|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||1,096 kJ (262 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||0 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.|
Dog meat refers to edible parts and the flesh derived from (predominantly domestic) dogs. Human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including China, ancient Mexico, and ancient Rome. Dog meat is currently consumed in a variety of countries such as China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Korea. In addition, dog meat has also been used as survival food in times of war and/or other hardships.
In contemporary times, some cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their traditional cuisine, while others consider consumption of dog to be offensive. Supporters of dog meat argue the distinction between livestock and pets is subjective. They also argue consuming dog meat is no different from consuming slaughtered pigs, chicken and cattle in other countries, such as the United States. Eating dog is forbidden under Muslim and Jewish dietary laws. In Buddhism, the Buddha prohibited eating dog meat alongside meats such as human, elephant, horse and snake. 
- 1 By region
- 1.1 Arctic and Antarctic
- 1.2 Canada
- 1.3 China mainland
- 1.4 Hong Kong
- 1.5 Taiwan
- 1.6 East Timor
- 1.7 France
- 1.8 Germany
- 1.9 Ghana
- 1.10 Hawaii
- 1.11 India
- 1.12 Indonesia
- 1.13 Japan
- 1.14 Korea
- 1.15 Mexico
- 1.16 Nigeria
- 1.17 Philippines
- 1.18 Poland
- 1.19 Polynesia
- 1.20 Switzerland
- 1.21 Tonga
- 1.22 United States
- 1.23 Vietnam
- 2 Pathology
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
Arctic and Antarctic
Dogs have historically been emergency food sources for various peoples in Siberia, Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland. Sled dogs are usually maintained for pulling sleds, but occasionally are eaten when no other food is available.
British explorer Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition became trapped, and ultimately killed their sled dogs for food. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:
"...there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog. One can reduce one's pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them. In this way they get fresh meat. Our dogs lived on dog's flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work. And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef. The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade's carcass it comes from. All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim - and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."
Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B. E. S. Ninnis to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party's rations, and was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks' food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 315 mile return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog's brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition hypervitaminosis A. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913, Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.
Under Canada's Wildlife Act, it is illegal to sell meat from any wild species, but there is no law against selling and serving canine meat, including dogs, if it is killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors.
In 2003, health inspectors discovered four frozen canine carcasses in the freezer of a Chinese restaurant in Edmonton which, in the end, were found to be coyotes. The Edmonton health inspector said that it is not illegal to sell and eat the meat of dogs and other canines, as long as the meat has been inspected.
|Mutton of the earth|
|Literal meaning||earth lamb|
|3-6 fragrant meat|
Dog meat (Chinese: 狗肉; pinyin: gǒu ròu) has been a source of food in some areas of China from around 500 BC, and possibly even earlier. Mencius, the philosopher, recommended dog meat because of its pharmaceutical properties. Ancient writings from the Zhou Dynasty referred to the "three beasts"[this quote needs a citation] (which were bred for food), comprising pig, goat, and dog. Dog meat is sometimes euphemistically called "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) or "mutton of the earth" (地羊 dì yáng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3-6 fragrant meat" (Chinese: 三六香肉; Cantonese Yale: sàam luhk hèung yuhk) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" are homophones, both pronounced gáu in Cantonese. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).
The eating of dog meat in China dates back thousands of years. Dog meat has long been thought by some to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months, as it is believed to generate heat and promote bodily warmth. Also, dogs have occasionally been eaten as an emergency food supply.
Eating dog is a socially acceptable practice in parts of southern China. Dog meat is very popular in the Guangdong and Guangxi regions of China. Chinese astronauts even incorporated dog as part of their diet in space.
Some controversy has emerged about the treatment of dogs in China, not because of the consumption itself, but because of other factors like cruelty involved with the killing, including allegations the animals are sometimes skinned while still alive.
A growing movement against consumption of cat and dog meat has gained attention from people in mainland China. Those changes began about two years after the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network (CCAPN), a networking project of the Chinese Animal Protection Network. Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat eating, starting in Guangzhou, and following up in more than ten other cities "with very optimal response from public."
