Don River (Russia)

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For other rivers of the same or similar name, see Don River.
Coordinates: 47°03′39″N 39°17′15″E / 47.06083°N 39.28750°E / 47.06083; 39.28750
Don (Дон)
River
Don River near Kalininsky.jpg
The Don river near the village Kalininsky in Rostov Oblast.
Country Russia
Regions Tula Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Lipetsk Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, Rostov Oblast
Tributaries
 - left Khopyor River
 - right Seversky Donets River
Cities Voronezh, Rostov-on-Don
Source
 - location Novomoskovsk, Tula Oblast
 - elevation 238 m (781 ft)
 - coordinates 54°00′43″N 38°16′41″E / 54.01194°N 38.27806°E / 54.01194; 38.27806
Mouth Sea of Azov
 - location Kagal'nik, Rostov Oblast
 - elevation 0 m (0 ft)
 - coordinates 47°03′39″N 39°17′15″E / 47.06083°N 39.28750°E / 47.06083; 39.28750
Length 1,950 km (1,212 mi)
Basin 425,600 km2 (164,325 sq mi)
Discharge
 - average 935 m3/s (33,019 cu ft/s)
Catchment of the Don

The Don (Russian: Дон; IPA: [don]) is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres (1,220 mi) to the Sea of Azov.

Source of Don river

From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets.

History[edit]

In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers.[1][2] In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.[citation needed] During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs (Τάναϊς) and has been a major trading route ever since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes.[3]

River Tanaïs Scythians call it Silys - Pliny natural history Book Six [4]

The Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. In modern literature, the Don is often featured in the works of Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya.[citation needed]

Dams and canals[edit]

At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, and the Volga-Don Canal (length ca. 105 kilometres (65 mi)), connecting both rivers, is a major waterway. The water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.

For the next 130 km below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock (Николаевский гидроузел), Konstantinovsk Ship Lock (Константиновский гидроузел), and the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock (Кочетовский гидроузел). The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is located 7.5 km below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, and 131 km upstream of Rostov-na-Donu, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock (Кочетовский гидроузел) (47°34′07″N 40°51′10″E / 47.56861°N 40.85278°E / 47.56861; 40.85278) is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets. This is the last lock on the Don; below Kochetovsky lock, the sufficient depth of the navigation waterway is maintained by dredging.[5]

Tributaries[edit]

Main Tributaries from source to mouth:

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Norman Davies (1997). Europe: A History. p. 8. ISBN 0-7126-6633-8. 
  2. ^ Strabo, Geographica 11.1.1, 11.1.5
  3. ^ e.g. Strabo, Geographica, 11.2.2.
  4. ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/holland/pliny6.html
  5. ^ Навигационно-гидрографический очерк (Navigational and hydrographic overview), from the Main Shipping and Waterway Administration of the Azov and Don Basin (АД ГБУВПиС) (Russian)

External links[edit]