Location of Dongguan in Guangdong
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|City (County-level)||September 1985|
|City (Prefecture-level)||January 1, 1988|
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Xu Jianhua (徐建华)|
|• Mayor||Yuan Baocheng (袁宝成)|
|• Total||2,465 km2 (952 sq mi)|
|Elevation||8 m (26 ft)|
|• Density||3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)|
|• HK & MAC compatriots||1 million|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||粤S|
|- Total||¥ 501.014 billion (2012)|
|- Per capita||¥ 60,694 (2012)|
|City flower||Yulan magnolia
|Cantonese Jyutping||Dung1 gun2|
An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. The three neighboring municipalities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen are home to over 25 million residents, accounting for a large proportion of the Pearl River Delta Region's population. Dongguan's city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment.[who?] Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54 billion in shipments.
In addition to being an important manufacturing hub, the city has also earned a reputation as the "sex capital of China". It is also home to one of the world's largest, though largely empty, shopping malls, New South China Mall.
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 Census)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Guancheng District||莞城区||Guǎnchéng Qū||162,116||13.5||12,008.59|
|31||Shilong Town||石龙镇||Shílóng Zhèn||141,850||11.3||12,553.09|
|4||Wanjiang District||万江区||Wànjiāng Qū||244,765||50.5||4,846.83|
|5||Gaobu Town||高埗镇||Gāobù Zhèn||217,436||30.0||7,247.86|
|6||Zhongtang Town||中堂镇||Zhōngtáng Zhèn||139,563||60.0||2,326.05|
|7||Machong Town||麻涌镇||Máchǒng Zhèn||118,062||74.0||1,595.43|
|8||Wangniudun Town||望牛墩镇||Wàngniúdūn Zhèn||84,786||31.5||2,685.65|
|10||Hongmei Town||洪梅镇||Hóngméi Zhèn||58,114||33.0||1,761.03|
|32||Shijie Town||石碣镇||Shíjié Zhèn||246,960||36.0||6,860.00|
|9||Daojiao Town||道滘镇||Dàojiào Zhèn||143,107||63.0||2,271.53|
|11||Shatian Town||沙田镇||Shātián Zhèn||177,482||107.0||1,658.71|
|12||Houjie Town||厚街镇||Hòujiē Zhèn||438,283||126.0||3,478.43|
|13||Humen Town||虎门镇||Hǔmén Zhèn||638,657||178.5||3,577.91|
|14||Chang'an Town||长安镇||Cháng'ān Zhèn||664,230||97.8||6,791.71|
|2||Dongcheng District||东城区||Dōngchéng Qū||492,875||110.0||4,480.68|
|15||Dalingshan Town||大岭山镇||Dàlǐngshān Zhèn||279,414||110.0||2,540.12|
|16||Dalang Town||大朗镇||Dàlǎng Zhèn||310,889||118.0||2,634.65|
|17||Huangjiang Town||黄江镇||Huángjiāng Zhèn||231,399||98.0||2,361.21|
|28||Liaobu Town||寮步镇||Liáobù Zhèn||418,578||87.5||4783.74|
|19||Fenggang Town||凤岗镇||Fènggǎng Zhèn||318,971||82.5||3,866.31|
|18||Tangxia Town||塘厦镇||Tángxià Zhèn||482,067||128.0||3,766.14|
|20||Qingxi Town||清溪镇||Qīngxī Zhèn||312,639||143.0||2,186.28|
|21||Zhangmutou Town||樟木头镇||Zhāngmùtou Zhèn||132,816||118.8||1,117.97|
|22||Xiegang Town||谢岗镇||Xiègǎng Zhèn||99,387||103.0||964.92|
|3||Nancheng District||南城区||Nánchéng Qū||289,255||59.0||4,902.62|
|23||Changping Town||常平镇||Chángpíng Zhèn||386,378||108.0||3,577.57|
|24||Qiaotou Town||桥头镇||Qiáotóu Zhèn||166,774||56.0||2,978.10|
|25||Qishi Town||企石镇||Qǐshí Zhèn||121,693||51.0||2,386.13|
|26||Hengli Town||横沥镇||Hénglì Zhèn||204,830||50.0||4,096.60|
|27||Dongkeng Town||东坑镇||Dōngkēng Zhèn||138,819||27.5||5,047.96|
|29||Chashan Town||茶山镇||Cháshān Zhèn||156,522||51.0||3,069.05|
|30||Shipai Town||石排镇||Shípái Zhèn||160,202||56.0||2,860.75|
Although the earliest traces of human habitation in the area stretch back 5,000 years, Dongguan's emergence as a true city is a recent phenomenon.