Since January 2007, more than ten Chinese groups have joined an online signing event against the consumption of cat and dog meat. The signatures indicate the participants will avoid eating cat and dog meat in the future. This online signing event received more than 42,000 signatures from public, and has been circulated around the country.
Some Chinese restaurants in the United States serve "imitation dog meat", which is usually pulled pork, and purportedly flavored like dog meat, e.g. "Northern Chinese Restaurant", in Rosemead, California.
In China, draft legislation has been proposed at the start of 2010, which aims to prohibit the consumption of dog meat. The legislation, however, is not expected to be effective, despite officially outlawing the eating of dog meat if it is passed. On 26 January 2010, the first draft proposal of the legislation was introduced, with the main reason for the law reportedly to protect the country's animals from maltreatment, and includes a measure to jail people who eat dog for up to 15 days.
In Hong Kong, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance was introduced by the British colonial government on 6 January 1950 , it prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment. Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006 for having slaughtered two dogs. In an earlier case, in February 1998, a Hongkonger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food.
In Taiwan, dog meat is known by the euphemism "fragrant meat" (Chinese: 香肉; pinyin: xiāngròu). The eating of dog was previously more common and, as of 2010[update], is still practiced on some areas of the island. Dog meat is believed to have health benefits including improving circulation and raising body temperature. In 2004, the Taiwanese government (Republic of China) imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests. In 2007, another law was passed significantly increasing the fines to sellers of dog meat.
Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.
Although consumption of dog meat is not common in France, and is now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites, where butchered dog bones were discovered. Similar findings, corresponding to that time or earlier periods, have also been recorded through Europe. French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light." During the siege of Paris in 1870, there were lines at butcher's shops of people waiting to purchase dog meat. Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910.
Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis at least since the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton." In the early 20th century, consumption of dog meat in Germany was common. In 1937, a meat inspection law targeted against trichinella was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986.
Calwin Schwabe reported in 1979 that dog was widely eaten in Hawaii and considered to be of higher quality than pork or chicken. When Hawaiians first encountered early British and American explorers and exploiters, they were at a loss to explain the visitors' attitudes about dog meat. The Hawaiians raised both dogs and pigs as pets and for food. They could not understand why their British and American visitors only found the pig suitable for consumption.
There have been reports of locals in remote parts of North-East India, such as those in Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland, consuming dog meat. Apart from these areas, eating dog meat is a taboo throughout India. Hinduism, the primary religion of India, has a strong vegetarian tradition. Eating any meat is considered a taboo by many devout Hindus. However, in Manusmṛti, there is a story about how people ate dog meat when there was a scarcity of other food.
In Indonesia, the consumption of dog meat is usually associated with the Minahasa, a Christian ethnic group in northern Sulawesi, and Bataks of northern Sumatra, who consider dog meat to be a festive dish and usually reserve it for special occasions like weddings and Christmas. Popular Indonesian dog-meat dishes are rica-rica, called variably as "RW" or rintek wuuk, rica-rica waung, guk-guk, and "B1". Locally on Java, there are several names for dishes made from dog meat, such as sengsu (tongseng asu), sate jamu, and kambing balap.
Dog meat was consumed widely in Japan until 675 A.D., when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th-9th months of the year, along with cattle, horse, monkey, and chicken meat. According to a book published in 1760, the meat of wild dog was sold along with boar, venison, fox, wolf, bear, badger, beaver and cat in some regions of Edo. In 2008, Japan imported 5 tons of dog meat from China compared to 4,717 tons of beef, 14,340 tons of pork and 115,882 tons of poultry.
The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity. Dog bones[further explanation needed] were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo Tombs complex in South Hwangghae Province, a World Heritage site which dates from the 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the Koreans' appetite for canine cuisine seems to have come from that era.
