Doly (Polish: Kopalnie, lit. "mines") is a district of the city of Karviná in Karviná District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It lies on the southwestern edge of the city, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia and has a population of 810 (2001).
Baroque Saint Peter of Alcantara Church is located there. It was built in 1736. Due to the extensive coal mining in the area, the ground lowered and the church leans 6.8° southwards. The church is now a protected landmark and a memento of the past, reminding the times when coal mining in Karviná was far more extensive. Despite its leaning, the church is still active, with Mass in Czech and Polish languages held each week. Near the church there is located the old cemetery.
The village of Karviná was first mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as item in Carvina XI) mansi. It meant that the village was obliged to pay tithe from 11 smaller lans. The creation of the village was a part of a larger settlement campaign taking place in late 13th century on the territory of what will be later known as Upper Silesia. In the document from 1331 it was mentioned under an alias name as Arnoldesdorf which indicates some German settlement alongside aboriginal Slavic.
Politically the village belonged initially to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290 in the process of feudal fragmentation of Poland and was ruled by a local branch of Piast dynasty. In 1327 the duchy became a fee of Kingdom of Bohemia, which after 1526 became part of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The village became a seat of a Catholic parish, which was mentioned in the register of Peter's Pence payment from 1447 among 50 parishes of Teschen deaconry as Arnoldi villa.[a] After 1540s Protestant Reformation prevailed in the Duchy of Teschen and a local Catholic church was taken over by Lutherans. It was taken from them (as one from around fifty buildings in the region) by a special commission and given back to the Roman Catholic Church on 26 March 1654.
After the discovery of black coal in the area, many miners and workers came and settled there. The village developed quickly since then.
After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively organised in Frysztat County of Silesian Voivodeship. It was then annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia.
- "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869 - 2005 - 1. díl". Praha: Czech Statistical Office. 2006. pp. 718–719.
- Profile at the hrady.cz website
- I. Panic, 2010, p. 331
- Schulte, Wilhelm (1889). Codex Diplomaticus Silesiae T.14 Liber Fundationis Episcopatus Vratislaviensis (in German). Breslau.
- "Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis" (in Latin). Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Mrózek, Robert (1984). Nazwy miejscowe dawnego Śląska Cieszyńskiego [Local names of former Cieszyn Silesia] (in Polish). Katowice: Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach. pp. 86, 269. ISSN 0208-6336.
- "Registrum denarii sancti Petri in archidiaconatu Opoliensi sub anno domini MCCCCXLVII per dominum Nicolaum Wolff decretorum doctorem, archidiaconum Opoliensem, ex commissione reverendi in Christo patris ac domini Conradi episcopi Wratislaviensis, sedis apostolice collectoris, collecti". Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Alterthum Schlesiens (in German) (Breslau: H. Markgraf) 27: 361–372. 1893. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Broda, Jan (1992). "Materiały do dziejów Kościoła ewangelickiego w Księstwie Cieszyńskim i Państwie Pszczyńskim w XVI i XVII wieku". Z historii Kościoła ewangelickiego na Śląsku Cieszyńskim (in Polish). Katowice: Dom Wydawniczy i Księgarski „Didache“. pp. 259–260. ISBN 83-85572-00-7.
- "Ustawa z dnia 27 października 1938 r. o podziale administracyjnym i tymczasowej organizacji administracji na obszarze Ziem Odzyskanych Śląska Cieszyńskiego". Dziennik Ustaw Śląskich (in Polish) (Katowice). nr 18/1938, poz. 35. 31 September 1938. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
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