||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2009)|
Don Rosa at MegaCon 2012 in Orlando
|Born||Keno Don Hugo Rosa
June 29, 1951
Louisville, Kentucky, United States
|Area(s)||Writer, Penciller, Inker|
|The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck
Keno Don Hugo Rosa, known simply as Don Rosa (/ /; born June 29, 1951), is an American comic book writer and illustrator known for his stories about Scrooge McDuck, Donald Duck and other Disney characters. Many of his stories are built on characters and locations created by Carl Barks, including the story that brought him to fame as a modern Disney artist — the Harvey Award-nominated comic, The Son of the Sun.
He is often considered a "successor" of sorts to Barks and is highly regarded by fans of Disney comics for his work illustrating the Duck universe. He has created about 90 stories between 1987 and 2006. In 1995 he won the Eisner Award for "Best Serialized Story" for his 12-chapter work The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck.
Don Rosa's grandfather, Gioachino Rosa, lived in Maniago, a town at the foot of the Alps in Northern Italy, in the province of Pordenone. He emigrated to Kentucky, United States around 1900, established a successful tile and terrazzo company, then returned to Italy to marry and start a family. In 1915 just after the birth of his son Ugo Rosa, Gioachino returned to Kentucky with his wife, two daughters and two sons. Ugo Rosa grew up and was later married in Kentucky. His wife was born to a German American father and a mother with both Scottish and Irish ancestry.
Don Rosa was born Keno Don Hugo Rosa on June 29, 1951 in Louisville, Kentucky. He was named after both his father and grandfather. Gioachino was called "Keno" for short. Don's father was named Ugo Dante Rosa, but used the name "Hugo Don" Rosa in America.
Don Rosa was exposed to comics at a very young age, as his 11-years-older sister was a comics hoarder, and had thousands of comics for Don to look at and later read. Rosa began drawing comics before being able to write. Until he attended Saint Xavier High School in Louisville, Kentucky, his featured characters were a large cast of stick figures featured in comedy-adventures like the Barks comics and old movies Don enjoyed most. He never tried to draw more than stick figures, because the drawings, for him, were illustrations to get the story told. Only the story was important to him, not the actual drawings. His favorite comic books growing up were Uncle Scrooge by Western Publishing and Little Lulu comics from Dell Comics (Western Publishing), and his sister's collection of MAD comics and magazines. When he was 12 years old he also discovered and enjoyed the Superman titles by DC Comics of the editor Mort Weisinger period, drawn mostly by his favorite Superman artists Curt Swan and Kurt Schaffenberger. Shortly after starting to collect Superman comics he started to trade the collection of his older sister for Superman Comics. Since a comic book shop in his area traded two old comics for one new, he only had two Duck comics left from his sister's collection by the 1970s, one of them being The Golden Helmet. When he became a serious collector of older comics, he particularly enjoyed the classic E.C. horror and science fiction comics of the 1950s, Will Eisner's The Spirit, Walt Kelly's Pogo, and most comics of the 1940s onward.
In 1969 while still in college, Rosa won an award as "best political cartoonist in the nation in a college paper". "I'm not really an editorial cartoonist. I'd much rather be doing comedy adventure. But I must have done something right, for at one point The Journal of Higher Education named me one of the five or six best college newspaper cartoonists in the nation."
His first published comic (besides the spot illustrations in his grade school and high school newspapers) was a comic strip featuring his own character, Lancelot Pertwillaby, titled "The Pertwillaby Papers". He created the strip in 1971 for The Kentucky Kernel, a college newspaper of the University of Kentucky, which wanted the strip to focus on political satire.
Rosa later switched the strip to comedy-adventure, his favorite style of comics, and drew the story Lost in (an alternative section of) the Andes. (The title is a reference to Lost in the Andes!, a Donald Duck story by Carl Barks, first published in April, 1949.) The so-called Pertwillaby Papers included 127 published episodes by the time Rosa graduated in 1973.
