|• Mayor||Oleksandr Lukianchenko|
|• City||358 km2 (138 sq mi)|
|Elevation||169 m (554 ft)|
|Population (1 July 2011)|
|• Density||2,700/km2 (7,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Postal code||83000 — 83497|
|Area code(s)||+380 622, 623|
|Sister cities||Bochum, Charleroi, Kutaisi, Pittsburgh, Sheffield, Taranto, Moscow, Vilnius|
|^ Donetsk was founded in 1869 as Yuzovka.
^ The population of the metropolitan area is as of 2004.
Donetsk (Ukrainian: Донецьк Ukrainian pronunciation: [doˈnɛt͡sʲk], translit. Donets’k; Russian: Доне́цк, tr. Donetsk, IPA: [dɐˈnʲet͡sk]; former names: Yuzovka, Stalino, see also: cities' alternative names), is an industrial city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius River. Administratively, it is a centre of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin (Donbas) region. The city of Donetsk is adjacent to another major city of Makiivka and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl and conurbation in the region. Donetsk is a major economic, industrial and scientific centre of Ukraine with a high concentration of companies and a skilled workforce.
The city was founded in 1869 by a Welsh businessman, John Hughes, who constructed a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was thus named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role in its founding ("Yuz" being a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes). During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded. In 1924 it was renamed Stalino (Сталино), and in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region. Renamed Donetsk in 1961, the city today remains the centre for Ukraine's coal mining and notable steel industry centre.
Donetsk currently has a population of over 982,000 inhabitants (2010) and has a metropolitan area of over 2,000,000 inhabitants (2011). According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.
Donetsk was one of the Ukrainian host cities for the UEFA Euro 2012.
Donetsk is nicknamed "The City of a Million Roses".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Government and administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Sports
- 7 Culture
- 8 Museums
- 9 Transport
- 10 Education
- 11 Twinnings
- 12 Footnotes and references
- 13 External links
Donetsk was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines in the southern part of the Russian Empire at Aleksandrovka (Ukrainian: Олександрівка). The town initially was given the name Hughesovka (Yuzovka; Russian: Юзовка; Ukrainian: Юзівка). By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzovka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants, and had attained the status of a city in 1917. The main district of "Hughezovka" is named English Colony, and the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout and architecture.
In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, and in the next year, 80,085. In 1929-31 the city's name was changed to Stalino. The city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km (34.4 mi) system was laid underground. In July 1933, the city became the administrative center of the Donetsk Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1933, the first 12 km (7 mi) sewer system was installed, and next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city. In addition, some sources[which?] state that the city was briefly called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923.
In the beginning of World War II, the population of Stalino consisted of 507,000, and after the war, only 175,000. The Nazi invasion during World War II almost completely destroyed the city, which was mostly rebuilt on a large scale at the war's end. It was occupied by Nazi Germany between 16 October 1941 and 5 September 1943.
The territory of Donetsk at the time of the Nazi German occupation consisted mainly of a Jewish ghetto, in which 3,000 Jews died, and a concentration camp in which 92,000 people were killed. During the war, a collective responsibility system was enforced. For every killed German soldier, 100 inhabitants were killed, and one for every killed policeman.
In 1945 many forced labourers, young men and women aged 17 to 35, were interned into reparation servitude from the Danube Swabian communities Schwowe of Yugoslavia, Hungary and Romania (the Batschka and Banat) and worked under extreme hardship to rebuild Stalino and to labour in its mines. Many died from disease and malnutrition.
During Nikita Khrushchev's second wave of destalinization in November 1961 the city was renamed Donetsk, after the Seversky Donets River, a tributary of the Don in order to distance it from the former leader Joseph Stalin.
In 1965, the Donetsk Academy of Sciences was established as part of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1970, Donetsk was recognised by UNESCO as the cleanest industrial town of the world. Donesk was granted the Order of Lenin in 1979.
After experiencing a tough time in the 1990s, when it was the centre of gang wars for control over industrial enterprises, Donetsk has modernised quickly in recent years, largely under the influence of big companies.
