|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2008)|
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2009)|
A modern stadium (plural stadiums/stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a structure designed to allow spectators to stand or sit and view the event.)
Pausanias noted that for about half a century the only event at the ancient Greek Olympic festival was the race that comprised one length of the stade at Olympia, where the word "stadium" originated.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 The ancient stadium
- 4 The modern stadium
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
"Stadium" comes from the Greek word "stadion" (στάδιον), a measure of length equalling the length of 600 human feet. As feet are of variable length the exact length of a stadion depends on the exact length adopted for 1 foot at a given place and time. Although in modern terms 1 stadion = 600 ft (180 m), in a given historical context it may actually signify a length up to 15% larger or smaller.
Although most dictionaries provide for both "stadiums" and "stadia" as valid plurals, etymological sticklers sometimes apply "stadia" only to measures of length in excess of 1 stadium. (That the "stadium" measurement is used only in historical contexts perhaps explains the sustained use of the archaic plural.)
The English use of stadium comes from the tiered infrastructure surrounding a Roman track of such length.
The oldest known stadium is the one in Olympia, in the western Peloponnese, Greece, where the Olympic Games of antiquity were held from 776 BC. Initially 'the Games' consisted of a single event, a sprint along the length of the stadium. According to the article Stadium at Olympia the track at Olympia was longer than even the longest definition for stadion given in the article Stadion (unit of length). In turn. Greek and Roman stadia have been found in numerous ancient cities, perhaps the most famous being the Stadium of Domitian, in Rome.
The first stadium to be used in modern times, and the only one to be used during the 19th century, was the excavated and refurbished ancient Panathenaic stadium which has hosted Olympic Games in 1870, 1875, 1896, 1906, and 2004. The excavation and refurbishment of the stadium was part of the legacy of the Greek national benefactor Evangelos Zappas.
The ancient stadium
Hippodrome; stadium; circus
The Greek hippodrome was the basic model for both the Roman stadium and the Roman circus. A hippodrome and a stadium may be of similar size, while the largest circus structures can have seating capacities up to ten times greater. In practice, however, the association of one of these three words with a given structure may be more the result of some naming convention than a reflection of any characteristic of its physical size or structure. Indeed from one epoch to another the same structure many be known by different names. For example the Stadium of Domitian was also known as the Circus Agonalis. In another example a structure at Aphrodisias can be found referred to as a stadium, or a hippodrome, while it has the size and structure of a small circus.
Examples of ancient stadia
|Name||Country||Earliest date||Track length||Track width|
|Stadium at Olympia||Greece||776 BC||212.54 m (697.3 ft)||28.5 m (94 ft)|
|Stadium at Delphi||Greece||500 BC||177 m (581 ft)||25.5 m (84 ft)|
|Stadium of Domitian||Italy||80 AD||200 m (660 ft) - 250 m (820 ft) (estimated)|
|Stadium at Aphrodisias||Turkey||225 m (738 ft) (approx.)||30 m (98 ft) (approx.)|
The modern stadium
Domed stadia are distinguished from conventional stadia by their enclosing roofs. Many of these are not actually domes in the pure architectural sense, some being better described as vaults, some having truss-supported roofs and others having more exotic designs such as a tensegrity structure. But, in the context of sports stadia, the term "dome" has become standard for all covered stadia, particularly because the first such enclosed stadium, the Houston Astrodome, was built with an actual dome-shaped roof. Some stadia have partial roofs, and a few have even been designed to have moveable fields as part of the infrastructure.
Even though enclosed, dome stadia are called stadia because they are large enough for, and designed for, what are generally considered to be outdoor sports such as athletics, American football, soccer, rugby and baseball. Those designed for what are usually indoor sports like basketball, ice hockey and volleyball are generally called arenas. Exceptions include the basketball arena at Duke University, which is called Cameron Indoor Stadium, Red Bull Arena, which is home of the New York Red Bulls of MLS, and the now-demolished Chicago Stadium, former home of the Chicago Blackhawks of the NHL and Chicago Bulls of the NBA.
