Don Isidro (1939)

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Filipino passenger motor vessel Don Isidro.jpg
Don Isidro 24 December 1941 (Australian War Memorial, Naval Historical Collection)
Career (Philippines) Philippine
Name: Don Isidro
Owner: De La Rama Steamship Company
Operator: De La Rama Steamship Company
Builder: Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft A. G., Kiel, Germany
Launched: 1939
Fate: Attacked by Japanese aircraft en route to bomb Darwin on 19 February 1942, beached burning, lost.
Notes: Under U.S. Army time/voyage charter December 1941 until loss 19 February 1942.[1]
General characteristics
Tonnage: 3,261 GRT[1]
Length: 320.9 ft (97.8 m)[2]
Beam: 46 ft (14 m)[2]
Height: 177 ft (54 m) upper bridge[2]
Draught: 20 ft (6.1 m)[2]
Propulsion: Two 9 cyl turbocharged diesel[2][3][1]
Speed: 20 kts[3]
Capacity: 408 passengers[3]

Don Isidro, delivered in 1939, was the second and larger of two Krupp built motor ships of De La Rama Steamship Company, Iloilo, Philippines in inter-island service.[2][4] The ship under a time charter[1] by the United States Army as a transport during the Japanese invasion of the Philippines. As defending forces became cut off from supply by the Japanese blockade Don Isidro was one of eight ships, only three of which were successful, known to make an attempt to run the blockade.[5] In that attempt, under her captain Rafael J. Cisneros, Don Isidro became involved in the 19 February Japanese attack on Darwin, Australia where, though not in the port, she was strafed, bombed and left off Bathurst Island burning with all lifeboats destroyed. The captain attempted to make land when she grounded about three miles off Melville Island to which survivors swam. Of the sixty-seven crew and sixteen soldiers aboard eleven of the crew and one soldier were killed or missing. Survivors were rescued by HMAS Warrnambool, taken to Darwin, treated at the hospital and then awaited orders at the 147th Field Artillery camp.[6][7]

Pre war[edit]

Don Isidro was constructed 1939 at Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft A. G., Kiel, Germany for the inter-island passenger service of the De La Rama Steamship Company in Philippine waters. She was a diesel motor ship with two nine cylinder turbocharged engines driving two screws for a speed of twenty knots.[1][3]

The day after Great Britain and France declare war with Germany Don Isidro was subject of an incident at Port Said on 5 September 1939 as she cleared the Suez Canal on her maiden voyage from Kiel to Manila. British authorities removed from the ship two German engineers, sailing with the vessel to provide training and technical support, provoking a diplomatic protest from the United States "as illegal and a violation of the neutral rights of the United States" on the day after President Roosevelt proclaimed that neutrality. The British explanation was unsatisfactory to the Department of State but was considered closed "on the assumption that similar instances will not be permitted to occur in the future."[8][9]

Over the next twenty-six months Don Isidro, along with the smaller and slightly older Don Esteban (1936) were noted as the luxury vessels of inter-island passenger service.[4] Then that war caught up again with the 7 December 1941 (Hawaii time) Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines only hours later on 8 December (Philippine time).[Note 1]

Wartime Operations[edit]

Whatever the movements of Don Isidro between Manila being evacuated and being declared an open city on 23 and 26 December 1941 respectively the ship had come under the War Shipping Administration, allocated to U.S. Army charter on 11 January 1942 at Fremantle, and was in Brisbane, Australia being loaded with rations and ammunition on 22 January 1942 when defenders were ordered to withdraw from the Abucay-Mauban line to final defense lines in Bataan.[10][11][12] She left Brisbane on a "special mission" at 1.45 p.m., 27 January 1942 "bound for Corregidor" seeking to supply forces still on Bataan.[13]