In 1839, at the outset of the First Opium War, large quantities of seized opium were destroyed in Humen, a town that now belongs to Dongguan. Several of the major battles of the war were fought in this area.
Dongguan earned city status in 1985, and was upgraded to prefecture city status three years later. During the period the city changed its focus from an agricultural town into a manufacturing hub, with an average annual growth of up to 18%.
The city ranked 13th in Forbes China's listing of the most innovative mainland cities, as well as 18th in Foreign Policy's listing of the most dynamic cities in the world.
Geographically, the city is mostly hilly to the east and flat in the west, with 115.98 kilometres (72.07 mi) of shoreline.The urban centre of Dongguan is 50 kilometres (31 mi) from that of Guangzhou to its north, 90 kilometres (56 mi) from Shenzhen to its south, 47 nautical miles (87 km) from Hong Kong and 48 nautical miles (89 km) from Macau by waterway. It is positioned in the middle of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen economic corridor, a hub for both land and sea transport.
Of Dongguan's total area, 27% is water, 25% forest land, and 13% arable land, while 35% of its land area has been fully developed.
Dongguan has a humid subtropical climate, with abundant sunshine and rainfall over the year. It lies just south of the Tropic of Cancer. The average temperature is 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) throughout the year with average rainfall of 2,042.6 millimetres (80.42 in).
Dongguan had an estimated 6,949,800 inhabitants at the end of 2008, among whom 1,748,700 were local residents and 5,201,100 permanent migrants from other parts of the country. At the 2010 Census the population had expanded to 8,220,237. The number reached 8.29 million by the end of 2012, with average population age of 30.82.
One can travel from Hong Kong to Dongguan by bus, ferry, or train. Passengers travelling overland must disembark from their transport at the Hong Kong/China border to go through customs and immigration, except for those traveling on the Mass Transit Railway intercity services (former Kowloon-Canton Railway) from Hung Hom Station to Dongguan, Guangzhou and beyond.
The Humen Pearl River Bridge is a suspension bridge over the Pearl River. Completed in 1997, it has a main span of 888 metres (2,913 ft). Construction work on the Second Humen Pearl River Bridge will start in early 2014.
Among the four railway lines (R1-R4) planned for the Dongguan Metro, R2 line is presently under construction and is scheduled to open for operations in early 2015. The R2 Line will link towns in Western Dongguan, thereby promoting the connection of the entire downtown area with Houjie, Humen and Chang’an. It will also support Dongguan's regional transportation with other cities such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong by joining with the rail transit junctions of the Pearl River Delta.
Dongguan is a major manufacturing hub, although it suffered significant loss of economic activity from the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. The largest industrial sector is manufacturing of electronics and communications equipment; international companies with facilities in Dongguan include DuPont, Samsung Electronics, Nokia, Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Maersk.
The Dongguan Science and Technology Museum (opened in December 2005), the high tech commerce park in the Songshan Lake district (opened in 2003) and a partnership with the Global IT Academy of the Brea Olinda Unified School District in Southern California have demonstrated the city's emphasis on attracting technology business. The city also announced in 2005 a planned investment of US$500 million over five years for technology infrastructure improvements. The city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. Among the investments were bringing Brazilian shoemaking industrials as their country had excelled in manufacturing cheap footwear in the 1970s and 80s. The community, which accounted for 1.753 million people in 2013, was at a certain point the largest of Brazilians in China with 4,000 people.