Different sports require fields of different size and shape. Some stadia are designed primarily for a single sport while others can accommodate different events, particularly ones with retractable seating. Stadia built specifically for association football are quite common in Europe; however, Gaelic games stadia (such as Croke Park) would be most common in Ireland, while ones built specifically for baseball or American football are common in the United States. The most common multiple use design combines a football pitch with a running track, a combination which generally works fairly well, although certain compromises must be made. The major drawback is that the stands are necessarily set back a good distance from the pitch, especially at the ends of the pitch. In the case of some smaller stadia, there are not stands at the ends. When there are stands all the way around, the stadium takes on an oval shape. When one end is open, the stadium has a horseshoe shape. All three configurations (open, oval and horseshoe) are common, especially in the case of American college football stadia. Rectangular stadia are more common in Europe, especially for football where many stadia have four often distinct and very different stands on the four sides of the stadium. These are often all of different sizes and designs and have been erected at different periods in the stadium's history. The vastly differing character of European football stadia has led to the growing hobby of ground hopping where spectators make a journey to visit the stadium for itself rather than for the event held there. In recent years the trend of building completely new oval stadia in Europe has led to traditionalists criticising the designs as bland and lacking in the character of the old stadia they replace.
In North America, where baseball and American football are the two most popular outdoor spectator sports, a number of football/baseball multi-use stadia were built, especially during the 1960s, and some of them were successful.
However, since the requirements for baseball and football are significantly different, the trend, beginning with Kansas City in 1972–1973 and accelerating in the 1990s, has been toward the construction of single-purpose stadia. In several cases, an American football stadium has been constructed adjacent to a baseball park, to allow for the sharing of mutual parking lots and other amenities. With the rise of Major League Soccer, the construction of soccer-specific stadiums has also increased since the late 1990s to better fit the needs of that sport. In many cases, earlier baseball stadia were constructed to fit into a particular land area or city block. This resulted in asymmetrical dimensions for many baseball fields. Yankee Stadium, for example, was built on a triangular city block in The Bronx, New York City. This resulted in a large left field dimension but a small right field dimension.
Before more modern football stadia were built in the United States, many baseball parks, including Fenway Park, the Polo Grounds, Wrigley Field, Comiskey Park, Tiger Stadium, Griffith Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium, Shibe Park, Forbes Field, Yankee Stadium, and Sportsman's Park were used by the National Football League or the American Football League. (To a certain extent, this continues in lower football leagues as well, with TD Ameritrade Park being used as the home stadium of the United Football League's Omaha Nighthawks.) Along with today's single use stadia is the trend for retro style ballparks closer to downtown areas. Oriole Park at Camden Yards was the first such ballpark for Major League Baseball to be built, using early-20th-century styling with 21st-century amenities.
There is a solar-powered stadium in Taiwan that produces as much energy as it needs to function.
Stadium designers often study acoustics to increase noise caused by fans' voices, aiming to create a lively atmosphere.
Spectator areas and seating
An "all-seater" stadium has seats for all spectators. Other stadia are designed so that all or some spectators stand to view the event. The term "all-seater" is not common in the U.S., perhaps because very few American stadia have sizeable standing-only sections. Poor stadium design has contributed to disasters, such as the Hillsborough disaster and the Heysel Stadium disaster. Since these, all FA Premier League, UEFA and FIFA World Cup qualifying matches require all spectators to be seated (though not necessarily in an all-seater stadium, if terraces are left empty).