Meanwhile Rosa participated in contributing art and articles to comic collector fanzines. One contribution was An Index of Uncle Scrooge Comics. According to his introduction: "Scrooge being my favorite character in comic history and Barks my favorite pure cartoonist, I'll try not to get carried away too much."
After his bachelor degree, Rosa continued to draw comics purely as a hobby, his only income came from working in the Keno Rosa Tile Company, a company founded by his paternal grandfather and which had been taken over by Hugo Rosa.
Rosa authored and illustrated the monthly "Information Center" column in the fanzine "Rocket's Blast Comicollector" from 1974 to 1979. This was a question-and-answer feature dealing with readers' queries on all forms of pop entertainment of which Rosa was a student, including comics, TV and movies. He also revived the Pertwillaby Papers in this "RBCC" fanzine as a comic book style story rather than a newspaper comic strip from 1976 to 1978.
By now having become a locally known comics collector and cartoonist, Rosa accepted an offer from the editor of the local newspaper to create a weekly comic strip. This led to his creation of the comic strip character Captain Kentucky for the Saturday edition of the local newspaper Louisville Times. Captain Kentucky was the superhero alter ego of Lancelot Pertwillaby. The pay was $25/week and not worth the 12+ hours each week's strip entailed, but Rosa did it as part of his hobby. Publication started on October 6, 1979. The comic strip ended on August 15, 1982 after the publication of 150 episodes. After three years with Captain Kentucky, Don decided that it was not worth the effort. He retired from cartooning and did not draw a single line for the next four years. Years later, as his fame grew, his non-Disney work was published by the Norwegian publisher Gazette Bok in 2001, in the two hard-cover "Don Rosa Archives" volumes, The Pertwillaby Papers and The Adventures of Captain Kentucky.
In 1986, he discovered a Gladstone Publishing comic book. This was the first American comic book that contained Disney characters since the 1970s. Since early childhood Don Rosa had been fascinated by Carl Barks' stories about Donald Duck and Scrooge McDuck. Artist Carl Barks was an especially big idol for him and would remain so for the rest of his career. He immediately called the editor, Byron Erickson, and told him that he was the only American who was born to write and draw one Scrooge McDuck adventure. Byron agreed to let him send a story, and Don Rosa started drawing his first Duck story, The Son of the Sun, the very next day.
The Son of the Sun was a success and Rosa's very first professional comic story was nominated for a Harvey Award "Best Story of the Year". The plot of the story was the same as his earlier story, Lost in (an alternative section of) the Andes. As Don Rosa explained it, he was just "(...) turning that old Pertwillaby Papers adventure back into the story it originally was in my head, starring Scrooge, Donald, the nephews, and Flintheart Glomgold."
Rosa created a few more comics for Gladstone until 1989. He then stopped working for them, because the policies of their licensor, Disney, did not allow for the return of original art for a story to its creators. This was unacceptable to Don Rosa, since a part of his income came from selling the originals, and the original art is the property of the freelance artists, unless otherwise agreed upon. Without that extra money, he could not make a living drawing comic books.
After making some stories for the Dutch publisher Oberon, the publishers of an American Disney children's magazine called DuckTales (based on the animated series of the same name) offered him employment. They even offered him a much higher salary than the one he received at Gladstone. Rosa made just one script (Back in Time for a Dime). The publishers never asked him to make more, and due to problems with receiving the payment, he didn't care.
After working with the DuckTales magazine, Rosa found out that the Danish publisher Egmont (at that time called Gutenberghus) was publishing reprints of his stories and wanted more. Rosa joined Egmont in 1990. Two years later, at Don's suggestion, Byron Erickson, the former editor at Gladstone also went to work for Egmont and has been working there as an editor and later as a freelancer.
