg
Griffon Fauve de Bretagne 66 Fawn Brittany Griffon 08115500 Griffon Fauve Bretagne.jpg
Griffon bleu de Gascogne 32 Blue Gascony Griffon 04031124 Griffon Bleu de Gascogne.jpg
Griffon d'arrêt à poil dur Korthals 107 Wirehaired Pointing Griffon, Korthals Griffon Korthalsgriffon.jpg
Griffon Nivernais 17 Griffon Nivernais Griffon nivernais.jpg
Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund fr:Grand bouvier Suisse 58 Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Großer Schweizer Sennenhund.jpg
Haldenstovare 267 Halden Hound Haldenstovare.jpg
Hamiltonstövare 132 Hamilton Hound Hamiltonstovare 600.jpg
Hannoverscher Schweisshund 213 Hanover Hound Hannoverscher Schweisshund.jpg
Harrier 295 Harrier Harrier tricolour.jpg
Hellinikos Ichnilatis 214 Hellenic Hound Hellinikos Ichnilatis.jpg
Hokkaido (dog) 261 Hokkaido inu Ainu-Dog.jpg
Hollandse Herdershond 223 Dutch Shepherd Dog DutchShepherdShortCoat.jpg
Hollandse Smoushond 308 Dutch Smoushond Hollandsche smoushonden 2.JPG
Hovawart 190 Hovawart Hovawart1.jpg
Hrvatski ovčar 277 Croatian Sheepdog Gera062005sed.jpg
Ioujnorousskaîa Ovtcharka 326 South Russian Ovcharka South Russian Ovcharka.jpg
Huntaway Huntaway Huntaway.JPG
Indian Spitz 289 Indianspitz03.jpeg
Irish Red and White Setter 330 Irish Red and White Setter Seter irlandzki bialo-czerwony pl.jpg
Irish Setter 120 Irish Setter Can Setter dog GFDL.jpg
Irish Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier 40 Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier Soft-coated wheaten terrier.jpg
Irish Terrier 139 Irish Terrier Irish terrier sitting.jpg
Irish Water Spaniel 124 Irish Water Spaniel Irlandzki spaniel wodny 676.jpg
Irish Wolfhound 160 Irish Wolfhound Irischer Wolshund.jpg
Islenskur Fjárhundur fr:Chien de berger islandais 289 Icelandic Sheepdog IcelandSheepdog21.jpg
Istarski Kratkodlaki Gonič 151 Istrian short-haired Hound Istrische Bracke.jpg
Istarski Oštrodlaki Gonič 152 Istrian coarse-haired Hound Istrian hound2.jpg
Jack Russell Terrier 345 Jack Russell Terrier Jackrussellinterrieri.jpg
Jagdterrier 103 German Hunting Terrier Jagdterrier 223.jpg
Jämthund 42 Swedish Elkhound Jamthlnd.jpg
Japanese Chin 206 Japanese Chin, Japanese Spaniel Japanese Chin adult.jpg
Kai (dog) 317 Kai Kaidog.jpg
Karakatschan Karakatschan Karakatschan.jpg
Karjalankarhukoira 48 Karelian bear dog Alex-Karelsk Bjornhund.jpg
Karelo-Finnish Laika, Finlandskaja, Karelskaja → Suomenpystykorva (Finnish Spitz) 49 Karelo-Finnish Laika Karelo Finnish Laika.jpg
Kraški ovčar 278 Karst Shepherd Owczarek kraski g756.jpg
Kerry Blue Terrier 3 Kerry Blue Terrier
Kintamani Kintamani Kintamani.jpg
King Charles Spaniel 128 King Charles Spaniel King Charles Spaniel 200.jpg
Kishu Inu 318 Kishu Kishu.jpg
Komondor 53 Komondor Komondor delvin.jpg
Kooikerhondje 314 Kooikerhondje Kooiker03.jpg
Korean Jindo 334 Korean Jindo Korean Jindo Dog.jpg
Kritikos Lagonikos, Kretahund Kretahound Kritikosichnilatis 1.jpg
Kromfohrlander 192 Kromfohrlander Kromfohrlaender glatt.jpg
Kuvasz 54 Kuvasz 2-kuvasz.jpg
Kyi Leo Kyi Leo.jpg
Labradoodle Labradoodle Labradoodle Laying 2375px.jpg
Labrador Retriever 122 Labrador Retriever Labradorretriever9b.jpg
Lagotto Romagnolo 298 Lagotto Romagnolo Lagotto romagnolo 322.jpg
Lakeland Terrier 70 Lakeland Terrier Lakeland Terrier.jpg
Lancashire Heeler Lancashire Heeler Lancashire Heeler 600.jpg