The spectator areas of a stadium may be referred to as bleachers, especially in the U.S., or as terraces, especially in the United Kingdom, but also in some American baseball parks, as an alternative to the term tier. Originally set out for standing room only, they are now usually equipped with seating. Either way, the term originates from the step-like rows which resemble agricultural terraces. Related, but not precisely the same, is the use of the word terrace to describe a sloping portion of the outfield in a baseball park, possibly, but not necessarily for seating, but for practical or decorative purposes. The most famous of these was at Crosley Field in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Many stadia make luxury suites or boxes available to patrons at high prices. These suites can accommodate fewer than 10 spectators or upwards of 30 depending on the venue. Luxury suites at events such as the Super Bowl can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Political and economic issues
Modern stadia, especially the largest among them, are megaprojects that can only be afforded by the largest corporations, wealthiest individuals, or government. Sports fans have a deep emotional attachment to their teams. In North America, with its closed-league "franchise" system, there are fewer teams than cities which would like them. This creates tremendous bargaining power for the owners of teams, whereby owners can threaten to relocate teams to other cities unless governments subsidize the construction of new facilities. In Europe and Latin America, where there are multiple association football clubs in any given city, and several leagues in each country, no such monopoly power exists, and stadia are build primarily with private money. Outside of professional sports, governments are also involved through the intense competition for the right to host major sporting events, primarily the Summer Olympics and the FIFA World Cup (of association football), during which cities often pledge to build new stadia on order to satisfy the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or FIFA.
In recent decades, to help take the burden of the massive expense of building and maintaining a stadium, many American and European sports teams have sold the rights to the name of the facility. This trend, which began in the 1970s, but accelerated greatly in the 1990s, has led to sponsors' names being affixed to both established stadia and new ones. In some cases, the corporate name replaces (with varying degrees of success) the name by which the venue has been known for many years. But many of the more recently built stadia, like the Volkswagen Arena in Wolfsburg, Germany, have never been known by a non-corporate name. The sponsorship phenomenon has since spread worldwide. There remain a few municipally owned stadia, which are often known by a name that is significant to their area (for example, Minneapolis' Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome). In recent years, some government-owned stadia have also been subject to naming-rights agreements, with some or all of the revenue often going to the team(s) that play there.
One consequence of corporate naming has been an increase in stadium name changes, when the namesake corporation changes its name, or if it is the naming agreement simply expires. Phoenix's Chase Field, for example, was previously known as Bank One Ballpark, but was renamed to reflect the takeover of the latter corporation. San Francisco's historic Candlestick Park was renamed as 3Com Park for several years, but the name was dropped when the sponsorship agreement expired, and it was another two years before the new name of Monster Cable Products' Monster Park was applied. Local opposition to the corporate naming of that particular stadium led San Francisco's city council to permanently restore the Candlestick Park name once the Monster contract expired. More recently, in Ireland, there has been huge opposition to the renaming of Dublin's historic Lansdowne Road as the Aviva Stadium. Lansdowne was redeveloped as the Aviva, opening in May 2010.
On the other hand, Los Angeles' Great Western Forum, one of the earliest examples of corporate renaming, retained its name for many years, even after the namesake bank no longer existed, the corporate name being dropped only after the building later changed ownership. This practice has typically been less common in countries outside the United States. A notable exception is the Nippon Professional Baseball league of Japan, in which many of the teams are themselves named after their parent corporations. Also, many new European football stadia, such as the Reebok and Emirates Stadiums in England and Signal Iduna Park and Allianz Arena in Germany have been corporately named.
This new trend in corporate naming (or renaming) is distinguishable from names of some older venues, such as Crosley Field, Wrigley Field, and the first and second Busch Stadia, in that the parks were named by and for the club's owner, which also happened to be the name of the company owned by those clubowners. (The current Busch Stadium received its name via a modern naming rights agreement.) SkyDome in Toronto, Canada was renamed Rogers Centre in 2005, removing any reference that it is a domed stadium.
