Don L. Anderson
|Don L. Anderson|
March 5, 1933 |
|Institutions||California Institute of Technology, United States Military, Caltech Seismological Laboratory|
|Alma mater||California Institute of Technology|
|Doctoral advisor||Frank Press |
|Doctoral students||Charles G. Sammis, Thomas H. Jordan, Hsi-Ping Liu, Carl Edward Johnson, Larry J. Ruff, Thorne Lay, Scott David King, Shingo Watada, Monica Diane Kohler. |
|Known for||Plate Tectonics, Seismology|
Don Lynn Anderson (born March 5, 1933) is an American geophysicist who has made important contributions to the determination of the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, especially using seismological methods. He is Eleanor and John R. McMillan Professor emeritus of geophysics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). In 1998 he was awarded the Crafoord Prize along with Adam Dziewonski.
Life and main scientific contributions
Born in Frederick, Maryland, Anderson moved to Baltimore when he was six. He graduated from Baltimore Polytechnic Institute then attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute where he earned a B.Sc. in geology/geophysics in 1955. He then worked in industry and for the military before moving to Caltech, where he received a Ph.D. in geophysics and mathematics in 1962. He spent most of his subsequent academic career at Caltech's Seismological Laboratory.
In the 1960s and 1970s, Anderson and his collaborators investigated the relations between the behavior of mantle rock under high pressures and temperatures, phase transformations of mantle minerals, and the generation of earthquakes. Furthermore, they contributed significantly to the understanding of tectonic plate motions by exploring convection currents in the Earth's mantle with seismological methods. Among other, these studies have led to the development of the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) in collaboration with Adam Dziewonski; PREM establishes a consistent radial model of the Earth for several important geophysical parameters (e.g. seismic velocities, attenuation, and density).
Since the 1980s he has also been known as the originator of some unconventional, provocative, and controversial ideas which depart from the views of the scientific mainstream. For instance, he has developed an alternative model of the mineralogical composition of the upper mantle, according to which its deeper parts consist of piclogite, a relatively pyroxene- and garnet-rich rock, rather than olivine-dominated peridotite with the chemical composition of pyrolite. Another of his hypotheses is that the theory of convective mantle plumes in the Earth, as proposed by W. Jason Morgan, is invalid and that hotspots and oceanic islands such as Hawaii or Iceland are rather caused by chemical/mineralogical anomalies in the upper mantle.
Don Anderson also considered that plate tectonics could not happen without the calcium carbonate laid down by living beings at the edges of subduction zones. The massive weight of these sediments could be softening the underlying rocks, making them pliable enough to plunge.
He has also authored Theory of the Earth, a widely known textbook.
Awards and honors
- James B. Macelwane Medal of the American Geophysical Union (1966)
- Apollo Achievement Award of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 1969
- Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1972)
- Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1977) (Viking Mission Scientists) 
- NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal (1977)
- Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1982)
- Honorary Foreign Fellow of the European Union of Geosciences (1985)
- Emil Wiechert Medal of the German Geophysical Society (1986)
- Arthur L. Day Medal of the Geological Society of America (1987)
- Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1988)
- Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1988)
- Member of the American Philosophical Society (1990) 
- William Bowie Medal of the American Geophysical Union (1991)
- Guggenheim Fellow (1998)
- Crafoord Prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science (1998 with Dziewonski)
- National Medal of Science (1998)
- A. M. Dziewonski, D. L. Anderson: Preliminary reference Earth model; Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors 25, S.297–356 (1981)
- D. L. Anderson: Theory of the Earth; Blackwell Scientific Publications (1989)
- G. R. Foulger, D. L. Anderson: A cool model for the Iceland hotspot; Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 141 (2005)
- "The Crafoord Prize 1998". Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Interview with Don L. Anderson". Cal Tech Archives Oral Histories Online. California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Harding, Stephan. Animate Eart. Science, Intuition and Gaia. Chelsea Green Publishing, 2006, p. 114. ISBN 1-933392-29-0
- "James B. Macelwane Medal". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A". American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "AAAS Newcomb Cleveland Prize". American Academy for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "EUG Honorary Fellows". European Union of Geoscientists. European Geosciences Union. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Emil-Wiechert-Medaille". Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft. Retrieved 18 April 2011.(German)
- "Past Award & Medal Recipients". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Winners of the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society". Royal Astronomical Society. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Public Profile: Dr. Don L. Anderson". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "William Bowie Medal". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Don L. Anderson: Search Results". John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "The Laureates 1998". National Science & Technology Medals Foundation. Retrieved 18 April 2011.