Residents of the city tend to be conservative in their political beliefs. This came out during the 2004 presidential election, in which the city mostly voted for candidate Viktor Yanukovych, which had been announced as the winner of the election by the Central Election Commission. The vote was later revoked by the court. This led to an election re-run, thus making Yanukovych lose the election. During the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary elections, the Yanukovych-led Party of Regions also won most of the votes from the region.
Geography and climate
Donetsk lies in the steppe landscape of Ukraine, surrounded by scattered woodland, hills (spoil tips), rivers and lakes. The northern outskirts of the city are mainly used for agriculture. The Sea of Azov, 95 km (59 mi) south of Donetsk, is a popular recreational area for those living in Donetsk. A wide belt of farmlands surrounds the city.
The city stretches 28 km (17 mi) from north to south and 55 km (34 mi) from east to west. There are 2 nearby reservoirs: Nyzhnekalmius (60 ha), and the "Donetsk Sea" (206 ha). 5 rivers flow through the city, including the Kalmius, Asmolivka (13 km), Cherepashkyna (23 km), Skomoroshka and Bakhmutka. The city also contains a total of 125 spoil tips.
Donetsk's climate is moderate continental (Köppen: Dfb). The average temperatures are−5 °C (23 °F) in January and 18 °C (64 °F) in June. The average number of rainfall per year totals 162 days and up to 556 millimetres per year.
|Climate data for Donetsk 1981–2010|
|Record high °C (°F)||12.2||16.0||21.3||31.0||34.6||38.0||37.8||39.1||33.9||32.7||20.5||15.0||39.1
|Average high °C (°F)||-1.3||-0.9||5.3||14.5||20.9||24.8||27.3||26.8||20.7||13.1||4.7||-0.3||13.0|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-4.1||-4.1||1.3||9.4||15.4||19.3||21.6||20.8||15.1||8.5||1.6||-2.9||8.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||-6.7||-7.0||-2.1||4.6||10.0||13.8||15.9||15.0||10.0||4.5||-1.1||-5.4||4.3|
|Record low °C (°F)||-32.2||-31.1||-21.0||-10.6||-2.4||2.1||6.0||2.2||-6.0||-10.0||-22.2||-28.5||-32.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||37||32||34||38||46||65||51||37||36||37||38||41||492|
|Avg. rainy days||11||8||10||13||13||14||11||8||11||11||13||11||134|
|Avg. snowy days||17||17||10||2||0||0||0||0||0||2||8||16||72|
Government and administrative divisions
While Donetsk is the administrative centre of the Donetsk Oblast (province), the city is the capital of the Donetsk City Municipality. However, Donetsk is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the Donetsk City Municipality housed in the city itself.
The territory of Donetsk is divided into 9 administrative raions (districts). In addition, every raion consists of raion councils, which are subordinate to the Donetsk City Council.
See article: Russians in Ukraine
While the majority of people in central and western Ukraine speak Ukrainian, the completer majority of the residents of Donetsk are Russian-speaking Ukrainians and ethnic Russians. According to 2001 population census, Ukrainians are 56,9% of Donetsk oblast and Russians are 38,2%. The Russian language is dominant in Donbas: even the ethnic Ukrainians consider Russian as their first language.
The actual nationality structure of the Donetsk City Municipality is as follows:
- Russians: 493,392 people, 48.15%
- Ukrainians: 478,041 people, 46.65%
- Belarusians: 11,769 people, 1.15%
- Greeks: 10,180 people, 0.99%
- Jews: 5,087 people, 0.50%
- Tatars: 4,987 people, 0.49%
- Armenians: 4,050 people, 0.40%
- Azerbaijanis: 2,098 people, 0.20%
- Georgians: 2,073 people, 0.20%
- Other: 13,001 people, 1.27%
- Total: 1,024,678 people, 100.00%
|This section is outdated. (June 2012)|
Donetsk and the surrounding territories are heavily urbanised and agglomerated into conurbation. The workforce is heavily involved with heavy industry, especially coal mining. The city is an important center of heavy industry and coal mines in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and Ukraine. Directly under the city lie coal mines, which have recently seen an increase in mining accidents, the most recent accident being at the Zasyadko mine, which killed over 100 workers.