The Korea Food and Drug Administration recognizes any edible product other than drugs as food. In the capital city of Seoul, the sale of dog meat was outlawed by regulation on February 21, 1984 by classifying dog meat as "disgusting food", but the regulation was not rigorously enforced except during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In 2001, the Mayor of Seoul announced there would be no extra enforcement efforts to control the sale of dog meat during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was partially hosted in Seoul. In March 2008, the Seoul city government announced its plan to put forward a policy suggestion to the central government to legally classify slaughter dogs as livestock, reigniting debate on the issue.
South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생법; 食品衛生法) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. Also, dog meat has been categorized as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품; 嫌汚食品) based on a regulation issued by Seoul Metropolitan Government, of which using as food ingredient is not permitted.
However, the laws are not strictly enforced, and some portion of the South Korean population still consumes dog meat. The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwangu (황구; 黃狗); which is a kind of mix-breed dog, differs from those breeds raised for pets which Koreans keep in their homes.
There is a large and vocal group of Koreans who are against the practice of eating dogs. There is also a large population of people in Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel strongly that it is the right of others to do so. There is a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people in South Korea who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world.
Although it is illegal to sell dog meat in Seoul, some restaurateurs still do so, even though they risk losing their restaurant licenses. In 1997, one dog meat wholesaler in Seoul was brought up on charges of selling dog meat illegally. However, an appeals court acquitted the dog meat wholesaler, ruling that dogs were socially accepted as food. According to the National Assembly of South Korea, more than 20,000 restaurants, including the 6484 registered restaurants, served soups made from dog meat in Korea in 1998. The BBC claims eighty-five hundred tons of dog meat are consumed per year, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (개소주). Koreans raise exceptional dogs which are edible. As of 2007[update], the dogs were no longer being beaten to death as they had been in past times.
Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is bosintang and gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with vegetables such as green onions and chili pepper powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.
In North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), in early 2010, the government included dog meat in its new list of one hundred fixed prices, setting a fixed price of 500 won per kilogram.
In the time of the Aztecs, Mexican Hairless dogs were bred, among other purposes, for their meat. Hernán Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets. These dogs, Xoloitzcuintles, were often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was almost extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages.
Consumption of dog meat is taboo in Mexican culture. However, in May 2008, a man named Rubén Cuellar of Veracruz-Boca del Rio was accused of engaging in the slaughter of dogs and selling the meat to local taco restaurants to unsuspecting customers. He was detained by police pending investigation.
In the capital city of Manila, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05 specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food. More generally, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998 prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles, with exemptions for religious, cultural, research, public safety or animal health reasons.
Nevertheless, as is reported from time to time in Philippine newspapers, the eating of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines.
While the meat is not eaten, in some rural areas of Poland, dog fat can be made into lard, which by tradition is believed to have medicinal properties - being good for the lungs, for instance. In 2009, a scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into lard.
Dogs were historically eaten in Tahiti and other islands of Polynesia, including Hawaii  at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal, "few were there of us but what allow'd that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables".
Popular Swiss recipes for dog meat include gedörrtes Hundefleisch served as paper-thin slices, as well as smoked dog ham, Hundeschinken, which is prepared by salting and drying raw dog meat.
According to the 21 November 1996 edition of the Rheintaler Bote, a Swiss newspaper covering the Rhine Valley area, the rural Swiss cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallen are known to have had a tradition of eating dogs, curing dog meat into jerky and sausages, as well as using the lard for medicinal purposes. Dog sausage and smoked dog jerky remains a staple in the Swiss cantons of St. Gallen and Appenzell, where one farmer was quoted in a regional weekly newspaper as saying that "meat from dogs is the healthiest of all. It has shorter fibres than cow meat, has no hormones like veal, no antibiotics like pork."
A few years earlier, a news report on RTL Television on the two cantons set off a wave of protests from European animal rights activists and other concerned citizens. A 7000-name petition was filed to the commissions of the cantons, who rejected it, saying it was not the state's right to monitor the eating habits of its citizens.