During the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, some stadia were temporarily renamed because FIFA prohibits sponsorship of stadia. For example, the Allianz Arena in Munich was called the FIFA World Cup Stadium, Munich during the tournament. Likewise, the same stadium will be known as the "München Arena" during the European Competitions. Similar rules affect the Imtech Arena and Veltins-Arena. This rule applies even if the stadium sponsor is an official FIFA sponsor—the Johannesburg stadium commercially known as "Coca-Cola Park", bearing the name of one of FIFA's major sponsors, was known by its historic name of Ellis Park Stadium during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Corporate names are also temporarily replaced during the Olympics.
From the 1960s stadia began to be used as live music venues, giving rise to the term "stadium rock", particularly for forms of hard rock and progressive rock. The origins of stadium rock are sometimes dated to when The Beatles played Shea Stadium in New York in 1965. Also important was the use of large stadia for American tours by bands in the later 1960s, such as The Rolling Stones, Grand Funk Railroad and Led Zeppelin. The tendency developed in the mid-1970s as the increased power of amplification and sound systems allowed the use of larger and larger venues. Smoke, fireworks and sophisticated lighting shows became staples of arena rock performances. Key acts from this era included Journey, REO Speedwagon, Boston, Foreigner, Styx, Kiss, Peter Frampton and Queen. In the 1980s arena rock became dominated by glam metal bands, following the lead of Aerosmith and including Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, W.A.S.P. and Ratt. Since the 1980s pop and folk stars including Madonna, Britney Spears, Lepa Brena, Taylor Swift and Lady Gaga have undertaken large-scale stadium based tours.
- List of indoor arenas
- List of sports attendance figures
- Lists of stadia
- List of stadia by capacity
- Olympic Stadium
- Stad, Stead (as in Homestead), Stadt
- Sport venue
- Sports complex
- Multi-purpose stadium
- Modular stadium
- Stadia is the Latin plural form, but both are used in English. Dictionary.com
- Nussli Group "Stadium Construction Projects"
- A Brief History of the Olympic Games by David C. Young, p. 20
- The Modern Olympic Games, A Struggle for Revival by David C. Young, Chapters 4 & 13
- Merriam-Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dome
- Taiwan's solar stadium 100% powered by the sun Guardian
- How do you give stadia atmosphere? - Martin Vennard, BBC News, 12 April 2013
- Lambert, Craig. "The Dow of Professional Sports" Harvard Magazine http://harvardmagazine.com/2001/09/the-dow-of-professional.html
- S. Waksman, This Ain't the Summer of Love: Conflict and Crossover in Heavy Metal and Punk (University of California Press, 2009), ISBN 0-520-25310-8, pp. 21-31.
- R. Shuker, Popular Music: the Key Concepts (London: Routledge, 2nd., edn., 2002), 0415284252, p. 158.
- “Arena rock”, Allmusic, retrieved 20 January 2011.
- J. Shepherd, ed., Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World, Volume 1 (Continuum, 2003), ISBN 0-8264-6321-5, p. 423.
- P. Buckley, The Rough Guide to Rock (London: Rough Guides, 3rd edn., 2003), ISBN 1-84353-105-4, p. 835.
- Thrills, Adrian (11th March 2011) We STILL rock you: Re-releases chart Queen's rise to power Daily Mail. Retrieved June 16, 2011.
- D. L. Joyner, American Popular Music (McGraw-Hill, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 0-07-352657-6, p. 261.
- "Hair metal", Allmusic. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- John, Geraint; Rod Sheard; Ben Vickery (2007). Stadia: A Design and Development Guide (4th ed. ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Architectural Press. ISBN 978-0-7506-6844-6.
- Serby, Myron W. (1930). The Stadium; A Treatise on the Design of Stadiums and Their Equipment. New York, Cleveland: American Institute of Steel, inc. (worldcat) (search)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stadiums.|
- World Stadiums
- Footballmatch Stadiumguide
- Stadium Archive
- Stadium Journey - Community for sports travelers to exchange information about their stadium experiences
- Reviews of stadiums and arenas
- Stadiums of Euro 2012
- Sport Stadiums with Great Architecture