Donaldina Cameron (July 26, 1869 – January 4, 1968) was a Presbyterian missionary, who advocated for social justice. She rescued and educated more than 3,000 Chinese immigrant girls and women during her ministry, in San Francisco, from 1895 to 1934. She was known as the "Angry Angel of Chinatown".
Early Life (1869-1900)
Born in New Zealand, Donaldina was the youngest of seven children. She moved with her family to California when she was 2. During her childhood, Donaldina had very little contact and experience with immigrant populations. In an effort to expose Donaldina to the world around her, a family friend Mary P.D. Browne, the former president of the Women’s Occidental Board of Foreign Missionaries, took Donaldina to the Presbyterian Home where she met Margaret Culbertson and became a sewing teacher for the Presbyterian Mission Home. Culbertson and the Presbyterian Home acted as a place of refuge for freed indentured female Chinese servants, where they could be safe from the outside world and get an education. Together, Culbertson and Cameron worked to rescue Chinese immigrants until Culbertson’s death in 1897.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882/ Page Act of 1875 was the first piece of federal immigrant legislation in the United States. It prohibited immigrants from any area considered “undesirable” which included most of Asia. It also barred any Chinese women from entering the United States, unless they were already married to men in the United States. Originally passed to prohibit the sex trafficking of Asian women and influx of Asian male laborers, it instead created a dangerous and illegal system commonly referred to as the “Yellow Slave Trade”. Illegal passage of Chinese women into America became very common in the late 1880s into the early 20th century. Many times, young women would present forged marriage papers that said they were already married to Chinese men in the United States. This phenomena was dubbed the "Yellow Slave Trade" and often entailed "Mui Tsais", young Asian girls who were sold as domestic servants or prostitutes by the “Tongs”, secret Chinese sex slave trafficking societies. A Chinese prostitute lived a brutal life, usually dying within five years. During this time San Francisco City Hall, ran by “Boss” Abe Ruef and Eugene Schmitz, took kickbacks from “Tong” groups resulting in very little government reform for the Yellow Slave Trade. The Chinese Six Companies was a Chinese organization that attempted to stop the Tongs, but eventually collapsed when Tongs infiltrated the organization.
Mission Life (1900- 1934)
Two years after Culbertson’s death in 1897, Donaldina Cameron became superintendent of the Presbyterian Home at the young age of 25. She continued the mission that they had begun together, saving young Chinese immigrant women from indentured service. Many friends and relatives of these girls would leave secret messages for Donaldina at the Presbyterian Home indicating the house where a girl was held captivate. Often, the Tongs, which nicknamed her “Jesus Woman”, would threaten Cameron and the home. She once even spent a night in a San Jose jail while seeking the release of a Chinese woman. However, Cameron continued her mission. She was often dubbed the “Angry Angel of Chinatown”, which would later become the title for a biography on her by Mildred Crowl Martin.
Once freed, Chinese women were forced to reside at the Presbyterian Home and convert to Christianity. While some Chinese immigrant women welcomed conversion and saw Donaldina as a savior, nicknaming her “Lo Mo” or mother in Chinese, others had mixed feel about this forced conversion. Often, Donaldina could be very patronizing towards these women, using terms like “waif” and “children” to describe the residents of the home. Very rarely was Chinese culture integrated into the education of the girls in the home, rather there was a strict curriculum of English, Christianity and western housekeeping skills. Finally, the women of the home were only allowed to leave the home if they married a Christian man that Cameron approved of.
In April 1906, the great San Francisco earthquake and fire forced the evacuation of the Presbyterian Home. Donaldina was able to save records that gave her guardianship over the girls at the home, thus ensuring their safety from being forced back into servitude or prostitution. The Home itself was destroyed in the earthquake; it was rebuilt in 1907 at 920 Sacramento Street, where it still stands today.
Donaldina also founded two homes for Chinese children. Many of these children were orphans or the children of the rescued women. The Chung Mei Home served young boys, while the Ming Quong Home was for girls. Although neither is still longer in existence, the former Chung Mei house is today part of the Windrush School in El Cerrito, California, and the Ming Quong Home is now a part of Mills College in Oakland, California.
Later Life and Legacy (1934-1968)
Donaldina retired from her missionary work and the Presbyterian Home in 1934. She is credited with saving and educating over 3,000 Chinese immigrant women and girls. In 1942, the Presbyterian Home was renamed the Donaldina Cameron House. Cameron House still stands today in San Francisco. It serves as a multi-service agency serving Asian communities by promoting healthy Christian communities through programs like youth sports, tutoring, and counseling. After retirement, Donaldina moved to the Palo Alto area. She died on January 4, 1968, at the age of 98.
- Tye Leung Schulze, Cameron mentored Schulze, who would assist Cameron in saving enslaved Chinese in San Francisco
- Mildred Crowl Martin: Chinatown's Angry Angel, The Story of Donaldina Cameron, (Palo Alto, California, Pacific Books, 1977)
- Carol Green Wilson: Chinatown Quest, (Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1931 and 1950)
- McClain,Laurene Wu.(1983).Donaldina Cameron:A Reappraisal.Pacific Historian,27,(3),24-35.
- Pascoe, Peggy. (1990).Relations of Rescue: The Search for Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874-1939.New York:Oxford University Press.
- Cohen,H. & Harris, G. (2012). Women Trailblazers of California:Pioneers to the Present.San Diego:The History Press.
- Gloria G. Harris and Hannah S. Cohen. "Donaldina Cameron (1869–1968), Angry Angel of Chinatown". Women Trailblazers of California: Pioneers to the Present.