Dog meat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about human consumption of dog flesh and parts. For meat eaten by dogs themselves, see dog food. For the character in the Fallout series of video games, see Dogmeat.
Dog meat
Dog meat
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,096 kJ (262 kcal)
0.1 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
20.2 g
19 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
3.6 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(10%)
0.12 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(15%)
0.18 mg
Niacin (B3)
(13%)
1.9 mg
Vitamin C
(4%)
3 mg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
8 mg
Iron
(22%)
2.8 mg
Phosphorus
(24%)
168 mg
Potassium
(6%)
270 mg
Sodium
(5%)
72 mg
Other constituents
Water 60.1 g
Ash 0.8 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Dog meat refers to the flesh and other edible parts derived from dogs. Human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including East and Southeast Asia, West Africa, Europe, pre-Columbian America.[2] Dog meat today is consumed in many parts of China,[3] Korea,[4] and Vietnam.[5] Dog meat has also been used as survival food in times of war and/or other hardships.[6][7]

Today, some cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their cuisine, while others consider consumption of dog to be inappropriate and offensive on both social and religious grounds. Especially with cultural globalization, greater international criticism (particularly from Western countries, as well as organizations such as World Animal Protection) has been increasingly directed against dog meat consumption and the torture of dogs caged and farmed for their meat. In response to criticisms, proponents of dog meat have argued that distinctions between livestock and pets is subjective, and that there is no difference with eating the meat of different animals.[8][9][10] Historical cultural records in China have, however, noted how Chinese variations on Buddhism have preached against the consumption of dog meat, which is held to be one of the five 'forbidden meats'. Eating dog is also forbidden under both Jewish[11] and Islamic dietary laws.[12][13]

By region[edit]

Africa[edit]

Cameroon[edit]

The Mandara mountains people like dog meat[citation needed]. The Mayo-Plata (Mayo Sava district) market is well known for its dog meat outlets[citation needed]. Among the Vame people, domestic dogs are only eaten for specific rituals.[14]

Ghana[edit]

The Tallensi,the Akyim's and Kokis, one of many cultures of Ghana, consider dog meat a delicacy. While the Mamprusi generally avoid dog meat, it is eaten in a "courtship stew" provided by a king to his royal lineage. Two Tribes in Ghana, Frafra and Dagaaba are particularly known to be "tribal playmates" and consumption of dog meat is the common bond between the two tribes. Every year around September, games are organised between these two tribes and the Dog Head is the trophy at stake for the winning tribe[15]

Nigeria[edit]

Dogs are eaten by various groups in some states of Nigeria, including Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Plateau, Ondo, Kalaba, Taraba and Gombe of Nigeria.[15] They are believed to have medicinal powers.[16][17]

Morocco[edit]

Morocco being a Muslim country, consumption of dog meat there is taboo;[not in citation given] however, some less scrupulous vendors of street food have been reported as having used dog meat as a full or partial replacement for beef and lamb in sausages and other ground-meat dishes.[18]

Americas[edit]

Canada[edit]

It is legal to sell and serve dog meat, providing that it must be killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors.[19] If a dog is killed out of the view of federal inspectors, the killing might involve cruelty, which would be a violation of the Criminal Code, and those convicted may be sentenced to up to 5 years in prison.[20]

Ancient Mexico[edit]

In the time of the Aztec Empire in what is now central Mexico, Mexican Hairless Dogs were bred, among other purposes,[21] for their meat. Hernán Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets.[22] These dogs, Xoloitzcuintles, were often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was almost extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages.[23]

United States of America[edit]

The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884 and accusations that sausage makers used dog meat date to at least 1845.[24] The belief that sausages contained dog meat was occasionally justified.[25]

In 1846, a group of 87 American pioneers were stranded by snow while traveling in the Sierra Nevada. Some of the starving people from this group, known posthumously as the Donner Party, ate a pet dog for sustenance.[26]

In the late 19th century, a cure for tuberculosis (then colloquially termed "consumption") using an exclusive diet of dog meat was tried.[27] Reports of families eating dog meat out of choice, rather than necessity, were rare and newsworthy. Stories of families in Ohio and Newark, New Jersey who did so made it into editions of The New York Times in 1876 and 1885.[28][29]

In the early 20th century, dog meat was consumed during times of food shortage.[30]

Native Americans[edit]

The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as an abhorrent practice.[31] Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines.[32]

During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes, including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlatas,[33] the Clatsop,[34] the Teton Sioux (Lakota),[35] the Nez Perce Indians,[36] and the Hidatsas.[37] Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat, except William Clark, who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs.[38]

The Kickapoo people include puppy meat in many of their traditional festivals.[39] This practice has been well documented in the Works Progress Administration "Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma".[40][41]

Australia[edit]

It is legal to eat dogs and cats in all but the South Territory of Australia. In the rest of the country it is illegal to sell cat or dog meat. http://kb.rspca.org.au/Is-eating-cats-or-dogs-legal_489.html

Arctic and Antarctic[edit]

Dogs have historically been emergency food sources for various peoples in Siberia, northern Canada, and Greenland. Sled dogs are usually maintained for pulling sleds, but occasionally are eaten when no other food is available.

