|Abbot of Solesmes Abbey|
A painting of Prosper Guéranger by Claude-Ferdinand Gaillard
|Appointed||14 July 1837|
|Term ended||30 January 1875|
|Ordination||7 October 1827|
4 April 1805|
|Died||30 January 1875
|Coat of arms|
Dom Prosper Louis Pascal Guéranger (4 April 1805, Sablé-sur-Sarthe, France – 30 January 1875, Solesmes, France) was a Benedictine priest, abbot of Solesmes Abbey (which he founded in the disused priory of Solesmes) and founder of the French Benedictine Congregation (now the Solesmes Congregation). Dom Guéranger was the author of The Liturgical Year, which covers every day of the Catholic Church's Liturgical Cycle in 15 volumes. He was well regarded by Pope Pius IX, and was a proponent of the dogmas of papal infallibility and the Immaculate Conception. Dom Guéranger is credited with reviving the Benedictine Order in France, and revitalizing the Tridentine Mass though ironically he is also regarded as the grandfather of the Liturgical Movement, which ultimately led to the near suppression of the Tridentine Mass which he had done so much to encourage..
Ordained a priest on 7 October 1827, Dom Guéranger was administrator of the parish of the Missions Etrangères until near the close of 1830. He then left Paris and returned to Le Mans, where he began to publish various historical works, such as De la prière pour le Roi (October 1830) and De l'élection et de la nomination des évêques (1831), their subject being inspired by the political and religious situation of the day.
In 1831 the priory of Solesmes, which was about an hour's journey from Sablé, was put up for sale and Père Guéranger now saw a means of realizing his desire to re-establish, in this monastery, religious life under the Rule of St. Benedict. His decision was made in June 1831, and in December 1832, thanks to private donations, the monastery had become his property. The Bishop of Le Mans now sanctioned the Constitutions by which the new society was to be organized and fitted subsequently to enter the Benedictine Order.
On 11 July 1833, five priests came together in the restored priory at Solesmes, and on 15 August 1836 publicly declared their intention of consecrating their lives to the re-establishment of the Order of St. Benedict. In a brief issued on 1 September 1837, Pope Gregory XVI raised the rank of the former priory of Solesmes to an abbey, and constituted it head of the "Congrégation Française de l'Ordre de Saint Benoît". Dom Guéranger was appointed abbot of Solesmes (on 31 October) and Superior General of the Benedictines of the "Congrégation de France", and those of the little society who had received the habit on 15 August 1836, made their solemn profession under the direction of the new abbot, who had pronounced his vows at Rome on 26 July 1837.
From then on Dom Guéranger's life was given up to developing the young monastic community, to procuring for it the necessary material and resources, and to inspiring it with an absolute devotion to the Church and the Pope. Amongst those who came to Solesmes, either to follow the monastic life or to seek self-improvement by means of retreats, Dom Guéranger found many collaborators and valuable steadfast friends. Dom Pitra, afterwards Cardinal, renewed the great literary traditions of the Benedictines of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; Bishops Pie of Poitiers and Berthaud of Tulle, Père Lacordaire, the Count de Montalembert and Louis Veuillot, were all interested in the abbot's projects and even shared his labours.
Unfortunately the controversy occasioned by several of Dom Guéranger's writings had the effect of drawing his attention to secondary questions and turning it away from the great enterprises of ecclesiastical science, in which he always manifested a lively concern. The result was a work in which polemics figured prominently, and which now evokes only mediocre interest, and, although the time spent upon it was by no means lost to the cause of the Church, Dom Guéranger's historical and liturgical pursuits suffered in consequence. He devoted himself too largely to personal impressions and neglected detailed and persevering investigation. His quickness of perception and his classical training permitted him to enjoy and to set forth, treat in an interesting way, historical and liturgical subjects which, by nature, were somewhat unattractive. Genuine enthusiasm, a lively imagination, and a style tinged with romanticism have sometimes led him, as he himself realized, to express himself and to judge too vigorously.
Being a devout and ardent servant of the Church, Dom Guéranger wished to re-establish more respectful and more filial relations between France and the See of Rome, and his entire life was spent in endeavouring to effect a closer union between the two. With this end in view he set himself to combat, wherever he thought he found its traces, the separatist spirit that had, of old, allied itself with Gallicanism and Jansenism. With a strategic skill which deserves special recognition, Dom Guéranger worked on the principle that to suppress what is wrong, the thing must be replaced, and he laboured hard to supplant everywhere whatever reflected the opinion he was fighting. He fought to have the Roman liturgy substituted for the diocesan liturgies, and he lived to see his efforts in this line crowned with complete success. On philosophical ground, he struggled with unwavering hope against Naturalism and Liberalism, which he considered a fatal impediment to the constitution of an unreservedly Christian society. He helped, in a measure, to prepare men's minds for the definition of the papal infallibility, a dogma which reversed the struggle against papal authority fought a century previously by many Gallican and Josephite bishops.
In 1841 he began to publish a mystical work by which he hoped to arouse the faithful from their spiritual torpor and to supplant what he deemed the lifeless or erroneous literature that had been produced by the French spiritual writers of the 17th and 18th centuries. L'Année liturgique, of which the author was not to finish the long series of fifteen volumes, is probably the one of all Dom Guéranger's works that best fulfilled the purpose he had in view. Accommodating himself to the development of the liturgical periods of the year, the author laboured to familiarize the faithful with the official prayer of the Church by lavishly introducing fragments of the Eastern and Western liturgies, with interpretations and commentaries.
Amid his many labours Dom Guéranger had the satisfaction of witnessing the spreading of the restored Benedictine Order. Two unsuccessful attempts at foundations in Paris and the former Acey Abbey did not deter him from new efforts in he same line, and, thanks to his zealous perseverance, monasteries were established at Ligugé and Marseilles. Moreover, in his last years, he oversaw, in collaboration with the first abbess, Mother Cécile Bruyère, the establishment of a community of women under the Rule of St. Benedict at St. Cecilia's Abbey, Solesmes. This life, fraught with so many trials and filled with such great achievements, drew to a peaceful close at Solesmes.
Cause for Beatification
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (June 2013)|
- "Pope to Beatify Dom Prosper Guéranger?". The Remnant. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
- FAITH Magazine online: Dom Gueranger, Prophet of Ecclesial Renewal
- Dom Prosper Guéranger Biography on Catholicism.org
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Leclercq, Henri (1910). "Prosper Louis Pascal Guéranger". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia 7. Robert Appleton Company.