Landseer 226 Landseer Landseer.jpg
Lapinporokoira 284 Lapinporokoira, Lapponian Herder Lapskvallhund.jpg
Leonberger 145 Leonberger Leonberger09.jpg
Lhasa Apso 227 Lhasa Apso Lhasa apso r5.jpg
Lucas Terrier Lucas Terrier LucasTerrier.jpg
Lundehund 265 Norwegian Lundehund Lundehund-2003.jpg
Lupo Italiano LupoItaliano.jpg
Lurcher Lurcher Lurcher Rocky.jpg
Maltese, bichon maltais 65 Maltese Maltese 600.jpg
Magyar Agar 240 Hungarian Greyhound HungarianGreyhound.jpg
Magyar Vizsla 57, 239 Hungarian Vizsla Wyżeł węgierski gładkowłosy 500.jpg
Manchester Terrier 71 Manchester Terrier Mancherster Terrier.jpg
Maneto Maneto 2.jpg
Markiesje Dutch Tulip Dog Markiesje2.gif
Mastiff 264 Mastiff Mastiff 2.jpg
Mastín del Pirineo 92 Pyrenean Mastiff MasPiri-Puma-FIN.jpg
Mastín español fr:mâtin espagnol 91 Spanish Mastiff Mastif hiszpański 7512.jpg
Middleasian greyhound - Tazi Middleasian greyhound - Tazi Chart środkowoazjatycki Zeila.jpg
Miniature Australian Shepherd Miniature Australian Shepherd Miniature Australian Shepherd red tricolour.jpg
Miniature Pinscher 185 Miniature Pinscher Zwergpinscher.Denzo-vom-Reichsgraf-zu-Herrenheim 1500X1500.jpg
Miniature Shar Pei Miniature Shar Pei XBlack.JPG
Moscow Watchdog Moscow Watchdog Moscowwatchdog.jpg
Large Münsterländer/Small Münsterländer 102 and 118 Munsterlander Kleiner Munsterlander edit.jpg
Mudi 238 Mudi Hondenras Mudi.jpg
Neapolitan Mastiff 197 Neapolitan Mastiff Cannon - Male Neapolitan Mastiff 1998.jpeg
Newfoundland 50 Newfoundland Newfoundland brown.jpg
Nihon Supittsu Japanischer/Japanese Spitz 262 Japanese Spitz Japanspitz 600.JPG
Norrbottenspets 276 Nordic Spitz Nordic Spitz.jpg
Norsk Buhund 237 Norwegian Buhund Norsk buhund.jpg
Norsk Elghund 242 and 268 Norwegian Elkhound Norwegian Elkhound.jpg
Norfolkterrier 272 Norfolk Terrier Norfolkterriersideview.jpg
Norwichterrier 72 Norwich Terrier Norwich terier 670.jpg
Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever 312 Nova Scotia Duck-Tolling Retriever Nova scotia duck tolling retriever 111.jpg
Ogar Polski 52 Polish Hound PolishHound-MlChPl-OKSANA-ZOstregoBoru-wl.JoannaZembrzuska 3.JPG
Olde English Bulldogge Olde English Bulldogge UKC Olde English Bulldogge Female.jpg
Old English Sheepdog, Bobtail 16 Old English Sheepdog Old english sheepdog Ch Bobbyclown's Dare for More.jpg
Österreichischer Pinscher 64 Austrian Pinscher Pinczer austiacki 678.jpg
Otterhound 294 Otterhound Otterhund.jpg
Parson Russell Terrier 339 Parson Russell Terrier Parson Russell Terrier.jpg
Pastor Garafiano Garafiano Shepherd Ch-Rasti.jpg
Patterdale terrier Patterdale terrier Patterdale.JPG
Piccolo Levriero Italiano 200 Italian Greyhound Italian Greyhound standing gray.jpg
Pekingese 207 Pekingese Black pekinese tihamer on street.jpg
Perro de Agua Español 336 Spanish Water Dog Perro agua.jpg
Cimarrón Uruguayo 353 Cimarron PERRO CIMARRON.jpg
Perro Pastor Vasco Basque Shepherd Dog Pastor vasco m 14months loby 3018.jpg
Perro sin pelo del Perú 310 Peruvian Hairless Dog PHDStandardStanding - Perro Sin Pelo del Perú.jpg
Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen 67 Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen Petit basset griffon vendeen.jpg
Petit bleu de Gascogne 31 Small Blue Gascony Hound Mały gończy gaskoński Voltaire des Hauts Plateaux du Cezalier Gal233.jpg
Petit chien lion 233 Löwchen Lwi piesek 65.jpg