The ship's location in Brisbane was no coincidence. Supplies and ships were being sent to the Netherlands East Indies from Brisbane as the Malay Barrier concept was still alive and the port had been the first stop for a number of ships diverted to Australia with the invasion of the Philippines. Significant supplies, particularly munitions, were already there or on the way from there to Java which was closest to the besieged forces in the Philippines and small, fast blockade running vessels were presumed to be readily available there. Even the prototype seaplane, the Navy's XPBS-1, had been sent to Australia and onward to Java with critical aircraft parts and a rush order of torpedo exploders from San Diego—and on departure from Pearl 30 January General Patrick Hurley with a bag of cash to add to that dispatched already for procurement locally of vital supplies. Ships of the Pensacola convoy and SS President Polk had been diverted first to Brisbane and then with supplies and munitions intended for the forces in the Philippines to Java. Polk had arrived there 12 January 1942 with 55 P-40E and 4 C-53 aircraft including 55 pilots, 20 million .30 caliber, 447,000 .50 caliber, 30,000 three inch AA and 5,000 75 mm rounds of ammunition along with five carloads of torpedoes, over 615,000 pounds of rations and 178 officers and men in addition to the pilots and herself was heading to Java when Don Isidro was loading and departing for the same destination. [14][15][16][17]

At Brisbane Don Isidro was provided defense in the form of a detachment from the 453d Ordnance (Aviation) Bombardment Company of fifteen men under Second Lieutenant Joseph F. Kane, winner of the command by a coin toss. That unit had been embarked aboard the naval transport USS Republic (AP-33) in the Pensacola convoy. The soldiers armed the ship with five .50-caliber heavy machine guns on improvised mounts.[18]

Captain Cisneros, even as Coast Farmer was readying to leave Brisbane on the same mission, took the ship south around Australia to Freemantle on the west coast for engine repairs, fuel and water before setting out for Batavia for instructions on the run to Corregidor. Arriving there on 9 February 1942 the entire plan was unraveling as Japanese forces take Tengah airfield and make an additional landing on the island of Singapore as well as begin movements toward Sumatra. Meeting U.S. Navy representatives 10 February, as the situation in Singapore worsens and Japanese are conquering Borneo and the Celebes, the plan is changed with Don Isidro joining a British escorted convoy later that day in passage through Sunda Strait to the Indian Ocean. There the ship would separate from the convoy on the 13th and attempt a run south of Java, through the Timor Sea then through the Torres Straits and finally through the Dampier Strait east of New Guinea for the run through the Bismarck Sea and Pacific to the Philippines.[13][19][17]

As the ship was making that attempt the Japanese began landing on Sumatra 14 February, Singapore surrendered on the 15th, evacuation of forces from Sumatra to Java was completed, Bali is taken and Java is isolated on the 17th. Of note for Don Isidro's fate, the allied convoy headed to Timor escorted by the USS Houston (CA-30) is recalled to Darwin on the 18th.[20]

The run for the Torres Strait was going without incident until an unknown destroyer and freighter were spotted on the 17th headed in the opposite direction and then on 18 February Don Isidro was attacked twice by a Japanese bomber, though without damage. That attack was decisive in the captain's decision to turn toward the friendly port of Darwin. On the morning of the 19th seven Japanese fighters strafed the ship while she was about 25 miles north of Bathurst Island. This attack holed the ship, destroyed all life boats and rafts and wounded a number of crew and defenders. In early afternoon, at about 1:30 (1330) the ship was again attacked by a single bomber and again escaped bomb damage.[13]

Loss[edit]

Japanese planes returning to their carriers from the Darwin strike, where ships of the Timor convoy were then located, spotted Don Isidro with nine dive bombers, refueled and rearmed from Sōryū and Hiryū, returning with 250 kg (550 lb) for the final attack on the ship.[21]

The result was that shortly after the ineffective single bomber's attack the ship, with no life boats or rafts as a result of the earlier fighter attack, was hit heavily damaged and set in flames. The captain attempted to beach her but was unsuccessful in reaching the island as the engines failed with the ship about three miles offshore. The attacks continued and survivors jumped overboard in an attempt to swim to the island, a process that took about ten hours. Those that reached the island arrived in scattered groups, assembled and began searching for others. They found four dead and that many were missing. In the mid-morning of 20 February H.M.A.S. Warrnambool, having rescued some of the missing crew, picked up the main body of survivors. Warrnambool, with survivors aboard approached the still burning Don Isidro searching for the missing Chief Engineer and Chief Electrician reported to be still aboard and badly burnt and wounded. The ship's deck was already under water and no survivors were found. The survivors aboard Warrnambool reached Darwin about midnight where they were treated overnight at hospital. Then they were billeted at the camp of the 147th Field Artillery awaiting orders.[13]

Don Isidro beached and abandoned aground near Melville Island.