British explorer Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition became trapped, and ultimately killed their sled dogs for food. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:

"...there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog. One can reduce one's pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them. In this way they get fresh meat. Our dogs lived on dog's flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work. And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef. The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade's carcass it comes from. All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim – and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."[42]

Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of the Far Eastern Party, a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B.E.S. Ninnis, to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party's rations, and was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks' food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 315-mile (507 km) return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog's brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition hypervitaminosis A because canines have a much higher tolerance for vitamin A than humans do. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913, Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.[7]

Asia/Pacific[edit]

Greater China[edit]

Mainland China[edit]
Dog meat
Chinese 狗肉
Mutton of the earth
Chinese 地羊
Literal meaning earth lamb
Fragrant meat
Chinese 香肉
3–6 fragrant meat
Chinese 三六香肉
A platter of cooked dog meat in Guilin, China

Dog meat (Chinese: 狗肉; pinyin: gǒu ròu) has been a source of food in some areas of China from around 500 BC, and possibly even earlier. Researchers in the Royal University of Technology theorized that wolves in southern China may have been domesticated as a source of meat.[43] Mencius, the philosopher, talked about dog meat as being an edible, dietary meat.[44] Dog meat is sometimes euphemistically called "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) or "mutton of the earth" (地羊 dì yáng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3–6 fragrant meat" (Chinese: 三六香肉; Cantonese Yale: sàam luhk hèung yuhk) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" have similar pronunciation, "dog" pronounced gáu "nine" pronounced "géo" "nine" mouth open wider compare with pronounced of "dog" in standard Cantonese. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).

The eating of dog meat in China dates back thousands of years. It is thought to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months in northern China, as it is believed to generate heat and promote bodily warmth.[45][46][47] Historical records have moreover shown how in times of food scarcities (as in war-time situations), dogs could also be eaten as an emergency food source.[48] The extent of dog eating in China varies by region, appearing to be most prevalent in Guangdong, Yunnan and Guangxi, as well as the northern provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.[49] It is still fairly common to find dog meat served in restaurants in cities like Beijing and Shanghai, where the restaurants get the meat mainly from stray dogs and stolen pets. [50][51]

The movement against the consumption of cat and dog meat was given added impetus by the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network (CCAPN), a networking project of the Chinese Animal Protection Network. Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat eating, starting in Guangzhou, and following up in more than ten other cities "with very optimal response from public."[52] Before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Chinese officials in Beijing ordered dog meat to be taken off of the menu at its 112 official Olympic restaurants in order to not offend visitors from various nations who would be appalled by the offering of dog meat at Beijing eateries.[53]

In China, draft legislation was proposed at the start of 2010, which aims to prohibit the consumption of dog meat.[54] The legislation, however, is not expected to be effective, despite officially outlawing the eating of dog meat if it is passed.[54] On 26 January 2010, the first draft proposal of the legislation was introduced, with the main reason for the law reportedly to protect the country's animals from maltreatment, and includes a measure to jail people who eat dog for up to 15 days.[55][56] However food festivals continue to promote the meat. For example the 4th annual Yulin, Guangxi food fair that took place on May 29, 2011 spanning 10 days consumed 15,000 dogs.[57][58]

While remnants of this tradition remain in certain quarters of Chinese society, the degree to which it is deemed to be socially acceptable has now become contested, with Chinese animal groups and pet-owners increasingly speaking out against the practice. Controversy has centered particularly on the cruel and inhumane treatment[citation needed] of dogs prior to their slaughter, with allegations having surfaced that these animals can at times be skinned while still alive.[59] Most notably, a series of events that occurred in various parts of the country in 2012 have raised further awareness on this issue in the mainland, with local and international news media having reported on how Chinese netizens and the Chinese police had been intercepting trucks transporting caged dogs to be slaughtered in such localities as Chongqing and Kunming.[60][61][62]

According to Apple Daily June 21, 2013 report, in Yulin, Guangxi the locals were celebrating the "lychee dog meat festival" on the same day and they will kill more than 100,000 dogs.[63] A follow up also by Apple Daily on June 22, 2013, showed that there are some demonstrators, claiming that the demonstrators were blamed for attacking the locals. Some Chinese people spent their money to rescue the dogs, and found rescued dogs either pregnant or with new-born puppies.[64] They also found ill dogs.[65]

Dogs being butchered in Guangdong, China
Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance was introduced by the Hong Kong Government on 6 January 1950.[66] It prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment.[67][68] Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006(Year of the Dog) for having slaughtered two dogs.[69] In an earlier case, in February 1998, a Hong Konger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food.[70]

Taiwan[edit]

In 2001, the Taiwanese government imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests.[71] In 2007, another law was passed, significantly increasing the fines to sellers of dog meat.[72] However, animal rights campaigners have accused the Taiwanese government of not prosecuting those who continue to slaughter and serve dog meat at restaurants. Although the slaughter and consumption of dog meat is illegal in Taiwan, there are reports that suggest the practice continues as of 2011.[73] In Taiwan, dog meat is known by the euphemism "fragrant meat" (Chinese: 香肉; pinyin: xiāngròu). In 2007, legislators passed a law to fine sellers of dog meat NT$250,000 (US$7,730). Dog meat is believed to have health benefits, including improving circulation and raising body temperature.[72]

India[edit]

In India, dog meat is eaten by certain communities in the Northeast Indian border states of Mizoram,[74] Nagaland,[75] and Manipur[76] where it is considered to be a delicacy. These states border China and may have been influenced by Chinese culture and traditions.