While the city is the third largest export region in China, behind Shanghai and Shenzhen (and a major centre for Taiwanese investment), outside of China, Dongguan has yet to gain the kind of name recognition realized by Shenzhen. This may be because the city has focused on infrastructure investment rather than the directly targeting of major corporations with financial incentives for economic development. Nevertheless, Dongguan has been identified by high level representatives of the National Development and Reform Commission of the central government as one of the most significant growth regions for technology in the coming years. As part of this plan the Dongguan local government has announced a plan to create and support a 100-billion-yuan photovoltaic manufacturing industry by 2015.
To cope with the impact of the financial crisis, Dongguan city is looking to industrial restructuring, focusing on four pillar platforms - governmental services, supporting measures, technology upgrade and market expansion. The city government claims that this process has already enhanced the city’s capability for independent innovation and the quantity of patent applications in 2008.
In Dongguan, manufacturing is prosperous and with a strong tertiary industry and had a total GDP of 501 billion RMB with the scale proportion of the three major industrial sectors standing at 0.4:46.9:52.7 in 2012.
The city is known as "China's sex capital" or China's "sin city", with the prostitution sector — consisting of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sex hotels, sauna centres and karaoke bars — estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry, employing between 500,000 and 800,000 people.
The prostitution sector has mushroomed since the turn of the century and, by 2014, employed around one in ten of the migrant labour force of between 500,000 and 800,000 people, including around 300,000 prostitutes. Sex services are estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry. Another estimate put the sector's contribution at 40 billion yuan — roughly 10 per cent of Dongguan's gross domestic product.
Sports and culture
Dongguan is a “National Basketball City” and is the only prefecture-level city with 3 professional basketball clubs in China. The Guangdong Southern Tigers was the first professional basketball club in China, having won eight Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) championships in the past 10 years.
Dongguan Yulan Theater is one of China’s newest multipurpose performing arts venues. With its multi-layered exterior suggestive of an unfolding lotus petal, it has become a landmark in Dongguan city. The new cultural hub houses two theatres presenting a full schedule of performances, including Romeo and Juliet and the Chinese classic Butterfly Lovers. So far Dongguan has produced 7 original musicals by its own and made a roadshow of 60 performances in over 30 cities of China.
The city and province have been the recent focus of press and journalist attention with coverage of the many young Chinese workers, principally females (so-called factory girls), from agricultural areas who work in the area's factories and manufacturing/assembly facilities, where many are housed in large dormitories, usually several to a room.
An article in the High Tech Misery in China series reports research conducted, over 2008 to 2009, on working conditions at one of the city's major keyboard makers (Dongguan Meitai Plastics & Electronics Factory); in it, Meitai factory won some unwanted attention, due to the disappointing conditions for its young, mostly female workers. The article includes details of those conditions, photos, translations of employer's rules and evidence that well-known computer brands use this keyboard supplier's products.
Dongguan has as well a variety of types of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sauna centres and karaoke bars, the city has more than 120 top-end luxury hotels and hundreds of other mid-range places that offer illegal sexual services or lease floors to sex operators, and many parts of the broader service sector benefit from the trade brought by visitors. Although much of the business is illegal, police operations to limit these activities were for a long time largely ineffective, in part because many members of the local administration and other officials have business interests in the sector.
On 9 February 2014, CCTV aired a report about prostitution in Dongguan. In reaction, on the same day, Dongguan police checked brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sauna centres and karaoke bars, leading to some commentary that the city's days as China's sex capital were numbered.
The City includes 650 educational institutions: one general college, a TV University, technical and vocational schools, 550 primary schools and 480 kindergartens. The number of professional teachers, including those at kindergartens, totals 20,268. A comparatively integrated educational system has been set up including preschool, basic, vocational, higher and lifelong adult education. Senior high school education has developed since 1995. 