Pharaoh Hound Kelb Tal Fenek 248 Pharaoh Hound Pies faraona e34.jpg
Plott Hound Plott Hound Plotthound.jpg
Plummer Terrier Plummer Terrier PlummerTerrier.jpg
Podenco andaluz Andalusian Hound Podenco chico.jpg
Podenco Canario 329 Canarian Warren Hound Podenco Canario 1.jpg
Podenco Ibicenco Ibizan Podenco 89 Ibizan Hound Podenco z ibizy 645.jpg
Podengo Português Portuguese Podengo 94 Portuguese Podengo Podengo Portugues.jpg
Poitevin 24 Poitevin Poitevin-01.jpg
Polski Owczarek Nizinny, PON, Nizinny 251 Polish Lowland Sheepdog Polski owczarek nizinny.jpg
Polski Owczarek Podhalanski 252 Tatra Shepherd Dog Polski Owczarek Podhalanski.jpg
Porcelaine 30 Porcelaine Porcelaine.jpg
Perdigueiro Português 187 Portuguese Pointer Wyżeł portugalski 123.jpg
Pražský krysařík Prague Ratter Prazsky krysarik 1.jpg
Pudelpointer 216 Pudelpointer Pudelpointer on point.jpg
Pug fr:carlin 253 Pug Pug 600.jpg
Puli 55 Puli Puli 600.jpg
Pumi 56 Pumi Hungarianpumi.JPG
Rampur Hound Rampur Hound Rampurgreyhound.jpg
Rat Terrier Rat Terrier Rat Terrier Ruby.jpg
Rafeiro do Alentejo 96 Alentejo Mastiff Rafeiro do Alentejo.jpg
Rajapalayam (dog) Rajapalayam Hound Rajapalayam Hound.PNG
Ratonero Andaluz Andalusian Mouse-Hunting Dog Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz.jpg
Redbone Coonhound Redbone Coonhound Redbone Coonhound.jpg
Rhodesian Ridgeback fr:Chien de Rhodésie à crête dorsale 146 Rhodesian Ridgeback Rhodesian ridgeback.jpg
Rottweiler 147 Rottweiler Rottweiler.jpg
Rough coated collie 156 Rough Collie Collie 087.jpg
Russian Spaniel Russian Spaniel Russpaniel.jpg
Russo-European Laika 304 Russo-European Laika Russo European Laika.jpg
Russkiy Toy 352 Russian Toy Terrier RusskiyToyWelpe9Mon.JPG
Saarlooswolfhond 311 Saarlooswolfhond Bow bow.jpg
Samoiedskaïa Sabaka 212 Samoyed Samoyed 600.jpg
Saluki 269 Saluki Saluki 600.jpg
Sarplaninac 41 Sarplaninac Szarplaninac t5645.jpg
Schapendoes 313 Dutch Schapendoes Schapendoes.jpg
Schiller Hound 131 Schiller Hound Gończy schillera głowa j87.jpg
Schipperke 83 Schipperke Schipperke0001.jpg
Sealyham Terrier 74 Sealyham Terrier Sealyham terrier 230809.JPG
Shetland Sheepdog 88 Shetland Sheepdog ShetlandShpdogBlue2 wb.jpg
Scottish Terrier 73 Scottish Terrier ScottishTerrier.jpg
Schnauzer 181, 182 and 183 Schnauzer Sznaucer olbrzym pieprz i sól.jpg
Segugio italiano 198, 337 Italian Hound Segugioitalianopelorasofulvo.JPG
Shar-Pei 309 Shar Pei, Chinese Shar-Pei Sushisharpei.jpg
Shiba Inu 257 Shiba Inu Shiba czarna.jpg
Shih-Poo Shih-Poo Shih Poo Barton 2.jpg
Shih-Tzu 208 Shih Tzu Shih-Tzu.JPG
Shikoku 319 Shikoku Shikoku dog.jpg
Shiloh shepherd Shiloh Shepherd SirHarley of Shenandoah Kennel.JPG
Siberian Husky 270 Siberian Husky Siberian husky2.jpg
Silken Windhound Silken Windhound Silken Windhound Nobble Stack F.jpg
Skye Terrier 75 Skye Terrier Skye terrier 800.jpg
Slovenský kopov 244 Slovakian Hound MVP Nitra 2004 (8).jpg
Slovenský hrubosrstý stavač 320 Slovakian Wire-haired Pointing Dog Bella z Milhostovskych poli 2.jpg
Slovensky Cuvac 142 Slovakian Chuvach Cuvac 1.jpg
Spinone Italiano 165 Spinone Italiano Spinone italiano Daisy.JPG
Sloughi 188 Sloughi Sloughi.jpg
Smaland-Stövare 129 Smalands Hound Smaland-Stövare.jpg
Smooth coated collie 296 Smooth Collie Smooth Collie 600.jpg
Srpski Gonic 150 Serbian Hound Serbian Hound.JPG
Srpski Trobojni Gonic 229 Serbian Tricolour Hound Srpski Trobojni Gonic .gif