In 1991 he started creating The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck, a 12 chapter story about his favorite character. The series was a success, and in 1995 he won an Eisner Award for best continuing series. After the end of the original series, Don sometimes produced additional "missing" chapters. Some of the extra chapters were turned down by Egmont, because they were not interested in any more episodes. Fortunately, the French magazine Picsou was eager to publish the stories. From 1999, Don started working freelance for Picsou magazine as well. All of these chapters were compiled as The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck Companion.
During early summer 2002, Rosa suddenly laid down work. As an artist he could not live under the conditions Egmont was offering him, but he did not want to give up making Scrooge McDuck comics either. So, his only choice was to put go on hiatus and try to come to an agreement with Egmont. His main issues were that he had no control over his works. Rosa had discovered too often that his stories were printed with incorrect pages of art, improper colors, poor lettering, or pixelated computer conversions of the illustrations. Another matter was that his name was used in promotion of books and collections of stories without his agreement and without sending royalties to him. Rosa has never, to this day — as with any other Disney artist —received a penny in royalties for a single use of any of his stories worldwide.
He came to an agreement with Egmont in December of the same year, which gave him a bit more control over the stories and the manner in which they were publicized.
Rosa's eyesight had been very poor since his childhood. In 2006 and 2007 he began having new difficulties, which made drawing a very slow and tedious process for him, even more so than normally. In March 2008 Rosa suffered a severe retinal detachment and underwent emergency eye surgery that ultimately proved to be not completely successful. Further surgery in both eyes made drawing even more difficult. On June 2, 2008, during an interview at the Danish Komiks.dk fair, Don stated that he would not do any more Disney comics, citing eye troubles, low pay, and the constant use of his stories in special hardback or album editions by international Disney licensees without any payment of royalties or requests for permission for the use of his name.
Rosa is very popular with readers in Europe. He considers himself rather obscure in his native United States. According to him, even his next-door neighbors do not know his profession.
Rosa married schoolteacher Ann Payne in 1980. They have no children. They live in a log house on a 25-acre (10 hectare) nature preserve in the Kentucky hills near Louisville, the maintenance of which now takes up most of the retired couple's time.
In Europe, Rosa is recognized as one of the best Disney comics creators. Carl Barks and Rosa are among the few artists who have their name written on the covers of Disney magazines when their stories are published. His stories are very easily recognized due to his unique drawing style, his pictures being extremely detailed. Rosa enjoys including subtle references to his favorite works of fiction as well as his own previous work. He normally uses about 12 panels per page, instead of the more common eight. He needs to use the extra panels, because his stories usually are too long to be published if he does not minimize them.
Rosa has an especially large following in Finland, and in 1999, he created a special 32-page Donald, Scrooge, Gearloose & nephews strip for his Finnish fans; Sammon Salaisuus (translates to The secret of the Sampo, but it is officially named The Quest for Kalevala in English), based on the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala. The publication of this story created a national sensation in Finland where Donald Duck and the Kalevala are important aspects of culture. It was published in many other countries as well. The cover for the comic book was a spoof of a famous painting by Akseli Gallen-Kallela.
With a bachelor of arts degree in civil engineering as his only real drawing education, Rosa has some unusual drawing methods, as he writes: "I suspect nothing I do is done the way anyone else does it." Because of being self-taught in making comics, Rosa relies mostly on the skills he learned in engineering school, which means using technical pens and templates extensively. He applies templates and other engineering tools to draw curves, circles and ovals. He usually drew just under a page per day, but that depended on the amount of detail he puts in the picture.
Rosa's drawing style is considered much more detailed and "dirtier" than that of most other Disney artists, living or dead, and often likened to that of underground artists, and he is frequently compared to Robert Crumb. When Rosa was first told of this similarity, he said that he "drew that bad" long before he discovered underground comics during college. He went on to explain these similarities to underground artists with a similar background of making comics as a hobby:
- "I think that both my style and that of Robert Crumb are similar only because we both grew up making comics for our personal enjoyment, without ever taking drawing seriously, and without ever trying to attain a style that would please the average comics publisher. We drew comics for fun!"
