|Nickname(s): Донеччина (Donechchyna)|
|Established||June 3, 1938|
|• Governor||Serhiy Taruta|
|• Oblast council||150 seats|
|• Chairperson||Andriy Fedoruk (PR)|
|• Total||26,517 km2 (10,238 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 11th|
|Population (September 1, 2013)|
|• Rank||Ranked 1st|
|• Official language(s)||Ukrainian
|• Average salary||UAH 1161 (2006)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-14|
— Regional cities
Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast'; also referred to as Donechchyna – Ukrainian: Донеччина Donechchyna; Russian: Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast [dɐˈnʲet͡skəjə ˈobləstʲ]) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast in honour of Joseph Stalin.
The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and often is being associated with mining industry.
On April 7, 2014, following the 2014 Crimean crisis, pro-Russian activists occupying the Donetsk Oblast administrative building declared independence from Ukraine and called for a referendum to join the Russian Federation no later than May 11, 2014.
Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,900 km²), comprises about 4.4% of the total area of the country. The oblast borders the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts on the southwest, the Kharkiv Oblast on the north, the Luhansk Oblast on the northeast, the Rostov Oblast in Russia on the east, and with the Sea of Azov on the south.
Its longitude from north to south is 270 km, from east to west – 190 km. The extreme points of the oblast's borders are: Bilosarayska Kosa (spit) on the south, Shevchenko of Velykonovosilkivskyi Raion on the west, Verkhnyi Kut of Shakhtarskyi Raion on the east, and Lozove of Krasnolymanskyi Raion on the north.
The following data incorporates the number of each type of administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast:
- Administrative Center – 1 (Donetsk)
- Raions – 18;
- City raions – 28;
- Settlements – 1,283, including:
- Villages — 1,124;
- Cities/Towns — 159, including:
- Urban-type settlement – 131;
- Cities – 52, including:
- Cities of oblast' subordinance — 28;
- Cities of raion subordinance — 24;
- Selsovets – N/A.
The local administration of the oblast' is controlled by the Donetsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast' is the Head of Donetsk Oblast administration, appointed by the President of Ukraine.
The population of Donetsk Oblast is 4.7 million (as of 2004[update]), which constitutes 10% of the overall Ukrainian population, making it the most populous and most densely populated region of the country. Its large population is due to the presence of several big industrial cities and numerous villages agglomerated around them (see urbanization).
During the 2004 presidential election, political supporters of Viktor Yanukovych threatened to demand autonomy for Donetsk and neighbouring oblasts if the election of their candidate was not recognised. However, no official moves were ever made.
As of the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups within the Donetsk Oblast are: Ukrainians – 2,744,100 (56.9%), Russians – 1,844,400 (38.2%), Greeks – 77,500 (1.6%), Belarusians – 44,500 (0.9%), others (2.3%).
|1990||1,6||58 050||2000||0,9||30 042||2010||1,2||41 258|
|1991||1,5||54 466||2001||0,9||29 931||2011||1,3||41 720|
|1992||1,4||50 258||2002||0,9||31 216||2012||1,3||42 839|
|1993||1,3||46 344||2003||0,9||33 433|
|1994||1,2||43 195||2004||1,0||35 526|
|1995||1,1||38 808||2005||1,0||35 883|
|1996||1,1||36 349||2006||1,1||39 327|
|1997||1,0||34 347||2007||1,2||40 560|
|1998||1,0||33 518||2008||1,3||44 394|
|1999||0,9||30 503||2009||1,3||43 373|
- 0–14 years: 12.6% (male 283,584/female 266,977)
- 15–64 years: 70.4% (male 1,453,273/female 1,619,241)
- 65 years and over: 17.0% (male 243,048/female 496,434) (2013 official)
- total: 41.9 years
- male: 38.0 years
- female: 45.8 years (2013 official)
The Donetsk Oblast covers more than one half coal, finished steel, coke, cast iron and steel production in Ukraine. Ferrous metallurgy, fuel industry and power industry are in demand in the structure of industry production. There are about 882 industry enterprises that are on independent balance, and 2,095 small industry enterprises in the oblast.
The oblast' has a developed transport infrastructure which includes the Donetsk railway (covers 40% of national transportation), the Mariupol Port, the Donetsk International Airport, passenger airports in Mariupol and Kramatorsk, and dense road systems. In the Donetsk Oblast two special economic zones have been created, Donetsk and Azov, which have a privileged tax regime.
In 1999, the gross grain yield in the oblast was about 999.1 thousand tons, sugar beets – 27.1 thousand tons, sunflower seeds – 309.4 thousand tons, and potatoes – 380.2 thousand tons. Also, 134.2 thousand tons of meat, 494.3 thousand tons of milk and 646.4 million eggs have been produced. At the beginning of 1999 there have been 2108 farms within the oblast.
The Donetsk Oblast's climate is mostly continental, which is characterised by hot summers and relatively cold winters with changeable snow surfaces. East and southeast strong winds, high temperatures and heavy rain showers are typical in the summer. The average annual rainfall is 524 mm.
Important resources for recreation within the area are: the mild climate, the Sea of Azov coast, curative mud, sources of minerals, and radon and table water. Due to these numerous recreation resources, many resort hotels and camps are located here. There are about 26 health centres and pensions, 52 rest homes and boarding houses, and rest camps for children in the oblast.
The curative areas in the oblast include the Slovyansk salt lakes and mineral water sources. The oblast also contains many park zones, some of which are of great national value. They include the Khomutivsky steppe and the Azov sea coast. Overall, the Donetsk Oblast contains about 70 objects of nature and park fund including branches of the Ukrainian steppe park, 6 state reserves, 10 memorials of nature, landscapes, and 6 park tracts.
- Ukrainian Officials in East Act to Blunt Pro-Russian Forces, The New York Times (March 7, 2014)
- Donetsk Regional Council elects new chairman, Kyiv Post (August 4, 2011)
- "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Romanian becomes regional language in Bila Tserkva in Zakarpattia region, Kyiv Post (September 24, 2012)
- "Русский язык стал региональным в Севастополе, Донецкой и Запорожской обл.". RosBusinessConsulting. August 16, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2012.
- Withall, Adam (April 7, 2014). "Ukraine crisis: Donetsk 'declares independence from Kiev’ and sets date for referendum on joining Russia". The Independent. Retrieved April 7, 2014.
- Ukrcensus.gov.ua — Donetsk region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
- Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine — Donetsk Region URL accessed on January 13, 2007
- Information Card of the Region – Official site of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
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