Donetsk's economy consists of about 200 industrial organizations that have a total production output of more than 50 billion hryvnias per year and more than 20,000 medium-small sized organizations. The city's coal mining industry comprises 17 coal mines and two concentrating mills; the metallurgy industry comprises 5 large metallurgical plants located throughout the city; the engineering market comprises 67 organizations, and the food industry — 32 organizations.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, Donetsk and other neighboring cities of the Donbass suffered heavily, as many factories were closed down and many inhabitants lost their jobs. However, in spite of the difficult economic situation in Ukraine, Donetsk is a developing city. About 412,000 square metres (4,434,731 sq ft) of living space, 7.9 km (4.9 mi) of gas networks, and 15.1 km (9.4 mi) of water supply networks were constructed in the city during 1998–2001.
The city also houses the "Donetsk" special economic zone. Donetsk currently has nine sister cities. The German city of Magdeburg had economic partnerships with Donetsk during 1962–1996.[clarification needed]
In 2012, Donetsk was admitted as the best city for business in Ukraine by Forbes. Donetsk topped the rating in five indicators: human capital, the purchasing power of citizens, investment climate, economic stability, as well as infrastructure and comfort.
Donetsk is a large sports center, has a developed infrastructure. Donetsk has repeatedly held international competitions - Davis Cup, UEFA Champions League. Representatives of the city are the leaders in Ukraine in sports such as football, boxing, tennis, athletics and others.
But the most popular in Donetsk is football. Three major professional football clubs play in the city, which include two clubs in the Ukrainian Premier League and one in the Ukrainian Second League: Shakhtar Donetsk, which plays at the Donbass Arena, Metalurh Donetsk, which plays at the Metalurh Stadium, and FC Olimpik Donetsk. Shakhtar Donetsk won the Ukrainian Championship and Ukrainian Cup multiple times. In 2009, they became the second team from Ukraine (after FC Dynamo Kyiv) to win a European competition, the UEFA Cup, beating Werder Bremen in the final. This also made them the last UEFA Cup winners before the tournament was rebranded as the UEFA Europa League. Shakhtar is now one of the most well-known clubs in Europe. The women's footballWFC Donchanka is one of the most titles clubs in the Ukrainian Women's League.
Donbass Arena was opened on 29 August 2009 and became the first stadium in Eastern Europe designed and constructed according to UEFA standards for stadiums of "Elite" category.
Donetsk is home to HC Donbass, Ukrainian national champions, and the only elite level team in the country. After playing a single season in the Russian Major League, the club upgraded its arena to Kontinental Hockey League regulations, and joined the league in 2012. When moving to internationally, the club created a local farm club to play in the Ukrainian Championship under the name HC Donbass-2, which won the 2012 and 2013 national titles. In 2013 Donetsk was hosting the IIHF Continental Cup 2013 ice hockey Super Final, which HC Donbass won, and the 2013 IIHF World Championship Division I - Group B, where Ukraine finished 1st and earned promotion to Group A (both were hosted at the Druzhba Arena). Because of Donbass, Donetsk is also home the organization's hockey school program, and additional infrastructure Donbass is investing in the city, including the upcoming Kalmius Arena.
The MFC Shakhtar Donetsk club won the Ukrainian futsal championship five times. The team was dissolved in January 2011 mid-way through the season. VC Shakhtar Donetsk were the last team to win the Soviet Volleyball Championship, in 1992. The city also has a team in the Ukrainian Basketball Super League, BC Donetsk, winner of Ukrainian Superleague (2012).
In Donetsk, the USSR Tennis Championship took place within the city in 1978, 1979 and 1980 near the Donetsk Railroad tennis courts. Some tennis matches of the Davis Cup took place in Donetsk in 2005. In Donetsk, the Soviet Championship on Light Athletics in Youth took place in 1978, 1979, 1980 and 1984. A monument to famous pole vault athlete Serhiy Bubka is installed in the city.