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesian barbecue a dog (around 1970)

Indonesia is predominantly Muslim, a faith which considers dog meat, along with pork to be "haraam" (ritually unclean) and therefore do not eat it. However, dog meat is eaten by several of Indonesia's non-Muslim minorities.[77]

The consumption of dog meat is associated with the Minahasa culture of northern Sulawesi and the Bataks of northern Sumatra, where dog meat is considered a festive dish usually reserved for occasions such as weddings and Christmas.[78]

Popular Indonesian dog-meat dishes are rica-rica, also called rintek wuuk or "RW",[77] rica-rica waung, guk-guk, and "B1". On Java, there are several dishes made from dog meat, such as sengsu (tongseng asu), sate jamu, and kambing balap.

Dog consumption in Indonesia gained attention in United States where dog is a taboo food, during 2012 Presidential election when incumbent Barack Obama was pointed by his opponent to have eaten dog meat served by his Indonesian stepfather Lolo Soetoro during his stay in the country.[77]

Japan[edit]

The consumption of dog meat is not a feature of modern Japanese culture because Japanese people believe that certain dogs have special powers in their religion of Shintoism and Buddhism. Dog meat was consumed in Japan until 675 A.D., when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th–9th months of the year, they say for battle normally a dog accompanies him for battle. So eating a dog gave Emperors bad luck. In Japanese shrines certain animals are worshipped like dogs who wil give people a good luck charm. Animals are described as good luck in scrolls and Kakemono during the Kofun period, Asuka period and Nara period.[79] According to Meisan Shojiki Ōrai (名産諸色往来) published in 1760, the meat of wild dog was sold along with boar, deer, fox, wolf, bear, raccoon dog, otter, weasel and cat in some regions of Edo.[80] Ōta Nampo recorded witnessing puppies being eaten in Satsuma Province in a dish called Enokoro Meshi (えのころ飯). In 2008, Japan imported 5 tons of dog meat from China compared to 4,714 tons of beef, 14,340 tons of pork and 115,882 tons of poultry.[81]

Korea[edit]

Gaegogi (개고기) literally means "dog meat" in Korean. The term itself, however, is often mistaken as the term for Korean soup made from dog meat, which is actually called bosintang (보신탕; 補身湯, Body nourishing soup).

The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity. Dog bones[further explanation needed] were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo Tombs complex in South Hwangghae Province, a World Heritage site which dates from the 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the modern-day tradition of canine cuisine seems to have come from that era.[82]

Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchen people began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty and passed this tradition on to the Manchu, it was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, and eat dogs, the Jurchens believed that the "utmost evil" was the usage of dog skin by Koreans.[citation needed]

South Korea[edit]
A dish made with dog meat in South Korea, Seoul, Korea
Dog meat sold in Gyeongdong Market, Seoul, South Korea

Although a fair number of South Koreans (anywhere from 5 to 30%) have eaten dog meat at least once in their lifetime, only a small percentage of the population eats it regularly. There is a large and vocal group of Korean people that are against the practice of eating dog meat.[83] There is also a large population of people in South Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel strongly that it is the right of others to do so.[83] There is a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people in South Korea who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world,[83] considering it to be part of the traditional culture of Korea with a long history worth preserving.

The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety recognizes any edible product other than drugs as food.[84] In the capital city of Seoul, the sale of dog meat was outlawed by regulation on February 21, 1984 by classifying dog meat as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품), but the regulation was not rigorously enforced except during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In 2001, the Mayor of Seoul announced there would be no extra enforcement efforts to control the sale of dog meat during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was partially hosted in Seoul. In March 2008, the Seoul Metropolitan Government announced its plan to put forward a policy suggestion to the central government to legally classify slaughter dogs as livestock, reigniting debate on the issue.[85][86][87]

South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생법) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. Also, dog meat has been categorized as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품) based on a regulation issued by Seoul Metropolitan Government, of which using as food ingredient is not permitted.[88]

However, the laws are not strictly enforced. The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwangu (황구); which is a specific breed, different from the breeds raised for pets in the country.[89][90]

There is a large and vocal group of Koreans (consisting of a number of animal welfare groups) who are against the practice of eating dogs.[83] Popular television shows like 'I Love Pet' have documented in 2011, for instance, the continued illegal selling of dog meat and slaughtering of dogs in suburban areas. The program also televised illegal dog farms and slaughterhouses, showing the unsanitary and horrific conditions of caged dogs, several of which were visibly sick with severe eye infections and malnutrition. However, despite this growing awareness, there remains some in Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel that it is the right of others to do so, along with a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world.[83] A group of pro-dog meat individuals attempted to promote and publicize the consumption of dog meat worldwide during the run-up to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, co-hosted by Japan and South Korea, which prompted retaliation from animal rights campaigners and prominent figures such as Brigitte Bardot to denounce the practice.[91] Opponents of dog meat consumption in South Korea are critical of the eating of dogmeat as some dogs are beaten, burnt or hanged to make their meat more tender.[92]

The restaurants that sell dog meat do so, often exclusively, at the risk losing their restaurant licenses. A case of a dog meat wholesaler brought up on charges of selling dog meat in arose in 1997. However, an appeals court acquitted the dog meat wholesaler, ruling that dogs were socially accepted as food.[93] According to the National Assembly of South Korea, more than 20,000 restaurants, including the 6484 registered restaurants, served soups made from dog meat in Korea in 1998.[94][95][96] In 1999 the BBC reported that 8,500 tons of dog meat were consumed annually, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (개소주).[96] As of 2007, the dogs were no longer being beaten to death as they had been in past times.

Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is bosintang and gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th-century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with vegetables such as green onions and chili pepper powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.[97]

North Korea[edit]

Daily NK reported that the North Korean government included dog meat in its new list of one hundred fixed prices, setting a fixed price of 500 won per kilogram in early 2010.[98]

New Zealand[edit]

Dog meat is rarely eaten in New Zealand but has been said to be becoming more popular as it is not illegal as long as the dog is humanely killed.

A Tongan man living in New Zealand caused public outrage when he was caught cooking his pet dog in his backyard; this led to calls for change in the law.[99]

Philippines[edit]

In the capital city of Manila, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05 specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food.[100] More generally, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998[101] prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles, with exemptions for religious, cultural, research, public safety or animal health reasons. Nevertheless, as is reported from time to time in Philippine newspapers, the eating of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines.[102]

The Province of Benguet specifically allows cultural use of dog meat by indigenous people and acknowledges this might lead to limited commercial use.[103]

Asocena is a dish primarily consisting of dog meat originating from the Philippines.

Polynesia[edit]

Dogs were historically eaten in Tahiti and other islands of Polynesia, including Hawaii[104][105] at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal, "few were there of us but what allow'd that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables".[106] Calwin Schwabe reported in 1979 that dog was widely eaten in Hawaii and considered to be of higher quality than pork or chicken. When Hawaiians first encountered early British and American explorers, they were at a loss to explain the visitors' attitudes about dog meat. The Hawaiians raised both dogs and pigs as pets and for food. They could not understand why their British and American visitors only found the pig suitable for consumption.[2] This practice seems to have died out, along with the native Hawaiian breed of dog, the unique Hawaiian Poi Dog, which was primarily used for this purpose.[107] The consumption of domestic dog meat is still commonplace in the Kingdom of Tonga, and has also been noted in expatriate Tongan communities in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States.[108]

Thailand[edit]

Unlike other countries where dog meat consumption has been shown to have historical precedents, Thailand does not have a mainstream culture of dog eating. However, in recent years, the consumption of dog meat in certain areas of the country, especially in certain northeastern provinces like Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom (specifically Sakon Nakhon province's Tha Rae sub-district, which has been identified as the main center for the country's illegal, albeit lucrative, dog meat trade), have attracted widespread attention from the Thai population and local news media. This has led a large group of Thai citizens to become increasingly vocal against the consumption of dog meat and the selling of dogs that are transported through Laos to neighbouring Mekong countries, including Vietnam and China. According to news reports, a considerable number of these dogs continue to be stolen from people's homes by illegal carriers. This was especially the case following the 2011 Thailand Floods. Dubbed as the country's 'Trade of Shame', Thai netizens, in particular, have now formed several (informal) animal welfare and rescue groups in an attempt to stop this illegal trade, with the collective attitude being that 'Dogs are not food'. Established not-for-profit animal charity organizations like the Soi Dog Foundation have also been active in raising awareness and working in conjunction with local Thai authorities to rehabilitate and relocate dogs rescued from trucks attempting to transport live dogs across the border to nearby countries. Significantly, this issue has strengthened the nation's animal rights movement, which continues to call on the Thai government to adopt a stricter and more comprehensive animal rights law to prevent the maltreatment of pets and cruelty against all animals.[109][110][111][112][113]

Timor Leste[edit]

Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.[114]

Uzbekistan[edit]

Although not commonly eaten, dog meat is sometimes used in Uzbekistan in the belief that it has medicinal properties.[115]

Vietnam[edit]

A dog meat platter found in a street market a few miles east of Hanoi, Vietnam
Dog meat in Hanoi, Vietnam

Dog meat is consumed more commonly in the northern part of Vietnam than in the south, and can be found in special restaurants which specifically serve this type of meat. Dog meat is believed to bring good fortune in Vietnam.[116] It is seen as being comparable in consumption to chicken or pork.[116] In any urban areas, there are always sections which house a lot of dog-meat restaurants. For example, on Nhat Tan Street, Tây Hồ District, Hanoi, many restaurants serve dog meat. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month.[116] Dog meat is also believed to raise the libido in men.[116] The Associated Press reported in October 2009 that a soaring economy has led to the booming of dog restaurants in Hanoi, and that this has led to a proliferation of dognappers. Reportedly, a 20 kilograms (44 lb) dog can sell for more than $100—roughly the monthly salary of an average Vietnamese worker.[citation needed]

In 2009, dog meat was found to be a main carrier of the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, which caused the summer epidemic of cholera in northern Vietnam.[117][118]

Europe[edit]

Britain & Ireland[edit]

Eating dog meat, in common with most European post-Christian societies, is considered entirely taboo and has been for many centuries outside of times of scarcity such as sieges or famines. However, early Brittonic and Irish texts which date from the early Christian period suggest that dog meat was sometimes consumed but possibly in ritual contexts such as Druidic ritual trance. Sacrificial dog bones are often recovered from archaeological sites[119] however they were typically treated differently, as were horses, from other food animals.[120] One of Irish hero Cuchulainn's two birth geasa was to avoid the meat of dogs, the breaking of which led to his inevitable downfall.

