Dombra

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Dombra
Dombra1.jpg
Kazakh dombra
Classification
Related instruments

The dombra (домбыра or dombyra in Kazakh, dambura, dambura, in Uzbekistan, dumbyra in Tatar and Bashkir, tumbyra in Siberian Tatar, danbura in Hazaragi,) is a long-necked lute and a musical string instrument.

The instrument shares some of its characteristics with the komuz and dutar.

Varieties[edit]

The instrument differs slightly in different regions. The Kazakh dombra has frets and is played by strumming with the hand or plucking each string individually, with an occasional tap on the main surface of the instrument. While the strings are traditionally made of sinew, modern dombras are usually produced using nylon strings. One of the greatest dombra players is Kazakh folk musician and composer Kurmangazy, which had a great influence on the development of the Kazakh musical culture, including - music for dombra, his musical composition "Adai" popular in Kazakhstan and abroad.

In 2012 was created elektrodomra.[1]

Dambura

The Turkestani and Badakhshani damburas are fretless[2] with a body and neck carved from a single block of wood, usually mulberry or apricot. The dambura is played with much banging and scratching on the instrument to help give a percussive sound. The two strings are made of nylon (in modern times) or gut. They cross a short bridge to a pin at the other end of the body. There is a tiny sound hole in the back of the instrument, while the top is thick wood. It is not finished with any varnish, filing/sanding of any kind, and as with all other Afghan instruments there is some decoration.[2]

The Dumbura is the equivalent instrument of the Tatars and Bashkirs. A performer strikes all the strings at the same time. The upper string performs the bourdon tone and the lower string performs the melody. A dumbura is used as a solo as well as an ensemble instrument.

Dombra, ensemble and epic[edit]

An image of a dombra on a Kazakhstani postage stamp

The Kazakh poet Abay Qunanbayuli is often shown holding a dombra at rest and many hold it in high regard as a symbol of nationalism among the post-Soviet nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States. The dombra is played by Erzhan Alimbetov in the Ulytau band.

From the 12th to the 18th century, the dumbura was used by Bashkir sasans to accompany their poetic legends and kubairs. It is mentioned in the epic poem "Zayatulyak and Hiuhiliu". However, by the beginning of the 20th century, the dumbura was forgotten. The sasans were often the main ideologists of ethnic insurrections. So when the Russian administration put down an uprising, they punished the sasans and destroyed their dumburas.[citation needed] In the second half of the 20th century, several reconstructions were carried out. At present, the revivalist work continues. Among others, performer V. Shugayupov works on the revival of the dumbura. The modern wooden dumbura has a pear-shaped or an oval form.[citation needed]

The dambura is popular particularly among the Hazara people. Safdar Tawakoli and Rajab Ali Haidari are notable Afghan dambura players.

References in popular culture[edit]

This instrument has become a part of an Internet phenomenon after a video clip from SuperStar KZ, the Kazakh equivalent of the Idol series, was posted on YouTube. The video includes two contestants singing and a third one singing and playing the dombra (Ernar Kaldynov), which caused the popularity. The name of the original song is Freestailo by R.Lizer, a Kazakh man.

Dombyra as an instrument is being popularized with mean of Dombyra Parties, a flash mob-like movement of Kazakh youth organized via social media. The videos of Dombyra Party activities are shared on YouTube, Facebook etc.

Range and tablature[edit]

Many folk and regional tunings have been existing though below there is the most accepted academic DG tuning for standard concert dombra prima of Kazakhstan.

Kazakh dombra dombyra range tablature DG tuning.svg

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Дух Великой Степи — Электродомбра помогла казахстанской группе достичь вершин рок-чарта в США
  2. ^ a b Atlas of plucked instruments - Central Asia

External links[edit]

Kui on dombra

Other links

See also[edit]