Stabyhoun 222 Stabyhoun Stabyhoun.jpg
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 76 Staffordshire Bull Terrier Staffordshire Bull Terrier 600.jpg
St. Bernhardshund, Bernhadiner 61 St. Bernard dog ClemensVomWingert.jpg
Steirische Rauhhaarbracke 62 Styrian coarse-haired Hound Steirische Rauhhaarbracke.jpg
Suomenajokoira 51 Finnish Hound Nuori-suomenajokoira.jpg
Suomenlapinkoira 189 Finnish Lapphund Fiński lapphund 768.jpg
Suomenpystykorva 49 Finnish Spitz Finnish Spitz 600.jpg
Sussex Spaniel 127 Sussex Spaniel Sussex spaniel t43.jpg
Swedish Lapphund 135 Swedish Lapphund Svensk lapphund.JPG
Schweizerischer Niederlaufhund,
Petit chien courant suisse
60 Small Swiss Hound 08115491 Schwyzer Niederlaufhund.jpg
Schweizer Laufhund 59 Swiss Hound Vycvik Stopy (3).JPG
Taigan Taigan Taigan.jpg
Taiwan Dog, Formosan Dog 348 Taiwan Dog Formosan nina.jpg
Tamaskan Tamaskan Dog Tamaskan.jpg
Terrier Brasileiro 341 Brazilian Terrier Brazilian terrier.JPG
Tesem Tesem Tesem.jpg
Tibetan Spaniel 231 Tibetan Spaniel Tibetansk spaniel.jpg
Tornjak 355 Bosnian -Herzegovinian -Croatian Shepherd Dog Bosniantornjak.jpg
Tosa inu 260 Tosa Inu, Tosa Tosa inu 7834.jpg
Toy Manchester Terrier Toy Manchester Terrier Toy-manchester-terrier-weave.png
Treeing Walker Coonhound Treeing Walker Coonhound Treeing Walker Coonhound.jpg
Thai Ridgeback 338 Thai Ridgeback Thai-Ridgeback.jpg
Tibetan terrier Dhoki Apso 209 Tibetan Terrier DHOKI APSO.jpg
Tiroler Bracke 68 Tyrolean Hound Tiroler Bracke.jpg
Västgötaspets 14 Swedish Vallhund SwedishVallhundAgility wb.jpg
Volpino 195 Volpino Italiano Volpino04.jpg
Vostotchno-Sibirskaïa Laïka 305 East Siberian Laika East Siberian Laika 03.jpg
Waeller Waeller Waeller1.jpg
Weimaraner 99 Weimaraner Weimaraner wb.jpg
Welsh Corgi Cardigan 38 Welsh Corgi (Cardigan) NordJW-06 Mudpaws Duke Silver.jpg
Welsh Corgi Pembroke 39 Welsh Corgi (Pembroke) Pembroke Welsh Corgi 600.jpg
Welsh Springer Spaniel 126 Welsh Springer Spaniel Welsh Springer Spaniel 1.jpg
Welsh Terrier 78 Welsh Terrier Welshterrier.jpg
West Highland White Terrier 85 West Highland White Terrier West highland white terier 454.jpg
Westfalenterrier Westfal Terrier Westfalenterrier.jpg
Westphälische Dachsbracke 100 Westphalian Dachsbracke Westfälische Dachsbracke.jpg
Wetterhond 221 Wetterhond Fryzyjski pies wodny u68.jpg
Whippet 162 Whippet WhippetWhiteSaddled wb.jpg
White English Bulldog White English Bulldog Hedden's Buddy Roe.jpg
Xoloitzcuintli 234 Xoloitzcuintle, Mexican Hairless Dog Mexico.Xoloitzcuintle.01.jpg
Yakutian Laika Yakutian Laika Yakutian Laikas Gorbi and Damka.jpg
Yorkshire terrier 86 Yorkshire terrier Yorkshire Terrier WA Mozart Dolce Sinfonia.jpg
Zapadno-Sibirskaïa Laïka 306 West Siberian Laika West Siberian Laika.jpg

Lucypic.jpg

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. The Merriam-Webster Editorial Staff PA. Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: G&C Merriam Company. 1967. p. 274. "A breed is a group of domestic animals related through common ancestors and visibly similar in most characteristics, having been differentiated from others by human influence; a distinctive group of domesticated animals differentiated from the wild type under the influence of man, the sum of the progeny of a known and designated foundation stock without admixture of other blood." 