Donetsk annual held "Pole Vault Stars".
When the joint bid for the UEFA Euro 2012 was won by Poland and Ukraine, Donetsk's Donbass Arena was chosen as the location for three Group D matches, one quarter-final match, and one semi-final match. The RSK Olimpiyskyi Stadium was chosen as a reserve stadium.
First Line Avenue (Artema Street)
The main part of Donetsk, this large avenue is the place to start for any tourist trip around the city. You'll see an interesting mix of new and old architecture together with small parks, stylish hotels, shopping centres and fine restaurants. The historical sites are the most amazing here and include Lenin Square, the Opera & Ballet Theatre, Monument to Coalminers and Donetsk Drama Theatre.
Statue of Artem (Fyodor Sergeyev)
This imposing six-metre statue on Artema Street is a tribute to one of the Soviet’s most celebrated politicians and adopted son of Joseph Stalin. He died in the Donets Basin in 1921.
Donetsk Opera & Ballet Theatre
Built in 1936, the Donetsk Opera & Ballet Theatre, is a gem of a theatre with an elegant exterior and world-class performances inside.
5-star hotel in the center of Donetsk is the only Ukrainian hotel to join The Leading Hotels of The World, Ukraine's leading business hotel according to the World Travel Awards Association. It was built in 1938 upon the project of Shuvalova and Rechanikov. During the Nazi occupation of Donetsk Gestapo headquartered in the former hotel; the building was partially destroyed during the war time. The hotel was opened after the reconstruction in 2004.
A beautiful green walkway that takes you away from Donetsk city life for a 2 km (1.24 mi) stroll. Here you can enjoy peaceful fountains, al fresco cafes and a number of interesting statues such as the monument to Taras Shevchenko.
Donetsk is home to the world’s perhaps most famous plant forged out of steel, the intricate Mertsalov Palm, located on Pushkin Boulevard. Originally created for an exhibition in 1896 by Aleksei Mertsalov, a local blacksmith, out of a single rail, it represented the skills and power of the heavy industry in Czarist Russia.
Monument to John Hughes
This 2001 statue located in front of Donetsk National Technical University honours the hard work of Welsh city founder John James Hughes. He was responsible for the city’s Yuzovka Steel Plant that gave Donetsk its industrial history.
Forged Figures Park
Forged Figures Park was opened in 2001 and is one-in-a-kind object. International Smithcraft Festival takes place in the park every year. The most impressive masterworks remain in the city as a gift expanding the number of park’s “residents”
Donetsk Aquapark "Royal Marine" was opened in Scherbakova Park in early winter 2012 and, according to experts' estimates, is one of the top aquaparks in Europe. The free-standing dome, made with OpenAire’s exclusive, maintenance-free aluminium truss structure, will be 26m / 86’ high with a diameter of 85m / 278’, and feature a unique retractable design that slides open in a smooth rotating motion, opening up to 50% of the structure to sunlight and fresh air. The 61,000 sq ft (5,667 m2) Aquatoria, slated to become the largest retractable aluminium-domed indoor waterpark in the world, is being built by Canadian company OpenAire, Inc., a premier designer, manufacturer and installer of retractable roof enclosures and operable skylights.
Donetsk, at the time Yuzovka, was divided into two parts: north and south. In the southern part were the city's factories, railway stations, telegraph buildings, hospitals and schools. Not far from the factories was the English colony where the engineers and the management lived. After the construction of the residence of John Hughes and the various complexes for the foreign workers, the city's southern portion was constructed mainly in the English style.
These buildings used rectangular and triangular shaped façades, green rooftops, large windows, which occupied a large portion of the building, and balconies. In this part of the town, the streets were large and had pavements. A major influence on the formation of architecture in Donetsk was the official architect of a Novorossiya company — Moldingauyer. Preserved buildings of the southern part of Yuzovka consisted of the residences of John Hughes (1891, partially preserved), Bolfur (1889) and Bosse.
