Donetsk Oblast

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Donetsk Oblast
Донецька область
Donets'ka oblast’
Oblast
Flag of Donetsk Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Donetsk Oblast
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Донеччина (Donechchyna)
Donetsk in Ukraine.svg
Coordinates: 48°08′N 37°44′E / 48.14°N 37.74°E / 48.14; 37.74Coordinates: 48°08′N 37°44′E / 48.14°N 37.74°E / 48.14; 37.74
Country  Ukraine
Established June 3, 1938
Administrative center Donetsk
Government
 • Governor Serhiy Taruta[1]
 • Oblast council 150 seats
 • Chairperson Andriy Fedoruk[2] (PR[2])
Area
 • Total 26,517 km2 (10,238 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 11th
Population (September 1, 2013[3])
 • Total Decrease 4,356,392
 • Rank Ranked 1st
Demographics
 • Official language(s) Ukrainian
Russian (regional)[4][5]
 • Average salary UAH 1161 (2006)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 83000-87999
Area code +380-62
ISO 3166 code UA-14
Raions 18
Cities (total)
— Regional cities
52
28
Urban-type settlements 131
Villages 1124
FIPS 10-4 UP05
Website www.donoda.gov.ua
www.rada.gov.ua

Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast'; also referred to as DonechchynaUkrainian: Донеччина Donechchyna; Russian: Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast [dɐˈnʲet͡skəjə ˈobləstʲ]) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. It is the most populated oblast with around 4.5 million residents. Its administrative center is Donetsk. Historically, the region is an important part of the Donbas region. Until November 1961, it bore the name Stalino Oblast in honour of Joseph Stalin.

The oblast is known for its urban sprawl and often is being associated with mining industry.

On April 7, 2014, following the 2014 Crimean crisis, pro-Russian activists occupying the Donetsk Oblast administrative building declared independence from Ukraine and called for a referendum to join the Russian Federation no later than May 11, 2014.[6]

Geography[edit]

Donetsk Oblast is located in southeastern Ukraine. The area of the oblast (26,900 km²), comprises about 4.4% of the total area of the country. The oblast borders the Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia Oblasts on the southwest, the Kharkiv Oblast on the north, the Luhansk Oblast on the northeast, the Rostov Oblast in Russia on the east, and with the Sea of Azov on the south.

Its longitude from north to south is 270 km, from east to west – 190 km. The extreme points of the oblast's borders are: Bilosarayska Kosa (spit) on the south, Shevchenko of Velykonovosilkivskyi Raion on the west, Verkhnyi Kut of Shakhtarskyi Raion on the east, and Lozove of Krasnolymanskyi Raion on the north.

The state historic-architectural preserve near the city of Sviatohirsk with the Sviatohirsk Lavra was nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

Detailed map of Donetsk Oblast

Administrative divisions[edit]

The oblast is subdivided into 18 raions (administrative districts). It consists of 28 municipalities, 52 cities, 131 towns, and more than 1,124 villages.

The following data incorporates the number of each type of administrative divisions of Donetsk Oblast:

  • Administrative Center – 1 (Donetsk)
  • Raions – 18;
  • City raions – 28;
  • Settlements – 1,283, including:
    • Villages — 1,124;
    • Cities/Towns — 159, including:
      • Urban-type settlement – 131;
      • Cities – 52, including:
        • Cities of oblast' subordinance — 28;
        • Cities of raion subordinance — 24;
  • SelsovetsN/A.

The local administration of the oblast' is controlled by the Donetsk Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast' is the Head of Donetsk Oblast administration, appointed by the President of Ukraine.

Raions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

The population of Donetsk Oblast is 4.7 million (as of 2004), which constitutes 10% of the overall Ukrainian population, making it the most populous and most densely populated region of the country. Its large population is due to the presence of several big industrial cities and numerous villages agglomerated around them (see urbanization).