The production of food from dog meat for commercial purposes, however, is illegal in Switzerland.
Mostly, Tongan men favored eating dog, especially after Kava sessions; about half have eaten a dog in their lifetimes. Horse meat, too, is eaten by Tongan men.
During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes, including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlalas, the Clatsop, the Teton Sioux (Lakota), the Nez Perce Indians, and the Hidatsas. Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat, except William Clark, who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs.
The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as an abhorrent practice. Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines. The usual preparation method was boiling.
Dog meat is consumed widely in Vietnam but can mostly be found in special restaurants which specifically serve this type of meat. In any urban areas, there are always sections which house a lot of dog-meat restaurants. For example, on Nhat Tan Street, Tây Hồ District, Hanoi, many restaurants serve dog meat. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol since dog meat is believed to raise the libido in men. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month.
- Cat meat
- Dog meat consumption in South Korea
- List of meat animals
- Taboo food and drink
- Wolf meat
- Ann Yong-Geun "Dog Meat Foods in Korea", Table 4. Composition of dog meat and Bosintang (in 100g, raw meat), Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition 12(4) 397 - 408 (1999).
- Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780813911625.
- Rupert Wingfield-Hayes (29 June 2002). "China's taste for the exotic". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "Dachshunds Are Tenderer". Time Magazine. November 25, 1940. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- Douglas Mawson. "The Home of the Blizzard".
- William Saletan (January 16, 2002). "Wok The Dog -- What's wrong with eating man's best friend?". slate.com. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- Ahmed Zihni (2004). "Dog Meat Dilemma". sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- John Feffer (June 2, 2002). "The Politics of Dog - When globalization and culinary practice clash". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- "Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 21: The Book of Games and the Animals which May be Slaughtered and the Animals that Are to be Eaten.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. Retrieved 2007-05-27. Chapter 3: It is unlawful to eat fanged beasts of prey and birds with talons
- Mahavagga Pali - Bhesajjakkhandhaka - Vinaya Pitaka
- Roald Amundsen. "The South Pole".
- "Canine carcasses at Edmonton restaurant were coyotes". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 11, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- "Ready-to-cook canines at Edmonton restaurant". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 5, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- "Dog meat legal, health inspector says". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 7, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- Asme; Shiqiu Liang, Dazun Chen (2005). Ya she xiao pin xuan ji. Chinese University Press. p. 244. ISBN 9789629962197. More than one of
|last1=specified (help) Contributions by Nicholas Lemann, Translated by Ta-tsun Chen.
- Simoons, Frederick J. (1991). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 24, 38, 149, 305, 309–315, 317, 332. ISBN 9780849388040..
- Jeffries, Stuart (2004-12-29). "Fang shui". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
- "Dog meat row hits HK chain". BBC News. 4 August 2002.
- Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (2007). The Nanking atrocity, 1937-38: complicating the picture (illustrated ed.). Berghahn Books. p. 2007. ISBN 9781845451806. Unknown parameter
- Li Xianzhi, 2010-01-27, Eating cats, dogs could be outlawed, Xinhua News Agency
- "Chinese Astronauts Ate Dog Meat In Space". Huffington Post. 2010-05-13. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
- "Salon Editorial: An Olympic Disgrace".
- "Guangzhou bans eating snakes--ban helps cats". Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- "Say no to cat dog meat". Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- Trung Quốc sắp sửa cấm ăn thịt chó, mèo (Vietnamese)
- "China to jail people for up to 15 days who eat dog". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "Dogs and cats ordinance". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1950-01-06. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- "Slaughter of dog or cat for food prohibited". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- "Slaughter of dog or cat for food - Penalty". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- Cheng, Jonathan (2006-12-23). "Dog-for-food butchers jailed (DUBIOUS first case)". The Standard - China's Business Newspaper. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- "First Case Imprisonment in HK for Dog Meal". 2006-05-29. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
- "Taiwan law takes bite out of dog meat sales". 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- "Taiwan bans dog meat". BBC News. 2 January 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- "Democratic Republic of East Timor". worldconflictstoday.com. p. 3.
