North and west faces
|Elevation||4,545 m (14,911 ft)|
|Prominence||1,046 m (3,432 ft)|
|Parent peak||Monte Rosa|
|Topo map||Swisstopo 1328 Randa|
|First ascent||1858 by the Rev J. L. Davies and party|
|Easiest route||North flank (PD)|
The Dom is a mountain in the Pennine Alps above Saas Fee in the canton of Valais. With its 4,545 m (14,911 ft) summit it is the third highest peak in the Alps and the second highest in Switzerland. The Dom is the summit of the Mischabel range, the highest massif lying entirely in Switzerland.
The former name Mischabel comes from an ancient German dialect term for pitchfork, as the highest peaks of the massif stand close to each other.
The Dom is the culminating point of a chain running from Schwarzberghorn on the south, at the intersection with the main chain of the Alps ( Alpine watershed ), to the Seetalhorn on the north and ending above the town of Stalden.
The two valleys separated by the range are the Mattertal on the west and the Saastal on the east. The towns of Randa and Saas Fee lie six kilometres from the summit (to the west and the east, respectively).
Since the Dom is not on the main Alpine chain, the rivers flowing on both the west and east side of the massif end up in the same major river, the Rhone. The Dom is the highest mountain in the Alps with this peculiarity.
Many high summits are located within a few kilometers from the Dom. To the north lies the Nadelgrat, composed of the Lenzspitze, Nadelhorn and Stecknadelhorn. The Nadelgrat is easily visible from the north and gives the massif its characteristic pitchfork appearance. The second highest peak of the massif, the Täschhorn to the south, culminates at 4,491 metres. In total eight summits above 4,000 metres are located in the Mischabel range.
Generally, areas above 3,000 metres are covered by glaciers, the two largest being the Ried situated at the foot of the Nadelgrat and the Fee, at the foot of the Dom itself, below the east face. Mt. Dom is a depositional mountain.
The first ascent of the western ridge (above the Festikinlücke) was made in 4.9.1878 by Mrs E. P. Jackson and Percy W. Thomas with the guides Aois Pollinger, Josef Truffer, Josef Marie Biner, Josef Imboden and Josef Lengen of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais. They traversed the west face to reach the Festigrat before arriving to the summit. The first complete ascent on the western ridge was made later in 1882 by Paul Güssfeldt and guides Alexander Burgener and B. Venetz. The direct route on the west face was first ascended in 1962.
The 1000-metre-high east face above Saas Fee was climbed in 1875 by J. Petrus, A. and W. Puckle and L. Noti.
A route on the south face was first made in August 1906 by Geoffrey Winthrop Young and R. G. Major, with the guides Josef Knubel and Gabriel Lochmatter of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais. According to Young it was more dangerous than the south-west face of the nearby Täschhorn, which they had climbed two weeks earlier.
Climbing routes and huts
Despite its considerable height above the surrounding valleys, the Dom can be climbed quite easily, as the normal route does not present major difficulties. It is however a demanding 3,100-metre ascent with objective danger in the upper part. Cable cars and other facilities are located only in the Saas Fee area on the east side of the mountain, from which all the routes are difficult.
The easiest way to the summit starts from Randa (railway station, 1,450 m), where a trail leads to the Dom Hut (2,940 m). Climbing the mountain requires an overnight stay. Most popular sleeping sites are the Dom hut and the camping place one hour higher from the hut. The hut needs to be booked in advance and is not free to use like the camping place. The normal route starts from the hut and goes towards the Festijoch pass (3,720 m). Then it follows the Hohberg Glacier to the summit above the north face. The Festigrat, traversed on the first ascent, is the north-western ridge going directly from the Festijoch to the summit. It is preferred by climbers who wish to avoid the long slopes of the north flank.
- Swisstopo map (the key col is the Neues Weisstor at 3,499 metres)
- Dumler, Helmut and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, London: Diadem, 1994, p. 73
- Without counting the Allalinhorn, Rimpfischhorn and Strahlhorn to the south
- Dom erstersteiger.de
- Helmut Dumler, Willi P. Burkhardt, Les 4000 des Alpes, ISBN 2-7003-1305-4
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dom.|
- The Dom on SummitPost
- Photo of the Mischabelhörner with the Dom
- Photo of the Mischabelhörner from the Gornergrat