Eleven of the sixty-seven crew had been killed and many wounded.[22][13][6]

The killed or missing crew members were:[7]

  • Marino (Maximo?) Mangan - chief Engineer
  • Loreto Jaime (Jayne?) - 2nd Engineer
  • Mechor Jaruvilla (Melchor Jarobilla?) - 3rd Engineer
  • Antonio Reynes - Extra engineer
  • Federico Montralegra - Chief Electrician
  • Raul Delagado - Machinist
  • Antonio Cordova - Oiler
  • Quirino Sabando - Oiler
  • Alberto Jimena (Jamenen?)- Oiler
  • Agapito Masangkay (Acapito Masankay?) - Pantryman
  • Amado Logno (Longo?)

Eight of the men of the defense detachment were wounded, some severely, and the detachment's commander, Second Lieutenant Kane, died of gangrene in hospital at Darwin. He, posthumously, and the fifteen enlisted men of the detachment received Purple Hearts.[22] A footnote in the Ordinance history pertaining to the detachment reads:

(1) History of Ord Sec, USASOS, 23 Dec 41- 2 Sep 42. (2) Rad, Melbourne to AGWAR, No. 311, 22 Feb 42, AG 381 (11-27-41) Sec 2C.. (3) Rpt of Ord Activities, USAFIA, Feb-May 42, OHF. (4) Official History of Headquarters USASOS, December 1941-June 1945 (hereafter cited as History USASOS), pp. 92-93, and chs. Viii-xi. (5) Lieutenant Kane received the Purple Heart posthumously. All of the enlisted men of the 453d Ordnance (Aviation) Bombardment Company aboard the Don Isidro also received the Purple Heart for manning their guns until they were put out of action, for extinguishing fires caused by the bomb explosions, and for helping the wounded (some despite their own wounds). GO 28, USASOS SWPA, 11 Oct 42, 98-GHQ 1-1.13. These men were among the last to receive the Purple Heart “for a singularly meritorious act of essential service,” according to AR 600-45 of 8 August 1932. Change 4 to AR 600-45, 4 September 1942, restricted the award to those wounded in action against the enemy or as a direct result of enemy action.[23]

Context in attempts to relieve the Philippines[edit]

Don Isidro was one of eight Army ships known to make the attempt to run the Japanese blockade of the Philippines from Australia or the Netherlands East Indies during the largely failed attempt to supply forces on Bataan and Corrigedor. There were small blockade runners internal to the islands, a few that made the run into those besieged locations with success. Only three of the attempts from outside the islands were successful, one being Don Isidro's De La Rama sister Dona Nati. The others were Coast Farmer, making Anakan in northern Mindanao 17 February, and the Chinese ship Anhui that made Cebu City in march. The Navy managed to make some deliveries and evacuations by submarine.[5][24]

Wreck[edit]

Coordinates: 11°42.3′S 130°02′E / 11.7050°S 130.033°E / -11.7050; 130.033[25] The remains of the Don Isidro are protected under the Commonwealth Historic Shipwrecks Act 1976.[26] Two relics are in the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory. One is presumed to be a silver salt dish and the other a platter.[7]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The time correlations can be seen in this quote from Morton's Fall of the Philippines on page 79: "The duty officer at Asiatic Fleet headquarters in the Marsman Building in Manila on the night of 7–8 December (Philippine time) was Lt. Col. William T. Clement, USMC. At 0230 of the 8th (0800, 7 December, Pearl Harbor time), the operator at the Navy station intercepted the startling message, 'Air Raid on Pearl Harbor. This is no drill.'".