- Mallher, X.; B. Denis (1989). Le Chien, animal de boucherie. pp. 81–84.
- Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie, Artulen, Paris.
- Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie.
- Boitani, Luige; Monique Bourdin (1997). L'ABCdaire du chien.
- "Germany's dog meat market; Consumption of Canines and Horses Is on the Increase." (PDF). The New York Times. June 23, 1907. Retrieved 2008-01-20., Bureau Of Manufactures, United States; Bureau Of Foreign Commerce (1854-1903), United States; Bureau Of Statistics, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor (1900). "Monthly consular and trade reports, Volume 64, Issues 240-243.". United States. Bureau of Manufactures, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Dept. of Commerce. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
- Fleischbeschaugesetz (Meat Inspection Law), § 1a, RGBl. (Reich Law Gazette) 1937 I p. 458, then becoming § 1 para. 3, RGBl. 1940 I p. 1463 (in German)
- Fleischhygienegesetz (Law on Meat Hygiene), § 1 para. 1 sent. 4, BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) 1986 I p. 398 (in German).
- Frederick J. Simoons (1994). Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present (2 ed.). Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780299142544..
- "Dog meat, a delicacy in Mizoram". The Hindu. December 20, 2004.
Inquiries revealed that dog meat is a prized food item here.
- "Dimapur, Nagaland's Biggest City". January 29, 2007.
Nagaland is in many way culturally closer to South East Asia than to India proper, and this is also seen in the food culture. It is not uncommon to eat dog
- Doniger, Wendy (1999). "Eating Karma in Classical South Asian Texts". Social Research.
- "Minahasa" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-12-20.
- Nihon Shoki Chapter 29 -- Kanbun: 亦四月朔以後。九月三十日以前。莫置比満沙伎理梁。且莫食牛・馬・犬・猿・鶏之完。以外不在禁例。 English: Also, from the first day of the first[sic. it should read fourth] month until the 30th day of the ninth month, it is prohibited to use hinasakiri or fish traps. Also, cow, horse, dog, monkey, and chicken meat is not to be eaten. Meats outside of these are not prohibited.
- Hanley, Susan B. (1999). Everyday things in premodern Japan: the hidden legacy of material culture. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 0520218124.
- (Japanese) 平成20年動物検疫年報仕出地域別輸入検疫状況, Quarantine Statics, The Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan).
- A Study of the favorite Foods of the Balhae People Yang Ouk-da
- Anthony L. Podberscek (2009,). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea". Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. Check date values in:
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 231.
- "Dog Meat to Be Subject to Livestock Rules". The Chosun Ilbo. Mar. 24, 2008. Check date values in:
- [Half of Korea “Dog Meat Should be Controlled as Livestock Product]
|title=(help) (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. Mar. 28, 2008. Check date values in:
- Hankyore (Korean)
- Do Koreans Really Eat Dog? about.com
- Hopkins, Jerry; Bourdain, Anthony; Freeman, Michael (2004). Extreme Cuisine: The Weird & Wonderful Foods That People Eat. Tuttle Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 079460255X.
- [Bosintang Controversy: What is the Solution?]
|title=(help) (in Korean). National Assembly Tele Vision. Aug. 9, 2006. Check date values in:
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 202.
- South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
- Dog Meat Foods in Korea, Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
- Young Koreans turn their noses up at dog dinners by Daniel Jeffreys in Seoul, 3 August 2007, independent.co.uk
- Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 84-85.
- About THE XOLOITZCUINTLE, Xolo Rescue USA.
- Cortés, Hernan; trans. Anthony Pagden (1986). Letters from Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03799-6 Check
- Inc, Time (January 28, 1957). "Hairless Dogs Revived". Life Magazine: 93. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- Mata perros surtia de carne fresca a taqueros
- Murray, Senan (2007-03-06). "Dog's dinners prove popular in Nigeria". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-03-06.