"I want to take everything Barks wrote and forge it into a workable timeline. My original dream was to become the new Carl Barks. I wanted to write, draw, and letter all my own stories. People tell me that my pencils look just like Barks, but my inks are pure Rosa, and I can't letter properly! So I'll have to settle for being Don Rosa." - Don Rosa in 1987
"Don Rosa has often been called the heir of Carl Barks, especially for the way in which he has carried on the Ducks' Family Saga. But I don't think so: in my opinion Don Rosa [...] is an author who has used Barks' characters to make stories that are completely new, 'Donrosian' rather than 'Barksian', just like Barks can't be considered the heir of Al Taliaferro only because he has worked on the Ducks after him." - Carlo Chendi, Italian Disney comics writer (see Italian Wikipedia: Carlo Chendi)
Rosa's idol when it comes to comics is Carl Barks. Rosa builds almost all his stories on characters and locations that Barks invented. Many of Rosa's stories contain references to some fact pointed out in a Barks story. At the request of publishers in response to reader demands, Rosa has even created sequels of old Barks stories. For example, his Return to Xanadu is a sequel to Tralla La, where the Ducks return to the same hidden country. To add more to his admiration and consistency to Barks and Barks' stories, Rosa makes all his ducks' stories set in the 1950s. This is because Barks writes most of the stories about Scrooge, Donald and all people of Duckburg in the 1950s (it also conveniently resolves potential continuity problems, such as Scrooge's age). As explained in text pages in the Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck and its companion volume, Rosa does intense research of time periods to ensure not only that he gets the physical details right, but also to ensure that all characters could have been present.
Barks either created most of the characters used by Rosa or is credited for greatly developing their personalities. Rosa thus feels obliged to make his stories factually consistent. He has spent a lot of time in making lists of facts and anecdotes pointed out in different stories by his mentor. Especially The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck was based mostly on the earlier works of Barks. Rosa admitted however that a scene of the first chapter was inspired by a story by Tony Strobl.
As most of the characters Rosa uses were created by Barks, and because Rosa considers Scrooge rather than Donald to be the main character of the Duck universe, he does not regard himself as a pure Disney artist, nor the characters really as Disney's. "Rosa prefers to say that the characters he uses are Barks', Barks having reshaped Donald Duck's personality and creating everything else we know of Duckburg while working as a freelancer in 1942–1967 for an independent licensed publisher (Dell/Western Comics). Barks even claimed to have also created Huey, Dewey and Louie while working as a writer on Donald Duck animated cartoons in 1937." Because of his idolization of Barks, he repeatedly discourages his fans to use an absolutist way of saying his clearly different drawing style would be better than Barks's, and he found that notion confirmed when Barks himself spoke about Rosa's style in a critical tone though it is uncertain whether those comments were Barks' or those of his temporary "business managers" who filtered his communications.
"I usually don't like my stories. I mean I try really hard, but I know I don't draw that well. I know people like it because it's got lots of extra details, but art directors know good artwork, and they know mine is not good artwork. Now, people always say, 'You're being too modest, you're being too modest', and I say, 'What?' They just have to ask me the right question. I know it's not good artwork and I don't know if it's well-drawn, but I know it's entertaining." - Don Rosa, Torino Comics Festival, April 2011
"Don Rosa has a style that is a little bit different from the Disney style. I know that there is a great deal of people that like that style, which is extremely detailed. So there is room in the business for artists like Don Rosa and for others like Van Horn. They have a different style. But if they have a good story and tell it properly, then people are going to like it." - Carl Barks, interview given at Disneyland Paris, July 7, 1994
Beside Rosa's constant effort to remain faithful to the universe Barks created, there is also a number of notable differences between the two artists. The most obvious of these is Rosa's much more detailed drawing style, often with many background gags, which has been credited as being a result of Rosa's love of the Will Elder stories of MAD comics and magazines. While Barks himself discouraged the use of extreme grimacing and gesturing in any other panel for comical or dramatic effect, Rosa's stories are rich with colorful and bizarre facial renditions and physical slapstick. Barks had over 600 Duck stories to his name while Rosa only created 85 until his eye trouble set in, but whereas Barks made many short one and two-pagers centered around a subtle, compact gag, Rosa's oeuvre consists almost exclusively of long adventure stories.