Belgium[edit]

A few meat shops sold dog meat during the German occupation of Belgium in World War I, when food was extremely scarce.[121] According to The New York Times, in the 19th century the Council of the Veterinary School of Belgium occasionally recommended dog meat for human consumption after being properly inspected.[122]

France[edit]

Great Dog Butchery, Paris, France 1910

Although consumption of dog meat is uncommon in France, and is now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past by the Gauls. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites, where butchered dog bones were discovered.[123] French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light."[124] During the Siege of Paris (1870–1871), there were lines at butcher's shops of people waiting to purchase dog meat. Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910.[125][126]

Germany[edit]

Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis at least since the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton".[6] In the early 20th century, high meat prices led to widespread consumption of horse and dog meat in Germany.[127][128][129]

The consumption of dog meat continued in the 1920s.[130][131] In 1937, a meat inspection law targeted against trichinella was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores.[132] Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986.[133]

Saxony[edit]

In the latter part of World War I, dog meat was being eaten in Saxony by the poorer classes because of famine conditions.[134]

The Netherlands[edit]

During severe meat shortages coinciding with the German invasion in 1940, sausages found to have been made of dog meat were confiscated by authorities in the Netherlands.[135]

Poland[edit]

While the meat is not eaten, in some rural areas of Poland, specially Lesser Poland dog fat can be made into lard, which by tradition is believed to have medicinal properties—being good for the lungs, for instance. Since the 16th century, fat from various animals, including dogs, was used as part of folk medicine, and since the 18th century, dog fat has had a reputation as being beneficial for the lungs. It is worth noting that the consumption of such meat is considered taboo in Polish culture, also making lard out of dogs' fat is illegal.[136] In 2009, a scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into lard.[136] According to Grazyna Zawada, from Gazeta Wyborcza, there were farms in Czestochowa, Klobuck, and in the Radom area, and in the decade from 2000 to 2010 six people producing dog lard were found guilty of breaching animal welfare laws (found guilty of killing dogs and animal cruelty) and sentenced to jail.

Switzerland[edit]

In his 1979 book Unmentionable Cuisine, Calvin Schwabe described a Swiss dog meat recipe gedörrtes Hundefleisch served as paper-thin slices, as well as smoked dog ham, Hundeschinken, which is prepared by salting and drying raw dog meat.[137]