  2. ^ Coppinger, Raymond & Lorna Coppinger. Dogs. Scribner 2001, ISBN 0-684-85530-5, Chapter 3, "Natural Breeds", p. 85. "Natural breeds can arise locally with no human interaction"
  3. ^ Donna L. Morden; Seranne, Ann; Wendell J. Sammet; Gasow, Julia (2004). The joy of breeding your own show dog. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House. ISBN 0-7645-7302-0. 
  4. ^ Lynn Marmer (1984). "The New Breed Of Municipal Dog Control Laws:Are They Constitutional?". first published in the University of Cincinnati Law Review. Archived from the original on 2000-09-26. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "The court found it was impossible to identify the breed of an unregistered dog." 
  5. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary: "Breed is usually applied to domestic animals; species or variety to wild animals and to plants; and race to men."
  6. ^ Budiansky", Stephen (2000). The Truth About Dogs; an Inquiry into the Ancestry, Social Conventions, Mental Habits, and Moral Fiber of Canis familiaris. New York, U.S.A.: Viking Penguin. p. 35. ISBN 0-670-89272-6. 
  7. ^ http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/07-08/bill/asm/ab_1601-1650/ab_1634_bill_20070531_amended_asm_v94.html
  8. ^ http://www.akc.org/canine_legislation/CA_action_center.cfm
  9. ^ "Canine Genetics Offers New Mechanisms for the Study of Human Cancer", by Edouard Cadieu and Elaine A. Ostrander, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 16, 2181–2183, November 1, 2007. Published Online First November 2, 2007; doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2667
  10. ^ Allan, Ken; Allan, Diana (1999). THE COMPLETE SALUKI (Book of the Breed). Ringpress Books. ISBN 1-86054-195-X. 
  11. ^ Heather Wiles-Fone; H. Wiles-Fone (2003). The ultimate Labrador retriever. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House. ISBN 0-7645-2639-1. 
  12. ^ The Complete dog book: the photograph, history, and official standard of every breed admitted to AKC registration, and the selection, training, breeding, care, and feeding of pure-bred dogs. New York, N.Y: Howell Book House. 1992. ISBN 0-87605-464-5. 
  13. ^ Carles Vilà (et al.) of the University of California, California, USA, has studied archaeological evidence (fossil bones) indicating that canids could have been living with humans 100,000 years ago.Carles Vilà; Peter Savolainen; Jesús E. Maldonado; Isabel R. Amorim; John E. Rice; Rodney L. Honeycutt; Keith A. Crandall; Joakim Lundeberg; Robert K. Wayne (1997). "Multiple and Ancient Origins of the Domestic Dog". Science Vol. 276. no. 5319. pp. 1687–1689. doi:10.1126/science.276.5319.1687. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "The sequence divergence within this clade suggested that dogs originated more than 100,000 years before the present." 
  14. ^ Christine Mlot (June 28, 1997). "Stalking the Ancient Dog". Science News Online. Archived from the original on 2004-04-23. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "When we became an agricultural society, what we needed dogs for changed enormously, and a further and irrevocable division [between dogs and wolves] occurred at that point." 
  15. ^ 1 Catherine Marley. "What is a "Landrace"". The Lhasa Apso Information Source. Archived from the original on 2008-04-12. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "These animals developed their "type" from adaptation to a mix of function and the demands of the particular physical environment." 