In the northern part of Yuzovka, Novyi Svet, lived traders, craftsmen and bureaucrats. Here were located the market hall, the police headquarters and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus. The central street of Novyi Svet and the neighbouring streets were mainly edged by one- or two-story residential buildings, as well as markets, restaurants, hotels, offices and banks. A famous preserved building in the northern part of Yuzovka was the Hotel Great Britain.
The first general plan of Stalino was made in 1932 in Odessa by the architect P. Golovchenko. In 1937, the project was partly reworked. These projects were the first in the city's construction bureau's history.
A large portion of the city's buildings from the second half of the 20th century were designed by the architect Pavel Vigdergauz, which was given the Government award of the USSR for architecture in the city of Donetsk in 1978.
Donetsk's residents belong to many different religious bodies: Eastern Orthodox Greek Catholic, Protestant, and Roman Catholic, as well as Islamic Mosques and Judaic synagogues. The largest religious body with the most members is the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) and Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
Five television stations operate within Donetsk:
- TRK Ukraina (Ukrainian: ТРК Україна)
- KRT, Kyivska Rus' (Ukrainian: КРТ, Київська Русь)
- First Municipal (Russian: Первый муниципальный)
- Kanal 27 (Russian: 27 канал)
- TRK Donbass (Russian: ТРК Донбасс)
In Donetsk, there is the 360-metre tall TV tower, one of the tallest structures in the city, completed in 1992.
The citizens of Donetsk are commonly called Donechyani (Ukrainian: Донеччани). The following is a list of famous people that were born or brought up in the city:
- Rinat Akhmetov, Ukraine's wealthiest businessman, founder of System Capital Management, No. 47 in Forbes' The World's Billionaires.
- Emma Andijewska, Ukrainian poetess.
- Zalman Aran (Aharonovich), Israeli social-democratic politician, minister of education (1955–1960) and (1963–1969).
- Serhiy Arbuzov, head of Ukrainian Bank.
- Fyodor Berezin, Russian-language science fiction writer.
- Volodymyr Biletskyy, Ukrainian scientist.
- Serhiy Bubka, Ukrainian pole vault athlete; Olympic Games champion: 1988; World Champion: 1983, 1987, 1991, 1995, European Champion: 1986; Champion of the USSR: 1984, 1985.
- Nikita Khrushchev, General Secretary of the CPSU and Premier of the Soviet Union 1953–1964 (born in Kalinovka, Kursk Oblast, Russia but grew up in Yuzovka).
- Vasyl Stus, Ukrainian poet and publicist, one of the most active members of Ukrainian dissident movement.
- Polina Astakhova, Ukrainian gymnast.
- Pavel Gililov, Russian pianist.
- Yuriy Dehteryov, Soviet goalkeeper.
- Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, Russian Mathematician and lecturer at the Moscow University. Promoter of New Chronology.
- Yuri Kara, Russian film director and producer.
- Yaroslav Kargin, internationally renowned violist.
- Yevgeny Khaldei, Soviet photographer.
- Mikhail Krichevsky, Ukraine's last surviving World War I veteran.
- Natalya Mammadova, Azeri volleyball player.
- Ilya Mate, Olympic champion in 1980.
- Oleksiy Pecherov, a Ukrainian basketball player.
- Vadim Pisarev, Ukrainian dancer.
- Lilia Podkopayeva, a Ukrainian gymnast, and the 1996 Olympics winner.
- Sergiy Rebrov, footballer.
- Aleksandr Revva, comedian.
- Vladislav Adolfovitch Rusanov, Russian-language science fiction writer.
- Vladislav Shabalin, Russian artist-Soviet dissident, painter, graphic, sculptor.
- Natan Sharansky, former Soviet dissident, anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer.
- Oleg Stefan, Russian actor.
- Anatoliy Solovyanenko, Soviet opera singer.
- Viktor Smyrnov, Paralympic swimmer.
- Ihor Sorkin, head of the Ukrainian National Bank.
- Kirill Borisovich Tolpygo, Soviet physicist.
- Marina Tsvigun, religious sect leader, new age movement.
- Oleg Tverdovsky, ice hockey player.