Andrea "Bramo" Bramini identifies the following four differences between Barks's and Rosa's way of storytelling:
- Rosa follows a very strict continuity, while Barks paid very little attention to continuity between stories.
- Rosa's characterization of Scrooge is that of a much more sentimental person for often relishing his memories of past adventures.
- Barks situated his stories in the present day of when he was creating them, and had a penchant for satire. Rosa strictly writes stories taking place in an era at least half a century prior to their creation, and mostly abstains from any political or social commentary.
- With his engineering degree, Rosa often goes to great lengths to give scientifically plausible explanations within his stories, whereas Barks never cared much for any detailed scientific rationalizations to his stories.
Most Rosa stories have the letters D.U.C.K. hidden in the first panel. Rosa's covers also usually have D.U.C.K. in them. This is an acronym for Dedicated to Uncle Carl from Keno. Because Disney would not allow for personal signatures in the comics, and thought that D.U.C.K. looked too much like one, Don Rosa has made a habit of hiding the letters in various unlikely places. Many of his readers have made a sport out of finding them. D.U.C.K. is in most cases hidden in the very first image, on the first page of the story. D.U.C.K. is also often hidden in Rosa's cover-art, which he makes for his own stories and reprints of old Carl Barks stories. Almost every time Rosa gets an article about him in the weekly Disney comics (at least in European editions), the D.U.C.K. - dedication is mentioned.
Dutch Disney scholar and creator of the INDUCKS, Harry Fluks once joked that D.U.C.K. actually stood for "Donate US Currency for Keno" in relation to the conditions of the early internet when Rosa contributed to the Disney Comics Mailing List (the forerunner of today's INDUCKS), but was charged by the amount of e-mails he sent and received, a fact due to which the DCML (of which many members had free access to the internet as university students, at a time when internet access was still largerly restricted to universities and research facilities) had set up a tongue-in-cheek "DONation fund (pun intended!)" "to keep Rosa on-line".
Another curiosity is his Hidden Mickeys. Rosa is only interested in creating stories featuring the Duck family, but he often hides small Mickey Mouse heads or figures in the pictures, sometimes in a humiliating or unwanted situation. An example of this is in the story The Terror of the Transvaal where a flat Mickey can be seen under an elephant's foot. This is mostly a gag done for the fun of it. Rosa has admitted to neither liking nor disliking Mickey Mouse, but being indifferent to him.
In the story Attack of the Hideous Space-Varmints, the asteroid with Uncle Scrooge's money bin on it crashes into the Moon along with two missiles, creating a large Mickey Mouse head on the surface. When Huey, Dewey and Louie tell Donald that the missiles hit the "dark" (far) side of the Moon, Donald is thankful no one is going to see it — "For a minute there, I thought we were going to have some legal problems."
In the second Rosa story featuring The Three Caballeros, Donald Duck is shocked by the sight of a capybara standing on its hind legs, with shrubs, leaves and fruit in front of its body, coincidentally making it look like Mickey Mouse. José Carioca and Panchito Pistoles, never having seen Mickey Mouse, ask Donald what is wrong, but Donald replies he is just tired. Later in the same story the Caballeros free several animals from a poacher and one panel shows the animals flee. Mickey can be seen among them.