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Grover 1987, p. 35.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Lloyd's Register 1942—1943.
  3. ^ a b c d History of BBC / ABB, Baden And of Turbocharging.
  4. ^ a b Funtecha 2005.
  5. ^ a b Masterson 1949, p. 27.
  6. ^ a b Cressman, p. February 19, Thu..
  7. ^ a b c View Shipwreck - Don Isidro USAT.
  8. ^ Cressman, p. September 4, Mon..
  9. ^ Cressman, p. April 29, Mon.
  10. ^ Maritime Administration Ship History Don Isidro.
  11. ^ Morton 1993, pp. 296, 393.
  12. ^ Williams 1960.
  13. ^ a b c d e View Shipwreck - Don Isidro USAT, p. Message, Master U.S.A.T. Don Isidro.
  14. ^ Stauffer 1990, pp. 22—24.
  15. ^ Masterson 1949, pp. 25—27.
  16. ^ Williford 2010, p. 257.
  17. ^ a b MillerCave 2001, pp. 61—63, 66.
  18. ^ Mayo 1991, pp. 34—35, 37.
  19. ^ Gill 1957, pp. 564—566.
  20. ^ Williams 1960, pp. 23—25.
  21. ^ Tagaya 2013.
  22. ^ a b Mayo 1991, pp. 37—38.
  23. ^ Mayo 1991, p. 38, footnote 9.
  24. ^ Whitman.
  25. ^ Don Isidro USAT, environment.gov.au, accessed 12 March 2014
  26. ^ WWII Darwin Bombing Shipwreck Protected, media release, [www.environment.gov.au], 19 February 2014, accessed 12 March 2014

References cited[edit]

  • "History of BBC / ABB, Baden And of Turbocharging". Schweizer See- & Rheinschifffahrt. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  • "View Shipwreck - Don Isidro USAT". Australian National Shipwreck Database. Australian Government, Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  • Cressman, Robert J. "The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II". Contemporary History Branch, Naval Historical Center (now Naval History & Heritage Command). Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  • Funtecha, Henry, Prof. (2005). "The final trip of M.V. Don Isidro". The News Today (28 January 2005). Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  • Grover, David (1987). U.S. Army Ships and Watercraft of World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-766-6. )
  • Lloyd's Register. Lloyd's Register. 1942–1943. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  • Maritime Administration. "Don Isidro". Ship History Database Vessel Status Card. Maritime Administration. Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  • Masterson, Dr. James R. (1949). U. S. Army Transportation In The Southwest Pacific Area 1941-1947. Washington, D. C.: Transportation Unit, Historical Division, Special Staff, U. S. Army. 
  • Mayo, Lida (1991). The Technical Services—The Ordnance Department: On Beachhead And Battlefront. United States Army In World War II. Washington, DC: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 79014631. 
  • Miller, Norman M; Cave, Hugh B. (2001). I Took The Sky Road. Gillette, New Jersey: Wildside Press. 
  • Morton, Lewis (1993). The War in the Pacific: The Fall Of The Philippines. United States Army In World War II. Washington, D.C.: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 53-63678. 
  • Stauffer, Alvin P. (1990). The Quartermaster Corps: Operations In The War Against Japan. United States Army In World War II. Washington, D. C.: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 56-60001. 
  • Tagaya, Osamu (2013). Aichi 99 Kanbaku 'Val' Units: 1937-42. Osprey Publishing. 
  • Williford, Glen (2010). Racing the Sunrise—Reinforcing America's Pacific Outposts 1941—1942. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-956-9. LCCN 2010030455. 
  • Williams, Mary H. (1960). Chronology 1941—1945. United States Army In World War II. Washington, DC: Center Of Military History, United States Army. LCCN 59-60002. 
  • Whitman, Edward C. "Submarines to Corregidor". Undersea Warfare. Retrieved 18 May 2013. 

External links[edit]