Dong Fuxiang

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Dong Fuxiang
Dong Fuxiang.jpg
Dong Fuxiang
Born 董福祥 1839
Gansu
Died 1908
Allegiance Flag of the Qing dynasty Qing dynasty
Years of service 1862–1908
Rank general
Unit Kansu braves
Battles/wars Dungan revolt, Dungan Revolt (1895), Boxer Rebellion
Dong Fuxiang
Simplified Chinese 董福祥
Traditional Chinese 董福祥

Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), a Han Chinese, was born Gansu, China. He commanded an army of Chinese Muslim soldiers, which included the later Ma clique generals Ma Anliang and Ma Fuxiang. According to the Western calendar, his birth date is in 1839.[1]

Religion[edit]

Dong Fuxiang was a non Muslim Han Chinese General who commanded Muslim soldiers. Conflicting accounts were given about his religion and ethnicity. Contemporaneous Western sources claim he was a Muslim, which was a mistake, but modern Western sources either say he was not Muslim, or don't mention his religion at all when talking about him, and some mistakenly still say he is Muslim. The only thing that was clear about him was that he was familiar with the Muslim militia of Gansu, and commanded Muslim troops in battle.[2][3] The confusion over his religion was cleared up by Jonathan Neamen Lipman who noted that westerners had made the mistake of assuming that Dong was a Muslim since he commanded Muslim soldiers during the Boxer Rebellion, and the mistake was repeated by later western encyclopedias and works on Islam and on the Boxer Rebellion.[4]

The Chinese Muslim armies of Dong Fuxiang were known as the Kansu Braves and they fought against the German Army and the other 8 nation alliance forces, repeatedly at the First intervention, Seymour Expedition, China 1900. It was only on the second attempt in the Gasalee Expedition did the Alliance manage to get through to battle the Chinese Muslim troops at the Battle of Peking. However, Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese Muslim troops that he requested the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire to find a way to stop the Chinese Muslim troops from fighting.[5]

Military career[edit]

Dong participated in the Dungan revolt, and defected to the Qing dynasty side, along with Ma Zhanao.[6] He was not a fanatic or even interested in rebellion, he merely had gathered a band of followers during the rebellion and fought, just as many others did. He joined the Qing army of Zuo Zongtang in exchange for being appointed Mandarin. He acquired large estates.[7]

In 1890 Dong Fuxiang was stationed at Aksu, Kashgaria and was a Brigadier.[8][9]

In 1895–1896, he led his Muslim troops in crushing a Muslim rebellion called the Dungan Revolt in Gansu and Qinghai. Dong Fuxiang was the Commander in Chief of Kashgaria (kashgar), and he received an order by telegram that he and General Ma Pi-sheng rush their army into rebelling districts via forced marching their troops.[10]

Rebel Chinese Muslims and Turkic Salars had revolted, and his loyalist Chinese Muslim troops led by officers like Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Fulu crushed the revolt, reportedly cutting off the heads and ears of rebels. During this rebellion he again indulged in plundering his fellow Muslims. He received the rank of Generalissimo.[7]

In 1898, Dong and 10,000 of his Muslim troops were transferred to Beijing in preparation for war against foreigners, and Dong's troop was renamed: Wuwei Rear Troop.[11] While they were stationed there, the Wuwei Rear troops repeatedly attacked foreigners in their legations, the railways, and in churches. It was reported that the Wuwei Rear troops were going to wipe out the foreigners to return a golden age for China. A Japanese citizen, Sugiyama Akira, was shot to death on 11 July by the Wuwei soldiers.[12] Other Europeans and Westerners were killed as well.[13][14] Ma Anliang, Tongling of Ho-Chou joined him in fighting the foreigners.[7][15]

The Boxer Rebellion broke out in 1900, and Dong and his Wuwei Troops joined the Boxers in declaring war on the Eight-Nation Alliance.[16] They formed the rear division, and the westerners called them the "10,000 Islamic rabble".[17] They were the most effective attackers on the foreign legions, and struck fear into the minds of the westerners. His troops were responsible for so much trouble that the United States Marine Corps had to be called in.

Dong was a sworn brother to Li Lai chung, another Boxer supporter and anti foreigner.[18][19][20]

The Wuwei Rear troops were organized into eight battalions of infantry, two squadrons of cavalry, two brigades of artillery, and one company of engineers.[21] The Wuwei Rear troops reportedly intimidated the Western forces.[22] The Wuwei Rear Troops were reportedly eager to join the Boxers and attack the foreigners.[23] They killed a Westerner outside Yungting gate.[24] At Zhengyang Gate, Wuwei Rear troops engaged in combat against British forces.[25][26][27][28]

On 18 June, Wuwei Rear troops stationed at Hunting park in southern Beijing, attacked at the Battle of Langfang. The troops were cavalry – about 5,000 men – armed with new, modern magazine rifles.[29]

His mere presence was menacing to the foreigners; some of them considered him to be an ogre. His Wuwei Rear troops were also reported to be ferocious.[30]

Battle of Beicang, on the outskirts of Tianjin.

Summary of battles of General Dong Fuxiang: Ts'ai Ts'un, 24 July; Ho Hsi Wu, 25 July; An P'ing, 26 July; Ma T'ou, 27 July.[31] He defeated the Westerners during the Battle of Langfang.

