Rocheteau began his professional career with AS Saint-Étienne, when they were the most successful and popular football team in France. He was a sinuous and incisive outside right who was nicknamed the "Green Angel". Injured, he played only the last eight minutes of the 1976 European Cup Final, which St. Etienne lost 1-0 to Bayern Munich. He won three French Championships (1974–1976) and one French Cup (1977) with St. Etienne. He transferred to Paris St. Germain in 1980 with whom he won once more the French Championship (1986) and two more French Cups (1982–1983). In 1987 he was transferred to Toulouse FC, for whom he played two seasons before retiring in 1989. With the French National Team Rocheteau won 49 caps from 1975–1986 and scored 15 goals. He played in the 1978 World Cup, 1982 World Cup and 1986 World Cup and was part of the team that won the European Championship in 1984 (though Rocheteau missed the final due to injury).