Dolichocephaly is a condition where the head is longer than would be expected, relative to its width. The skulls of Neanderthals show a marked dolichocephaly compared to other humans, past or present. In humans, scaphocephaly is a form of dolicocephaly.
Dolicocephalic dog breeds (such as German Shepherd Dogs), have an elongated nose. This predisposes them to fungal diseases of the nose such as aspergillosis.