In The Quest for Kalevala this running gag can be seen on the original, Akseli Gallen-Kallela-inspired cover art. In the original work, Louhi is depicted as bare-chested, but the Disneyfied version has been drawn a top, of fabric patterned with Mickey Mouse heads.
|Parts of this article (those related to Awards) are outdated. (August 2013)|
||The examples and perspective in this Awards may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (August 2013)|
His work has won Rosa a good deal of recognition in the industry, including nominations for the Comics' Buyer's Guide Award for Favorite Writer in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Heidi MacDonald of Comics Buyer's Guide also mentioned Rosa's 1994 story Guardians of the Lost Library as "possibly the greatest comic book story of all time".
In 1995 he was awarded the Eisner Award for "Best Serialized Story" for The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck. In 1997 he won an Eisner for "Best Artist/Writer - Humor Category".
His story The Black Knight GLORPS Again! was nominated for the 2007 Eisner Award in the category Best Short Story. While The Prisoner of White Agony Creek, Rosa's latest Duck story to-date, was published in 2006, he has also been nominated for the 2007 Harvey Awards in five categories (more than any other creator for this year) for Uncle Scrooge comics: "Best Writer", "Best Artist", "Best Cartoonist", "Best Cover Artist", and "Special Award for Humor in Comics."
International "Best Cartoonist of the Year" awards include:
- Germany: International Grand Prize 2005 (Frankfurt Book Fair).
- Denmark: ORLA Award (DR Television Network).
- Svenska Serieakademins (Swedish Comics Academy)
- Seriefrämjandets Unghunden (the Swedish Literary Society).
- Norway: Sproing Award (Norsk Tegneserieforum / Norwegian Comics Forum).
- Yambo Award (Lucca Comics Festival)
- Premio U Giancu Award (U Giancu & Rapallo Comics Festival).
- Spain: Haxtur Award (Gijon Comics Festival).
In 1997 the Italian publishing house Editrice ComicArt published a lavish volume about Don Rosa's biography and work related to the Disney characters. It was titled Don Rosa e il Rinascimento Disneyano ("Don Rosa and the Disneyean Renaissance") and written by famous Disney and Rosa scholars, Alberto Becattini, Leonardo Gori and Francesco Stajano. This work not only discusses all of Rosa's creative life up to 1997, but it also gives a comprehensive biography, lists up to that date his Disney work and presents an extensive interview with Rosa.
In 2009, Danish director Sebastian S. Cordes shot a 75-minute documentary called The Life and Times of Don Rosa, consisting of exclusive interviews with Rosa himself on his farm near Louisville, Kentucky. According to the project's Facebook group, the English-language DVD has been released in Denmark on April 16, 2011 and is available internationally through the website forlaget-afart.dk/.
In 2011, Italian Disney fan forum papersera.net published Don Rosa: A Little Something Special (edited by Italian Rosa fan Paolo Castagno), a large folio format, bilingual (Italian and English) book about Rosa's life and work, containing interviews with Rosa and articles by many Italian and European Disney artists, Disney scholars, and established art critics commenting on Rosa's work and career, also including many exclusive, rare Rosa drawings and illustrations. The book was originally made as a gift by papersera.net for Rosa himself upon the occasion of Rosa's April 2011 visit to Turin, Italy, and is available as a print-on-demand book from Lulu.com (see link at papersera.net site on the book)
- The Don Rosa Classics — The Pertwillaby Papers
- The Don Rosa Classics — The Adventures of Captain Kentucky
- The Don Rosa Classics — The Early (So-Called) Art of Don Rosa
- The Don Rosa Library of Uncle Scrooge Adventures in Color Vol. 1-8
- The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck
- The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck Companion
- Barks/Rosa Collection Vol. 1-3