- Kirill Borisovich Tolpygo, Soviet physicist and a Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
- Viktor Sidyak, fencing, first Soviet individual sabre Olympic gold medal in Munich 1972, multiple times winner of World Championships and Olympic medalist (1968, 1972, 1976 and 1980).
- Petro Symonenko, head of the Communist Party of Ukraine.
- Alexander Yagubkin, boxer.
- Viktor Yanukovych, president of Ukraine.
- Vladimir Yemelyanov, Soviet actor.
- Pavlo Vigderhaus, Soviet architect, Monument to a Miner creator.
- Vladimir Grigoryevich Zakharov, Soviet composer.
Donetsk is home to about 140 museums. Among them, two large regional museums - Donetsk Region History Museum and Donetsk Regional Art Museum.
Donetsk Region History Museum reveals the city's true identity and covers to the entire local community, diverse as it is. Set up in 1924, it offers an extensive expo with 120,000 exhibits: from archeological findings dating back to pre-historic times to the founding of the city by John Hughes, development of industry and coal mining, World War II and the Soviet times .
FC Shaktar Museum was opened in 2010. This museum is the first Ukrainian museum to be nominated for a European Museum of the Year Award
The main forms of transport within Donetsk are: trams, electric trolley buses, buses and marshrutkas (private minibuses). The city's public transport system is controlled by the united Dongorpastrans municipal company. The city has 12 tram lines (~130 km), 17 trolley bus lines (~188 km), and about 115 bus lines. Both the tram and trolley bus systems in the city are served by 2 depots each. Another method of transport within the city is taxicab service, of which there are 32 in Donetsk.
The city also contains autostations located within the city and its suburbs: autostation Yuzhny (South), which serves mainly transport lines to the south, hence its name; autostation Tsentr (Centre), which serves transport in the direction of Marinka and Vuhledar as well as intercity transport; the autostation Krytyi rynok (Indoor market), which serves mainly transport in the north and east directions; and the autostation Putilovsky, which serves mainly the north and northwest transport directions.
Donetsk's main railway station, which serves about 7 million passengers annually, is located in the northern part of the city. There is a museum near the main station, dealing with the history of region's railways. Other railway stations are: Rutchenkovo, located in the Kyivskyi Raion; Mandrykino (Petrovskyi Raion), and Mushketovo (Budionivskyi Raion). Some passenger trains avoid Donetsk station and serve the Yasynuvata station, located outside the city limits. Although not used for regular transport, the city also has a children's railway. (As of September 2009) a new railway terminal facility that will comply with UEFA requirements (since Donetsk is one of the host city's for UEFA EURO 2012) is planned.
As the Donetsk Oblast is an important transport hub in Ukraine, so is its centre Donetsk. The Donetsk Railways, based in Donetsk, is one of the largest railway divisions in the country. It serves the farming and industrial businesses of the area, and the populations of the Donetsk, Luhansk, partly the Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia and Kharkiv oblasts.
In addition, another international road runs through the city: the M 04. Also, three national Ukrainian roads ( N 15, N 20, and N 21) pass through the city.
In addition to public and rail transport, Donetsk has an international airport. It was constructed in the end of the 1940s to the beginning of the 1950s. The whole airport complex was finished in 1973. The city-based DonbassAero airline operates the airport.
The most important and prominent educational institutions include Donetsk National Technical University ("Donetsk Polytechnical Institute" in 1960–1993), as well as the Donetsk National University which was founded in 1965. The National Technical University held close contacts with the University in Magdeburg. Since 1970, more than 100 students from Germany (East Germany) have completed their higher education at either one of the two main universities in Donetsk.
There are also several scientific research institutes and an Islamic University within Donetsk.
Donetsk participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:
Footnotes and references
- "Results / General results of the census / Number of cities". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 28 August 2006.[dead link]
- "The City of a Million Roses". AdorableLand. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Yuz is a Russian or Ukrainian approximation of Hughes
- The population included mostly migrants from neighbouring Russian territories
- "From the history of the city". Head of Donetsk City (in Russian). Archived from the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- http://alldonetsk.info/en/history-city-donetsk The history of the city of Donetsk
- "Was there a ghetto in Donetsk?". Newspaper "Gorod" (in Russian). Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- "Das politische Bewusstsein" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Weather in Donetsk". rospogoda.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. May 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- Statistics from the first All-Russian Empire Census, conducted on 28 January [O.S. 15 15 January] 1897
- Statistics from the First All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 December 1926.
- Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 January 1939.
- Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 15 January 1959.
- Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 15 January 1970.
- Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 17 January 1979.
- Statistics are from the All Union Census of the Soviet Union, conducted on 12 January 1989.
- Statistics are from the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, conducted on 1 January 1998.
- Statistics are from the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, conducted on 1 January 2006.
- "Results / General results of the census / National composition of population / Donets'k region". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved 28 August 2006.
- Eternal Russia:Yeltsin, Gorbachev, and the Mirage of Democracy by Jonathan Steele, Harvard University Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0-674-26837-1 (p. 218)
- "Ukrainian Census (Donetsk Oblast)". Head of the Donetsk Oblast Statistics (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Another victim of Ukraine mine blast dies in hospital". RIA Novosti. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
- Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 613. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- "Special Economic Zones and Special Regime of Investment Activities in Donetsk Oblast". Order of Verhovna Rada (in Ukrainian). 14 January 1999.
- "Sister cities of Donetsk". Head of Donetsk City (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
- "Contacts." Donbassaero. Retrieved on 27 April 2011. "Headquarter The headquarter of our company is located at international airport “Donetsk”. Address: DONBASSAERO, 1«V», Vzlyotnaya str., Donetsk, 83021, Ukraine"
- "Forbes admitted Donetsk best city for business in Ukraine | Ukraine News". Yellowpage.in.ua. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Stadiums / Donetsk". UEFA Euro 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- "Stadiums / Introduction". UEFA Euro 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
- "World’s largest retractable aluminum-domed waterpark under work in Ukraine (Video)". Themeparkpost.com. 14 September 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Архитектура Донецка". Russian Wikipedia (in Russian).
- "Main Page". Donbass Pravoslavnyi (in Russian). Retrieved 12 May 2007.
- "Main Page". TRK Ukraina (in Russian).
- "Main Page". Kievska Rus (in Russian).
- "Main Page". Pervyi munitsipal'nyi kanal (in Russian).
- "FC Shakhtar Museum nominated for an 'Oscar'". Donbass-arena.com. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Transport". Partner-Portal (in Russian). Retrieved 11 May 2007.
- У Донецьку припиняють зводити метро (Ukrainian)
- Construction of railway terminal in Donetsk for UEFA EURO 2012 worth UAH 414mln, Ukrinform (23 September 2009)
- "Service Center, International Airport "Donetsk"". VIP-Terminal (in Russian/English). Retrieved 6 March 2007.
- "About DonNTU". Donetsk National Technical University (DonNTU) (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
- "Main page". Donetsk National University. Archived from the original on 5 April 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
- Kilesso, S. (1982). Donetsk. Architectural-historical summary. Kiev: Budivelnyk. p. 152.
- "Partner-Portal — Everything about Donetsk". Partner-Portal (in Russian). Интернет-агентство «Партнер». Retrieved 28 August 2006.
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- A comprehensive Donetsk city guide for international travellers - English
- Official Donetsk city guide - English
- Traveller's guide, Welcome to Donetsk - English
- The Donetsk photoblog (is regularly updated) Russian
- donetsk.org.ua — Donetsk city administration website (Ukrainian)/(Russian)
- stroit.dn.ua — Construction site of Donetsk
- (Russian) partner.donetsk.ua — Informational portal about Donetsk
- ukrtelecom.ua — Ukrtelecom webcam of the Artema Street
- Official site of the Donetsk international airport
- Shakhtar Donetsk official website of the Shakhtar football team (English)
- dntsk.net — old and recent photos of Donetsk (Russian)
- geocities.com — History of Donetsk and the story of the founder John Hughes
- ukrstor.com — Early history of Yuzovka
- bfcollection.net — Historic images of Donetsk
- alldonetsk.info - The history of the city of Donetsk