Dojo kun

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For the Japanese cartoon character, see Domo-kun.

Dojo kun is a Japanese martial arts term literally meaning (training hall) rules. They are generally posted at the entrance to dojo or at the "front" of the dojo (shomen) and outline behaviour expected and disallowed. In some styles of martial arts they are recited at the end of a class.

Shotokan Karate[edit]

Generally accredited to Gichin Funakoshi (but rumoured to have been created by Kanga Sakukawa, an 18th-century Okinawan karate proponent) the Shotokan Karate dojo kun serves as a set of five guiding principles, recited at the end of each training session in most styles, intended to frame the practice within an ethical context.

The five rules are:[1]

一、人格 完成に 努める こと
hitotsu, jinkaku kansei ni tsutomeru koto
一、誠の道を守ること
hitotsu, makoto no michi wo mamoru koto
一、努力の精神を養うこと
hitotsu, doryoku no seishin wo yashinau koto
一、礼儀を重んずること
hitotsu, reigi wo omonzuru koto
一、血気の勇を戒むること
hitotsu, kekki no yū wo imashimuru koto

The word Hitotsu means "one" or "first" and is prepended to each rule to place it at the same level of importance as the others. The word koto which ends each rule means "thing" and is used as a conjunction between rules.

Interpretations[edit]

Varying translations and interpretations of the dojo kun exist. Each translation differs in the terms used and the interpretations vary regarding the philosophical depth, meaning, and intention.

The population of English karate practitioners has pushed one form of the translation into being the most widely accepted outside of Japan. Generally, the English translation states:

  • Each person must strive for the completion and perfection of one's character
  • Each person must be faithful and protect the way of truth
  • Each person must endeavor (fostering the spirit of effort)
  • Each person must respect others and the rules of etiquette
  • Each person must refrain from violent behavior (guard against impetuous courage)

A more terse translation is used by the ISKF and JKA:

  • Strive for completion of character (or Seek perfection of character)
  • Be Faithful
  • Endeavor
  • Respect others
  • Refrain from violent behavior

The dojo kun also appears in various other martial arts styles, with alterations according to the general precepts of that style.

Goju Ryu[edit]

In Goju Ryu the Dojo Kun consists of eight rules and are (in English) as follows:[citation needed]

  • Hitotsu: Be humble and polite.
  • Hitotsu: Train considering your physical strength.
  • Hitotsu: Practice earnestly with creativity.
  • Hitotsu: Be calm and swift.
  • Hitotsu: Take care of your health.
  • Hitotsu: Live a plain life.
  • Hitotsu: Do not be too proud or modest.
  • Hitotsu: Continue your training with patience.

Ryu-te[edit]

In Ryu-te the Dojo Kun consists of five rules and are (in English) as follows:[citation needed]

  • Strive for good moral character.
  • Keep an honest and sincere way.
  • Cultivate perseverance through a will for striving.
  • Develop a respectful attitude.
  • Restrain physical ability through spiritual attainment.

Bushido[edit]

In Bushido the Dojo Kun consists of five rules and are (in English) as follows:[citation needed]

  • Loyalty is the essential duty of the soldier.
  • Courage is essential since the trait of the fighting man is his spirit to win.
  • Valor is a trait to be admired and encouraged in the modern warrior.
  • Faithfulness in keeping one's word.
  • Simplicity is a samurai virtue.

Budōkan[edit]

In Budōkan the Dojo Kun consists of four rules and are (in English) as follows:

  • Show courtesy, respect and honesty towards others.
  • Develop confidence through knowledge, honesty and strength.
  • Never use violence for personal gain.
  • Seek perfection of character.

Derivation[edit]

The Dojo kun was derived from Gichin Funakoshi's The Twenty Guiding Principles of Karate, or niju kun, by JKA officials.[2] It is used by many as a condensed form of Sensei Funakoshi's 20 precepts.

(the below is someone's opinion. The obvious omission of anything relating to physical practice indicates it is not totally honest): In Shotokan or any other styles, the main purpose of learning karate is

  • to practice courtesy
  • be able to speak out (Increase self-confidence)
  • train focus to reach objectives
  • train guidance ability
  • train resistance against pressure
  • train speaking ability
  • train spirit of strive
  • train harmony characteristic
  • success or failure is not important

(the below is also someone's opinion; probably someone who is used to just saying "Yes Sir!" to everything, no matter how irrational): The 3 most important spirits in dojo is

  • say yes to obey
  • say thanks to appreciate
  • say sorry to increase introspection

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 日本空手松涛連盟(JKS) 道場訓解説
  2. ^ The JKA dojo kun