- Walt Disney Treasury: Donald Duck Vol. 1, 2
- The Don Rosa Library: Walt Disney's Donald Duck and Uncle Scrooge Vol 1, 2 (so far)
Hall of Fame: Don Rosa - bog 1-10
|Including non-Disney comics|
|Finland||- Don Rosan Parhaita
- Don Rosan kootut 1-9
Including non-Disney comics
|France||La jeunesse de Picsou 1-3/Les trésors de Picsou 4-7||2004-2008||Forget it! missing|
|Germany||- Onkel Dagobert von Don Rosa 0-32
- Hall of Fame: Don Rosa 1-8
- Don Rosa Collection 1-9
Including non-Disney comics
|Indonesia||Komik Petualangan Paman Gober Karya Don Rosa 1-8||2011||Very incomplete|
|Netherlands||Oom Dagobert 53-74||1996-2005||incomplete|
|Norway||- Hall of Fame: Don Rosa - bok 1-10
- Don Rosa Samlede Verk 1-9
Including non-Disney comics
|Sweden||- Hall of Fame: Don Rosa - bok 1-10
- Don Rosa Samlade Verk 1-9
Including non-Disney comics
- Interview with Disney comics writer and artist Don Rosa, made by Fievel A. Elliott in 2000 on YouTube
- Stajano, Francesco. Don Rosa interview: before the Ducks, published in Castagno, Paolo (ed.; 2011). Don Rosa: A Little Something Special, p. 37, published as a bi-lingual (Italian and English) print-on-demand book by www.papersera.net (no ISBN, but see http://www.papersera.net/papersera/DonRosa.php for information)
- Blum, Geoffrey (1987). Portrait of the Artist as a Duck Man, Uncle Scrooge #219, July, 1987 (editorial to introduce Rosa to the readers, as part of the original publication of Rosa's very first Duck story, The Son of the Sun)
- He describes this system here: http://career-end.donrosa.de/
- Message board post from Danish writer Lars Jensen, and specifications by Sigvald Grøsfjeld jr., owner and maintainer of http://duckman.pettho.com/
- "The Kentucky Alumni, Fall 2003, p.26". Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Scoop - Where the Magic of Collecting Comes Alive! - Don Rosa and The Quest for Kalevala". 2004-09-25. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Interview with Don Rosa, by Didier Ghez, June 1996". Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- Rosa's First Steps, translated back from Greek original article in Komix magazine #172, September 2002, translated by Kriton Kyrimis
- Chendi, Carlo. Don Rosa and me, in Castagno 2011, p. 17
- Don Rosa Conference - Torino Comics 2011 (18:05-18:40 min)
- Durand, Sébastien; Ghez, Didier (1994)"Interview with Carl Barks, by Sébastien Durand and Didier Ghez, July 7, 1994". The Ultimate Disney Books Network. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Those sight gags are quite limited. You know, there are only so many things you can do with a human body or a duck body and then you start repeating yourself, otherwise you'd kill him.", www.cbarks.com: The artistry: Comics writing, "Avoid excessive distortion of beak and brows. Tilting eyes is key to most expressions. [...] Use this eye tilting cautiously! It's awfully easy to tilt these eyes too far!", Barks model sheet #1, 1950, "Using the hands to 'talk' with is fine sometimes. But this kind of emphasizing is wearing on the reader! [...] Overacting can be overdone. Save big takes for direst calamities!", Barks model sheet #2, 1950
- Bramini, Andrea "Bramo". A faitfhul heir for Carl Barks? in Castagno 2011, pp. 295-298
- The D.U.C.K. list
- Fluks, Harry. The first article about a five-letter F-word, in Castagno 2011, p. 52
- The D.U.C.K.man - A site dedicated to the greatest living Duck-artist: Don Rosa
- The Harvey Awards
- "Life & Times of Don Rosa" - the documentary on Facebook
- Life & Times of Don Rosa on forlaget-afart.dk/
- Information on Don Rosa: A Little Something Special on papersera.net
- List of Don Rosa's Disney Comics on INDUCKS
- Don Rosa Collection - An epilogue by Don Rosa
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Don Rosa.|
- Don Rosa at the INDUCKS
- Don Rosa on Facebook
- The D.U.C.K.man
- The Don Rosa House Tour – A video tour by Don Rosa from his home in Louisville
- Different information by Don Rosa
- Documentary with and about Don Rosa