The production of food from dog meat for commercial purposes, however, is illegal in Switzerland.[138]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ann Yong-Geun "Dog Meat Foods in Korea", Table 4. Composition of dog meat and Bosintang (in 100g, raw meat), Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition 12(4) 397 – 408 (1999).
  2. ^ a b Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-8139-1162-5. 
  3. ^ Rupert Wingfield-Hayes (29 June 2002). "China's taste for the exotic". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  4. ^ Anthony L. Podberscek (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea". Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. "Dog meat is eaten nationwide and all year round, although it is most commonly eaten during summer, especially on the (supposedly) three hottest days." 
  5. ^ "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  6. ^ a b Dachshunds Are Tenderer. Time Magazine. November 25, 1940. Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  7. ^ a b Douglas Mawson. "The Home of the Blizzard". 
  8. ^ William Saletan (January 16, 2002). "Wok The Dog – What's wrong with eating man's best friend?". slate.com. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  9. ^ Ahmed Zihni (2004). "Dog Meat Dilemma". sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  10. ^ John Feffer (June 2, 2002). "The Politics of Dog – When globalization and culinary practice clash". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  11. ^ Dogs are quadrupeds with paws and so are not kosher. Leviticus 11:27; Nicholas Robert Michael De Lange, An Introduction to Judaism (2000). Oxford Univ. Press: p. 90.
  12. ^ Carnivorous animals with fangs, including lions, tigers, and wolves as well as dogs, are not Halal. Amy Christine Brown, Understanding Food: Principles and Preparation, 4th ed. (2010). Cengage: p. 4.
  13. ^ For instance, see Wu Cheng'en, "Journey to the West" (Xi You Ji), Renmin Wenxue Chubanshe (2002).
  14. ^ Eric Thys & Olivier Nyssens Préparation et commercialisation de la viande canine chez les Vamé Mbrémé population animiste des monts Mandara. in "Tropical Animal Production for the Benefit of Man. Antwerp, 1982, pp. 511–517.
  15. ^ a b Simoons, Frederick J. (1994). Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present (2 ed.). Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-299-14254-4. 
  16. ^ Murray, Senan (2007-03-06). "Dog's dinners prove popular in Nigeria". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-03-06. 
  17. ^ Willy Volk (March 7, 2007). ""Man Bites Dog": Dining on Dog Meat in Nigeria". gadling.com. 
  18. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2319538/Morocco-grip-DOG-MEAT-scandal-police-carcasses-pets-destined-restaurants.html
  19. ^ "Canine carcasses at Edmonton restaurant were coyotes". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 11, 2003. Retrieved 2007-04-19. 
  20. ^ LEGAL GUIDE: ANIMALS AND THE CRIMINAL LAW (CANADA) – Ch. 6 Penalties
  21. ^ About THE XOLOITZCUINTLE (archived from the original on 2012-07-19), Xolo Rescue USA (archived from the original on 2012-07-14).
  22. ^ Cortés, Hernan; trans. Anthony Pagden (1986). Letters from Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03799-6. 
  23. ^ Inc, Time (January 28, 1957). "Hairless Dogs Revived". Life Magazine: 93. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  24. ^ *Wilton, David (2004), Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517284-1 
  25. ^ "Hot Dog", Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=hot+dog&searchmode=none
  26. ^ "Donner Party Ate Family Dog, Maybe Not People : Discovery News". News.discovery.com. 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  27. ^ "A new cure for consumption is being tried in Shelbyville, Ind. It is an exclusive diet of dog meat.", in "A Florence Bank in Trouble", Telegraphic Brevities, The New York Times, 1891, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=950DEED7123AE533A25754C0A9679D94609ED7CF
  28. ^ "PATRONS OF DOG MEAT", The New York Times, 1885, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9905E5DC123FE533A25751C1A9649D94649FD7CF
  29. ^ "A Family Living On Dog Meat", March 12, 1876, The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A07EFD9143AE63BBC4A52DFB566838D669FDE
  30. ^ "Miners eat horses and dogs", The New York Times, 1904, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9902E3DA113CE433A25754C2A9639C946597D6CF
  31. ^ "The great Chiefs". Native Radio. 1911-02-23. Retrieved 2012-10-24.  (archived from the original on 2012-03-18)
  32. ^ Guts and Grease: The Diet of Native Americans (archived from the original on 2006-09-25)
  33. ^ "Back Through the Gorge, 1806". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  34. ^ "Ecola". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  35. ^ "Change of Heart". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  36. ^ "Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  37. ^ "September 17, "Sinque Hole Camp"". Lewis-clark.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  38. ^ "Sex, Dog Meat, and the Lash: Odd Facts About Lewis and Clark". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  39. ^ The Mexican Kickapoo Indians Felipe A. Latorre and Dolores L. Latorre (1976).
  40. ^ WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Ed Cooley (July 29, 1937)
  41. ^ WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Albert Couch (October 12, 1937)
  42. ^ Roald Amundsen. "The South Pole". 
  43. ^ Wade, Nicholas (7 September 2009). "In Taming Dogs, Humans May Have Sought a Meal". New York Times. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  44. ^ Asme, 梁實秋; Shiqiu Liang; Dazun Chen (2005). Ya she xiao pin xuan ji. Chinese University Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-962-996-219-7.  Contributions by Nicholas Lemann, Translated by Ta-tsun Chen.
  45. ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (1991). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 24, 38, 149, 305, 309–315, 317, 332. ISBN 978-0-8493-8804-0. 
  46. ^ Jeffries, Stuart (2004-12-29). "Fang shui". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-09-04. 
  47. ^ "Dog meat row hits HK chain". BBC News. 4 August 2002. 