  16. ^ Johan Gallant; Joseph Sithole (1999-01-01). "Description of the AFRICANIS landrace". Breeders in Africa website. Archived from the original on 1999-08-24. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "The people to whom these dogs traditionally belong do not tend to make body contact with them. However their settlements are seldom deserted from humans, other dogs and livestock, ensuring adequate socialization and environmental adaptation." 
  17. ^ Clark, Annie Rodgers; Brace, Andrew H. (1995). The International Encyclopedia of Dogs. New York: Howell Book House. p. 8. ISBN 0-87605-624-9. "In the strictest sense, dog breeds date back only to the last couple of decades of the nineteenth century, or to more recent decades in this (the twentieth) century but distinct types of dogs have existed centuries earlier." 
  18. ^ D. Phillip Sponenberg, DVM. "Livestock Guard Dogs: What is a Breed, and Why Does it Matter?" (essay). Kangal Dogs website. Archived from the original on 2004-10-20. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "The level of uniformity varies from breed to breed as the breeders' associations decide what to include and what to exclude." 
  19. ^ Diane Jessup. ""Different" breeds with the same name". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  20. ^ "Animal Pedigree Act 1985". Department of Justice, Canada. Retrieved 9 April 2008. [dead link]
  21. ^ Diane Blackman. "Getting a dog tips-Red Flags, Breeders you probably want to avoid" (website). Dog Play. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "Be especially cautious of registries that complain of some imagined difficulty or expense in registering dogs through AKC." 
  22. ^ "Purebred dog registrations". Canadian Federation of Humane Societies. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "Many puppy mills and backyard breeders are registering their dogs with invalid, Internet based registries." 
  23. ^ a b c d e Ostrander, Elaine A. (September–October 2007). "Genetics and the Shape of Dogs; Studying the new sequence of the canine genome shows how tiny genetic changes can create enormous variation within a single species". American Scientist (online). www.americanscientist.org. pp. also see chart page 4. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  24. ^ The Akita breed was left out of the American Scientist article from the reference cited within it without explanation. With Akita, the number of breeds is 85, matching the article's count. Parker, Heidi G.; et al. (21 May 2004). "Genetic Structure of the Purebred Domestic Dog" (PDF). Science 304 (5674): 1160–1164. doi:10.1126/science.1097406. PMID 15155949. Retrieved 20 May 2009. 
  25. ^ American Kennel Club. "AKC Glossary". AKC.com. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "A listing of dogs that have sired or produced a litter that has been registered with the AKC. With this information, a person can use Stud Book volumes to trace a dog's lineage and to produce pedigrees." 
  26. ^ American Kennel Club. "AKC Glossary". AKC.com. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "A dog whose sire and dam belong to the same breed and who are themselves of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed." 
  27. ^ KLUB CHOVATELÙ ÈESKÝCH TERIÉRÙ (KCHCT). "History of Cesky Terrier" (in Czech, English). Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  28. ^ Rorem, Linda. "Herding Dog Breeds - Stockdog breeds". Herding on the Web. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  29. ^ "How to find a farm collie or shepherd". 2001. Archived from the original on 2001-04-11. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  30. ^ Don Bixby (2003). "Types of Breeds". Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Don Bixby (2003). "History of the Basset Hound". BassetHoundRescue.com. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  32. ^ Marvin, John T. (1982). "2". The New Complete Scottish terrier (Second ed.). New York, New York: Howell Book House Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-87605-306-1. 
  33. ^ Bijal P. Trivedi (February 9, 2004). "What's a Labradoodle—Designer Dog or Just Another Mutt?". National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  34. ^ United Kennel Club. "UKC Registration, Limited Privilege". Archived from the original on 2006-02-05. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  35. ^ Wray, Michelle (2000). "Puppy Mills : What They Are and What You Can Do About Them". DORG Magazine. Retrieved 13 December 2013. "The AKC has now started requiring DNA testing for breeding dogs and puppies, which increases the costs to the miller dramatically, and vastly increases the chances of them getting caught for their dirty dealings and losing AKC privileges. Does this deter the millers? Not really. They just turn to different registries, like the Continental Kennel Club (CKC), America’s Pet Registry (APR), and others. Purebred papers from these sources are not worth the paper they’re printed on. Millers don’t even have to prove they own the dogs they bred, or that they are the breed they claim. These registries will even register mixed breeds" 

External links[edit]