- Willy Volk (March 7, 2007). ""Man Bites Dog": Dining on Dog Meat in Nigeria". gadling.com.
- "Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05". Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- "The Animal Welfare Act 1998". Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- Desiree Caluza (2006-01-17). "Dog meat eating doesn’t hound Cordillera natives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- "Resolution 05-392". Province of Benguet. 2006-01-17. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy , Telegraph
- Titcomb, M. (1969). Dog and Man in the Ancient Pacific. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 59.
- Ellis, W. (1839). Polynesian Researches 4. London: Fisher, Jackson.
- Mumford, David (1971). The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22766-9.
- Op. cit. Schwabe 1979, p. 173.
- Joongang Ilbo, January 13, 2004; Rheintaler Bote, November 21, 1996; excerpts from both articles translated in: "And you thought they just ate fondue", Marmot's Hole (blog), January 14, 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- FDHA Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin, Art.2.
- Man barbecues pet dog, no charges laid.
- The specific prohibition may not be against the actual consumption of dog meat, but some other related action. Section 589B of the California Penal Code, for example, prohibits the possession, import, export, sale, purchase, or giving away of a pet or companion animal or the carcass of such an animal for use as food.
- Back Through the Gorge, 1806
- Change of Heart
- Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop
- September 17, "Sinque Hole Camp"
- Sex, Dog Meat, and the Lash: Odd Facts About Lewis and Clark
- Native Radio
- Native American Diet
- Arthurs, Clare (2001-12-31). "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC. Retrieved 2006-10-10.
- Dẫn tôi đi thăm "khu công nghiệp" chó, anh Lai giới thiệu hiện tại đã có 25 trại, mỗi trại thường xuyên có hơn một tấn chó "dự bị". Mỗi ngày, "khu công nghiệp" này của Sơn Đông cung cấp cho thị trường Hà Nội khoảng 10 tấn chó hơi, chủ yếu là chó ngoại của Lào, Campuchia, Thái Lan, Malaysia... Buôn chó xuyên quốc gia Tuoi Tre Newspaper
- Quán "cờ tây" mọc lên như nấm, giá thịt chó cũng leo thang tới 40.000 – 50.000 đồng/kg, nạn trộm chó cũng gia tăng khắp các tỉnh Miền Tây: Nạn… mất chó! Sai Gon Giai Phong Newspaper
- "Hanoi dog meat restaurants come under scrutiny after cholera outbreak". Vietnamnet. Retrieved 2009-05-15.[dead link]
- "Cholera, bird flu present, but VN still A/H1N1-free". Vietnamnet. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- Kathleen E. McLaughlin - GlobalPost (2009-06-02). "Eat a dog, catch rabies?". Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law 14 (2): 201–236.
- Colting, Fredrik; Carl-Johan Gadd (2005-07-10). Magnus Andersson Gadd, ed. The Pet Cookbook: Have your best Friend for dinner. Canada: Nicotext. ISBN 91-974883-4-8.
- Yong-Geun Ann, Ph.D. Dog Meat (in Korean and English). Hyoil Book Publishing Company. (contains some recipes)
- Dressler, Uwe; Alexander Neumeister (2003-05-01). Der Kalte Hund (in German). Dresden: IBIS-Ed. ISBN 3-8330-0650-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dog meat.|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- Dog meat at the Open Directory Project
- "Chinese Animal Protection Network: our work against consumption of cat dog meat"
- Sirius Global Animal Organisation UN-recognised charity campaigning to end the trade of Western dogs to East Asia for meat production.
- Dr. Dogmeat's website Website for Dr. Ahn Yong-keun, a well-known advocate of dog meat consumption in Korea.
- "Thit chó: eating a (hot) dog": a photo series by Tristan Savatier.
- 'Adventure Cuisine,' Dog meat in Northeast India, Sunday MidDay, 22nd June 2008, by Arjun Razdan