  48. ^ Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (2007). The Nanking atrocity, 1937–38: complicating the picture (illustrated ed.). Berghahn Books. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-84545-180-6. 
  49. ^ How many dogs and cats are eaten in Asia?
  50. ^ Chinese legal experts call for ban on eating cats and dogs
  51. ^ Pets snatched and butchered for food
  52. ^ "Guangzhou bans eating snakes—ban helps cats". Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  53. ^ China bans dog from Olympic menu, BBC News, 11 July 2008.
  54. ^ a b Li Xianzhi, 2010-01-27, Eating cats, dogs could be outlawed, Xinhua News Agency
  55. ^ Trung Quốc sắp sửa cấm ăn thịt chó, mèo (Vietnamese)
  56. ^ "China to jail people for up to 15 days who eat dog". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  57. ^ "陝西榆林10天美食節 1萬5千隻狗慘遭下肚 | 大陸新聞 | NOWnews 今日新聞網". Nownews.com. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  58. ^ "Tasteless? Food festival in Yulin, China celebrates canine culinary culture – with 15,000 dogs on the menu | Mail Online". London: Dailymail.co.uk. 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  59. ^ "Salon Editorial: An Olympic Disgrace". 
  60. ^ "'Tech-savvy citizen rescues 500 dogs from becoming dinner'". Retrieved 26 April 2012. 
  61. ^ "'April 20th 500 caged dogs rescued in Kunming China'". Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  62. ^ Gerges, David (2012-01-18). "'Truck full of dogs crammed into tiny cages and bound for Chinese restaurants is intercepted by animal lovers'". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 19 January 2012. 
  63. ^ People of Guangxi celebrating dog meat festival 100,000 dogs will be killed[dead link]
  64. ^ 義工狗肉節示威遭圍攻 市政府辯稱沒依據禁吃狗
  65. ^ 走進狗地獄 饞嘴埋沒人性
  66. ^ "Dogs and cats ordinance". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1950-01-06. Retrieved 2009-11-19. 
  67. ^ "Slaughter of dog or cat for food prohibited". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  68. ^ "Slaughter of dog or cat for food – Penalty". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. Retrieved 2006-12-01. 
  69. ^ Cheng, Jonathan (2006-12-23). "Dog-for-food butchers jailed (DUBIOUS first case)". The Standard – China's Business Newspaper. Retrieved 2007-01-10. 
  70. ^ "First Case Imprisonment in HK for Dog Meal". 2006-05-29. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  71. ^ "Taiwan bans dog meat". BBC News. 2 January 2001. Retrieved 2007-05-15. 
  72. ^ a b "Taiwan law takes bite out of dog meat sales". 17 December 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  73. ^ "Activists expose dog meat trade". Taipei Times. 2011-06-23. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  74. ^ "Dog meat, a delicacy in Mizoram". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 20 December 2004. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  75. ^ "Tribal Naga Dog meat delicacy". Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  76. ^ "Manipur – a slice of Switzerland in India". Times of India (Chennai, India). 19 July 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  77. ^ a b c Shepherd, Jack, All About Indonesian Dog Meat, BuzzFeed 
  78. ^ "Minahasa" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-12-20. 
  79. ^ Nihon Shoki Chapter 29 – Kanbun: 亦四月朔以後。九月三十日以前。莫置比満沙伎理梁。且莫食牛・馬・犬・猿・鶏之完。以外不在禁例。[1] English: Also, from the first day of the first[sic. it should read fourth] month until the 30th day of the ninth month, it is prohibited to use hinasakiri or fish traps. Also, cow, horse, dog, monkey, and chicken meat is not to be eaten. Meats outside of these are not prohibited.[2]
  80. ^ Hanley, Susan B. (1999). Everyday things in premodern Japan: the hidden legacy of material culture. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-520-21812-4. 
  81. ^ (Japanese) 平成20年動物検疫年報仕出地域別輸入検疫状況, Quarantine Statics, The Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan).
  82. ^ A Study of the favorite Foods of the Balhae People Yang Ouk-da
  83. ^ a b c d e Do Koreans Really Eat Dog? about.com
  84. ^ op.cit. Kim 2008, p. 209
  85. ^ Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 231. 
  86. ^ "Dog Meat to Be Subject to Livestock Rules". The Chosun Ilbo. Mar 24, 2008. 
  87. ^ "국민 절반 '개고기 축산물로 관리해야 한다'" [Half of citizens [say] 'Dog Meat Should be Controlled as Livestock Product']. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). Mar 28, 2008.  (Translation)
  88. ^ Hankyore [3](Korean)
  89. ^ Podberscek, Anthony L. (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea". Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. 
  90. ^ Dog Meat Foods in Korea, Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
  91. ^ "South Korea promotes dog meat". BBC News. 2002-01-13. 
  92. ^ "Korean Group Creates Dogmeat Association". FOX News Network. Associated Press. January 11, 2002. 
  93. ^ Hopkins, Jerry; Bourdain, Anthony; Freeman, Michael (2004). Extreme Cuisine: The Weird & Wonderful Foods That People Eat. Tuttle Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 0-7946-0255-X. 
  94. ^ "보신탕 논란, 그 해법은?" [Bosintang Controversy: What is the Solution?] (in Korean). National Assembly Tele Vision. Aug 9, 2006.  (Translation)
  95. ^ Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 202. 
  96. ^ a b South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
  97. ^ Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 84–85.
  98. ^ "Dailynk.com". Dailynk.com. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  99. ^ Fox, Michael (2009-08-19). "In defence of dog eating – national". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  100. ^ "Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05". Archived from the original on 2005-12-05. 
  101. ^ "The Animal Welfare Act 1998". Retrieved 2006-08-30. 
  102. ^ Desiree Caluza (2006-01-17). "Dog meat eating doesn’t hound Cordillera natives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. Retrieved 2006-10-27. 
  103. ^ "Resolution 05-392". Province of Benguet. 2006-01-17. Retrieved 2006-10-27.  (archived from the original on 2007-09-30)
  104. ^ Titcomb, M. (1969). Dog and Man in the Ancient Pacific. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 59. ISBN 0-910240-10-8. 