During the 2004 presidential election, political supporters of Viktor Yanukovych threatened to demand autonomy for Donetsk and neighbouring oblasts if the election of their candidate was not recognised. However, no official moves were ever made.

As of the Ukrainian National Census, 2001, the ethnic groups within the Donetsk Oblast are: Ukrainians – 2,744,100 (56.9%), Russians – 1,844,400 (38.2%), Greeks – 77,500 (1.6%), Belarusians – 44,500 (0.9%), others (2.3%).[7]

As of 2001, the languages spoken within the oblast' are: Russian — 74.9%, Ukrainian – 24.1%.[7]

Map of the economic activity in the Donbas, including the Donetsk Oblast.
Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth
1990 1,6 58 050 2000 0,9 30 042 2010 1,2 41 258
1991 1,5 54 466 2001 0,9 29 931 2011 1,3 41 720
1992 1,4 50 258 2002 0,9 31 216 2012 1,3 42 839
1993 1,3 46 344 2003 0,9 33 433
1994 1,2 43 195 2004 1,0 35 526
1995 1,1 38 808 2005 1,0 35 883
1996 1,1 36 349 2006 1,1 39 327
1997 1,0 34 347 2007 1,2 40 560
1998 1,0 33 518 2008 1,3 44 394
1999 0,9 30 503 2009 1,3 43 373

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 12.6% Increase (male 283,584/female 266,977)
15–64 years: 70.4% Decrease (male 1,453,273/female 1,619,241)
65 years and over: 17.0% Steady (male 243,048/female 496,434) (2013 official)

Median age[edit]

total: 41.9 years Increase
male: 38.0 years Increase
female: 45.8 years Increase (2013 official)

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The Donetsk Oblast covers more than one half coal, finished steel, coke, cast iron and steel production in Ukraine. Ferrous metallurgy, fuel industry and power industry are in demand in the structure of industry production. There are about 882 industry enterprises that are on independent balance, and 2,095 small industry enterprises in the oblast.[8]

The oblast' has a developed transport infrastructure which includes the Donetsk railway (covers 40% of national transportation), the Mariupol Port, the Donetsk International Airport, passenger airports in Mariupol and Kramatorsk, and dense road systems. In the Donetsk Oblast two special economic zones have been created, Donetsk and Azov, which have a privileged tax regime.[8]

Agriculture[edit]

In 1999, the gross grain yield in the oblast was about 999.1 thousand tons, sugar beets – 27.1 thousand tons, sunflower seeds – 309.4 thousand tons, and potatoes – 380.2 thousand tons.[8] Also, 134.2 thousand tons of meat, 494.3 thousand tons of milk and 646.4 million eggs have been produced. At the beginning of 1999 there have been 2108 farms within the oblast.[8]

Ecology[edit]

The Donetsk Oblast's climate is mostly continental, which is characterised by hot summers and relatively cold winters with changeable snow surfaces. East and southeast strong winds, high temperatures and heavy rain showers are typical in the summer. The average annual rainfall is 524 mm.

A wooden bridge leads to the entrance to the Khomutovska Steppe nature preserve in Donetsk Oblast.

The basic minerals found here are: coal (reserves – 25 billion tons), rock salt, lime carbonate, potassium, mercury, asbestos, and graphite. The area is also rich in fertile black earth.

Important resources for recreation within the area are: the mild climate, the Sea of Azov coast, curative mud, sources of minerals, and radon and table water. Due to these numerous recreation resources, many resort hotels and camps are located here. There are about 26 health centres and pensions, 52 rest homes and boarding houses, and rest camps for children in the oblast.[8]

The curative areas in the oblast include the Slovyansk salt lakes and mineral water sources. The oblast also contains many park zones, some of which are of great national value. They include the Khomutivsky steppe and the Azov sea coast. Overall, the Donetsk Oblast contains about 70 objects of nature and park fund including branches of the Ukrainian steppe park, 6 state reserves, 10 memorials of nature, landscapes, and 6 park tracts.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]