Donguan is host to the following annual festivals:
- Dongguan Lingnan Arts Festival (January)
- Dongkeng Workers Festival (Second day of the second lunar month)
- Machong Guanyin Festival (Nineteenth day of the second lunar month)
- Qingxi Flower Festival (April)
- Tea Tea Garden Festival (April)
- Qiaotou Lotus Art Festival (June)
- Qishi Qiufeng Culture Festival (August)
- Machong “Scent of Four Seasons” Cultural Art Festival (September)
- Zhangmutou Hong Kong Tourism Festival (September)
- Fenggang Hakka Art Festival (During the Lunar Mid-autumn Festival)
- Xiegang Mountain Climbing Festival (Third week in September)
- (Tangxia) Band Festival (October);
- Shatian Water Culture Festival (October to November)
- Hengli Niuxu Folk Festival (INovember)
- Liaobu Tourism and Cultural Festival (December)
- List of twin towns and sister cities in China
- Dongguan Leopards basketball team
- Guangdong Southern Tigers basketball team
- Lanwa FC — former football club
- New South China Mall — World's second largest mall
- A Touch of Sin — a film that is partly set in Dongguan
- Tom Phillips (1 May 2013). "Inside Dongguan, China's Sin City". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Palash Ghosh (7 May 2013). "Prostitution Thriving In China: The Dark Underbelly of Economic Prosperity". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Utopia, Part 3: The World’s Largest Shopping Mall, August 18, 2009, Retrieved February 9, 2010
- Dongguan - History, Dongguan Government
- Huizhou City, Dongguan City
- "Weather data of Dongguan". 中国天气网.
- Dongguan Railway Line R2, Dongguantoday
- "Dongguan 'remains processing trade hub'". People's Daily Online. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- He Huifeng (12 October 2013). "Dongguan is city in search of reason to exist". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- "Manufacturing Base'". http://english.dg.gov.cn/. DongGuan Government. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Brasileiros vão à China em busca de emprego, Folha de S. Paulo (Portuguese)
- Custo tira calçadistas brasileiros da China, Folha de S. Paulo (Portuguese)
- "China Market Pulse". The China Perspective. 2011-01-12.
- "Change with innovation for Dongguan city". Dongguan daily digital newspaper. 2008-07-22.
- "Chinese premier pays a visit". NextInsight. 2008-07-22.
- "Welcome to Dongguan, China's revealing capital of sleaze". News.com.au. February 13, 2014.
- Wee, Darren (February 14, 2014). "'Sex capital' Dongguan among top three most romantic cities in China, says Amazon survey". South China Morning Post.
- Phillips, Tom (May 1, 2013). "Inside Dongguan, China's Sin City". Daily Telegraph.
- Crackdown fails to scare Dongguan's sex-trade veterans
- Girlfriends for hire bolster city's economy, SCMP, 21 Aug 2010
- Chang, Leslie T., Factory Girls: From Village to City In A Changing China, New York: Random House (2008), ISBN 978-0-385-52017-1
- The Dehumanization of Young Workers Producing Our Computer Keyboards, New York: The National Labor Committee
http://wen.org.cn/xu/HIGHTECH_MISERY_CHINA_WEB.pdf (Feb 2009, pp 63)
- Party chief vows to crack down but excessive measures will be avoided, SCMP, 26 Nov 2009
- Dzodin, Harvey. "Dongguan's poor reputation hides a city of two tales". Global Times. Global Times. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- 东莞6525名警力查涉黄场所 涉事派出所长全停职
- , Dongguan Government
- Economic data
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dongguan.|
- Dongguan Expats - Expatacular! - Global Expat Community
- Hello! Dongguan A general introduction to the city of DG
- www.dongguantoday.com Government funded website, giving a full range of information about Dongguan
- Here! Dongguan Your English Guide to a Bustling City
- Dongguan Live a.k.a. Don't Worry Be Happy A series of videos about something fun to do in DG
- Dongguan Foreign Investment Promotion Bureau
- Dongguan City Government
- Dongguan Bureau of Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation (Chinese) and (English)
- IATT - International Association for Technology Trade