  105. ^ Ellis, W. (1839). Polynesian Researches 4. London: Fisher, Jackson. ISBN 1-4325-4966-9. 
  106. ^ Mumford, David (1971). The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22766-9. 
  107. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/1373802
  108. ^ "Auckland man Paea Taufa cooked his pet dog in a backyard barbecue | thetelegraph.com.au". Dailytelegraph.com.au. 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2011-06-30. 
  109. ^ "'Vietnam Demand for Dog Meat Keeps Thai Dog Trade Alive'". Very Vietnam. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  110. ^ "'Thai authorities seize 800 dogs destined for Indochina meat trade'". Pattaya Daily News. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  111. ^ "'Business booming for the dog smugglers of the Mekong'". CNN. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 24 January 2012. 
  112. ^ "'The rise of the dog snatchers'". The Bangkok Post. Retrieved 4 September 2011. 
  113. ^ "'You Can Help Stop the Slaughter...'". The Soi Dog Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 30 August 2012. 
  114. ^ "Democratic Republic of East Timor". worldconflictstoday.com. p. 3. 
  115. ^ "Uzbekistan news report on dog restaurants". Uznews.net. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  116. ^ a b c d "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 2001-12-31. 
  117. ^ "Hanoi dog meat restaurants come under scrutiny after cholera outbreak". Vietnamnet. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2012-01-10. 
  118. ^ "Cholera, bird flu present, but VN still A/H1N1-free". Vietnamnet. Retrieved 2009-05-15.  Retrieved from Internet Archive 12 January 2014.
  119. ^ http://blog.museumoflondon.org.uk/the-curious-case-of-the-dog-in-the/
  120. ^ http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/18298/1/Madgwick.pdf
  121. ^ "We found the meat shops all closed, ... with three exceptions, namely; shops that have recently and openly sold dog meat.... The average price were 12 francs a kilo, bones and all, (about $1.30 a pound) and some meat that had been obtained by special exertions for the soup kitchens.", in "Meat Shops Closed As Belgians Go Hungry", The New York Times, July 23, 1916, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9804E2D8153BE233A25750C2A9619C946796D6CF
  122. ^ "The Council. of the Veterinary School of Belgium even recommended dog meat for human food after being properly inspected.", in "Eating The Old Mare", The New York Times, October 8, 1888, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9507E3D71F38E033A2575BC0A9669D94699FD7CF
  123. ^ Mallher, X.; B. Denis (1989). Le Chien, animal de boucherie. pp. 81–84. 
  124. ^ Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie, Artulen, Paris. 
  125. ^ Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie. 
  126. ^ Boitani, Luige; Monique Bourdin (1997). L'ABCdaire du chien. 
  127. ^ Germany's dog meat market; Consumption of Canines and Horses Is on the Increase. (PDF). The New York Times. June 23, 1907. Retrieved 2008-01-20. , Bureau Of Manufactures, United States; Bureau Of Foreign Commerce (1854–1903), United States; Bureau Of Statistics, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor (1900). Monthly consular and trade reports, Volume 64, Issues 240–243.. United States. Bureau of Manufactures, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Dept. of Commerce. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 
  128. ^ "Use Horse and Dog Meat – Germans forced to that diet by high price of other meat", The New York Times, 1900, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B05EEDE1039E733A25752C1A9619C946197D6CF
  129. ^ "...the German breeders... heightened the price to such an extent that horse, and even dog's meat, has become staple with the poorer classes in certain districts, and notably in the large cities.", in "American Food In Germany", The New York Times, 1898, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A01E4DF1E39E433A25757C0A9649D94699ED7CF
  130. ^ "DOGS AS MEAT IN MUNICH.; Butcher's Shop Hangs Sign Offering Either to Buy or Sell.", The New York Times, 1923, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70917FA3F5D15738DDDAE0894DA415B838EF1D3&scp=5&sq=germans+dog+meat&st=p
  131. ^ "GERMANS STILL EAT DOGS.; Berlin Police Chief Issues Rules for Inspection of the Meat.", The New York Times, 1925, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30616FD3E551B7A93C0A8178DD85F418285F9&scp=3&sq=germans+dog+meat&st=p
  132. ^ Fleischbeschaugesetz (Meat Inspection Law), § 1a, RGBl. (Reich Law Gazette) 1937 I p. 458, then becoming § 1 para. 3, RGBl. 1940 I p. 1463 (in German)
  133. ^ Fleischhygienegesetz (Law on Meat Hygiene), § 1 para. 1 sent. 4, BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) 1986 I p. 398 (in German).
  134. ^ "FEAR OF FAMINE APPALS AUSTRIA; Charges of Cannibalism by Vienna Workmen Are Officially Hushed Up. PEOPLE JEER AT THE WAR. German Promises of Victory Flouted—Soldiers Beg for Bread and Long for Peace. Quaratine Against Bolshevism. Real Famine in the Country. Saxons Eat Camels and Dogs", New York Times, May 22, 1918
  135. ^ "NETHERLANDERS SEEK SUNDAY MEAT IN VAIN; Food Situation Becomes Acute as Nazis Seize Dog Sausage". New York Times. 1940-12-08. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  136. ^ a b Day, Matthew (2009-08-07). ""Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy", ''Telegraph''". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
  137. ^ Schwabe 1979, p. 173
  138. ^ FDHA Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin, Art.2.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law 14 (2): 201–236. SSRN 1325574. 
  • Colting, Fredrik; Carl-Johan Gadd (2005-07-10). Magnus Andersson Gadd, ed. The Pet Cookbook: Have your best Friend for dinner. Canada: Nicotext. ISBN 91-974883-4-8. 
  • Yong-Geun Ann, Ph.D. Dog Meat (in Korean and English). Hyoil Book Publishing Company.  (contains some recipes)
  • Dressler, Uwe; Alexander Neumeister (2003-05-01). Der Kalte Hund (in German). Dresden: IBIS-Ed. ISBN 3-8330-0650-1. 
  • Zawada,Grazyna. Szesc psow w sloiku, Gazeta Wyborcza, http://wyborcza.pl/duzyformat/1,127291,8720913,Szesc_psow_w_sloiku.html, 2010-28-10, in Polish, accessed 2014-26-03

External links[edit]