When the Qing Court decided to retreat, the Wuwei Rear Troop escorted the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu to safety in Xi'an.[32][33] The westerners suffered so much at the hands of his Wuwei Rear troops that they demanded Dong be executed. The Qing Court refused to kowtow to the foreigner's demands, and Dong was not executed but instead was exiled to Gansu and all of his positions and honors accorded to him were removed. After General Dong lost all of his official positions, he still was permitted to command his personal army of 5,000 men in Gansu.[34]

Aided by his appealing personality, Dong Fuxiang became a national hero in China for combating the foreigners.[35]

During his exile in Gansu, he held a great deal of local political power while protected by his bodyguards, local decisions had to be made with his consent. Two fortresses and many estates were at his disposal. After he died in 1908, all the ranks which were stripped from him due to the foreign demands were restored.[7][36]

Dong Fuxiang's family, his wife Tung Chao-shih (Dong Zhaoshi), nephew Tung Wen (Dong Wen), and grandson Tung Kung (Dong Gong) fought for the Qing dynasty during the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 in Gansu.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from The contemporary review, Volume 78, a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The history of China, Volume 2, by Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger, a publication from 1898 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Chinese recorder, Volume 26, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The great empress dowager of China, by Philip Walsingham Sergeant, a publication from 1910 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from China in convulsion, Volume 2, by Arthur Henderson Smith, a publication from 1901 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Our paper, Volume 16, by Massachusetts Reformatory (Concord, Mass.), a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Wood, Frances. "The Boxer Rebellion, 1900: A Selection of Books, Prints and Photographs". The British Library. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. ^ Garnaut, Anthony. "From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals". Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University). Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  3. ^ Stephen G. Haw (2007). Beijing: a concise history. Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 0-415-39906-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. ^ Lipman, Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Page 156
  5. ^ Abdulhamid II
  6. ^ Mary Clabaugh Wright (1957). Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism the T'Ung-Chih. Stanford University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-8047-0475-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  7. ^ a b c d M. Th. Houtsma, A. J. Wensinck (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913–1936. Stanford BRILL. p. 850. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. ^ The contemporary review, Volume 78. Columbus House 43 and 43a Fetter Lane London E.C.: A. Strahan. 1900. p. 260. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of California)
  9. ^ Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger (1898). The history of China, Volume 2. LONDON STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.: W. Thacker & co. p. 443. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)
  10. ^ The Chinese recorder, Volume 26. SHANGHAI: American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1895. p. 452. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of California)
  11. ^ Joseph Esherick (1988). The origins of the Boxer Uprising. Berkely California: University of California Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-520-06459-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Joseph Esherick (1988). The origins of the Boxer Uprising. Berkely California: University of California Press. p. 302. ISBN 0-520-06459-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. ^ Clark, Kenneth G. "THE BOXER UPRISING 1899 – 1900.". Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. ^ "Kansu Soldiers (Tung Fu Hsiang's).". Australian National University. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. EDINBURGH: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)
  16. ^ Lynn E. Bodin (1970). The Boxer Rebellion. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 0-85045-335-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. ^ Peter Harrington, Michael Perry (2001). Peking 1900: the Boxer Rebellion. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1-84176-181-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. ^ Victor Purcell (2010). The Boxer Uprising: A Background Study. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0-521-14812-X. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  19. ^ Chung-hua min kuo kuo chi kuan hsi yen chiu so, 中華民國國際關係硏究所 (1967). Issues & studies, Volume 4, Issues 1–12. Institute of International Relations, Republic of China. p. 8. Retrieved 12 November 2010. 
  20. ^ Fitzpatrick, Caitlin (2006). "Imperial Intrigue: a background guide for the Boxer Rebellion Chinese Imperial Court". COLUMBIA MODEL UNITED NATIONS IN NEW YORK Columbia University. p. 24. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  21. ^ Peter Harrington, Michael Perry (2001). Peking 1900: the Boxer Rebellion. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 1-84176-181-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  22. ^ Sterling Seagrave, Peggy Seagrave (1993). Dragon lady: the life and legend of the last empress of China. Vintage Books. p. 318. ISBN 0-679-73369-8. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  23. ^ Philip Walsingham Sergeant (1910). The great empress dowager of China. LONDON Paternoster Row: Hutchinson & co. p. 231. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from the University of California)
  24. ^ Ching-shan, Jan Julius Lodewijk Duyvendak (1976). The diary of His Excellency Ching-shan: being a Chinese account of the Boxer troubles. University Publications of America. p. 14. ISBN 0-89093-074-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  25. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  26. ^ Lynn E. Bodin (1970). The Boxer Rebellion. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 0-85045-335-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  27. ^ Picture of Muslim soldier
  28. ^ picture of general dong fuxiang
  29. ^ Arthur Henderson Smith (1901). China in convulsion, Volume 2. Albany, N. Y.: F. H. Revell Co. p. 441. Retrieved 2010-06-28. (Original from Harvard University)
  30. ^ Peter Fleming (1990). The Siege at Peking: The Boxer Rebellion. Dorset Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-88029-462-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  31. ^ Arthur Henderson Smith (1901). China in convulsion, Volume 2. F. H. Revell Co. p. 393. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  32. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 169. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  33. ^ Patrick Taveirne (2004). Han-Mongol encounters and missionary endeavors: a history of Scheut in Ordos (Hetao) 1874–1911. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press. p. 515. ISBN 90-5867-365-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  34. ^ Massachusetts Reformatory (Concord, Mass.) (1900). Our paper, Volume 16. Massachusetts Reformatory. p. 795. Retrieved 2011-06-05. (Original from the New York Public Library)
  35. ^ Jane E. Elliott (2002). Some did it for civilisation, some did it for their country: a revised view of the boxer war. Chinese University Press. p. 204. ISBN 962-996-066-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  36. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 894. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  37. ^ University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for Asian Studies (1979). Chinese Republican studies newsletter, Volumes 5–7. p. 35. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 

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