Dongguan

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Dongguan
东莞市
Prefecture-level city
From top left:Dongguan Central Square (CBD) , Huanghe Commercial Tower, West Gate Tower, Opium War Monument, Yulan Grand Theatre, World Trade Center & Songshan Lake Hi-tech zone.
From top left:Dongguan Central Square (CBD) , Huanghe Commercial Tower, West Gate Tower, Opium War Monument, Yulan Grand Theatre, World Trade Center & Songshan Lake Hi-tech zone.
Location of Dongguan in Guangdong
Location of Dongguan in Guangdong
Dongguan is located in China
Dongguan
Dongguan
Location in China
Coordinates: 23°2′N 113°43′E / 23.033°N 113.717°E / 23.033; 113.717Coordinates: 23°2′N 113°43′E / 23.033°N 113.717°E / 23.033; 113.717
Country People's Republic of China
Province Guangdong
County 331 AD
City (County-level) September 1985
City (Prefecture-level) January 1, 1988
Government
 • CPC Committee Secretary Xu Jianhua (徐建华)
 • Mayor Yuan Baocheng (袁宝成)
Area
 • Total 2,465 km2 (952 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Total 8,220,237
 • Density 3,300/km2 (8,600/sq mi)
 • HK & MAC compatriots 1 million
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 523000
Area code(s) 769
Licence plate prefixes 粤S
- Total ¥ 501.014 billion (2012)
- Per capita ¥ 60,694 (2012)
City flower Yulan magnolia
Magnolia denudata
Website http://www.dg.gov.cn/
Dongguan
Simplified Chinese 东莞
Traditional Chinese 東莞
Cantonese Jyutping Dung1 gun2
Cantonese Yale Dūnggún
Hanyu Pinyin Dōngguǎn
Postal Map Tungkun
Literal meaning Smiling east

Dongguan (Chinese: 东莞) is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong province, People's Republic of China.

An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. The three neighboring municipalities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen are home to over 25 million residents, accounting for a large proportion of the Pearl River Delta Region's population. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment.[who?] Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54 billion in shipments.[citation needed]

In addition to being an important manufacturing hub, the city has also earned a reputation as the "sex capital of China".[1][2] It is also home to one of the world's largest, though largely empty, shopping malls, New South China Mall.[3]

Administration[edit]

Dongguan has no intermediate county level but instead is divided into 32 towns each of which possesses its own distinct characteristics:

Map
Dongguan mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 Census) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Chengzhen Area 303,966 24.8 12,256.69
1 Guancheng District 莞城区 Guǎnchéng Qū 162,116 13.5 12,008.59
31 Shilong Town 石龙镇 Shílóng Zhèn 141,850 11.3 12,553.09
Shuixiang Area 1,109,686 315.0 3,522.81
4 Wanjiang District 万江区 Wànjiāng Qū 244,765 50.5 4,846.83
5 Gaobu Town 高埗镇 Gāobù Zhèn 217,436 30.0 7,247.86
6 Zhongtang Town 中堂镇 Zhōngtáng Zhèn 139,563 60.0 2,326.05
7 Machong Town 麻涌镇 Máchǒng Zhèn 118,062 74.0 1,595.43
8 Wangniudun Town 望牛墩镇 Wàngniúdūn Zhèn 84,786 31.5 2,685.65
10 Hongmei Town 洪梅镇 Hóngméi Zhèn 58,114 33.0 1,761.03
32 Shijie Town 石碣镇 Shíjié Zhèn 246,960 36.0 6,860.00
Yanhai Area 2,061,759 572.3 3,602.58
9 Daojiao Town 道滘镇 Dàojiào Zhèn 143,107 63.0 2,271.53
11 Shatian Town 沙田镇 Shātián Zhèn 177,482 107.0 1,658.71
12 Houjie Town 厚街镇 Hòujiē Zhèn 438,283 126.0 3,478.43
13 Humen Town 虎门镇 Hǔmén Zhèn 638,657 178.5 3,577.91
14 Chang'an Town 长安镇 Cháng'ān Zhèn 664,230 97.8 6,791.71
Qiuling Area 1,733,155 523.5 3,310.70
2 Dongcheng District 东城区 Dōngchéng Qū 492,875 110.0 4,480.68
15 Dalingshan Town 大岭山镇 Dàlǐngshān Zhèn 279,414 110.0 2,540.12
16 Dalang Town 大朗镇 Dàlǎng Zhèn 310,889 118.0 2,634.65
17 Huangjiang Town 黄江镇 Huángjiāng Zhèn 231,399 98.0 2,361.21
28 Liaobu Town 寮步镇 Liáobù Zhèn 418,578 87.5 4783.74
Shanqu Area 1,345,880 575.3 2,339.44
19 Fenggang Town 凤岗镇 Fènggǎng Zhèn 318,971 82.5 3,866.31
18 Tangxia Town 塘厦镇 Tángxià Zhèn 482,067 128.0 3,766.14
20 Qingxi Town 清溪镇 Qīngxī Zhèn 312,639 143.0 2,186.28
21 Zhangmutou Town 樟木头镇 Zhāngmùtou Zhèn 132,816 118.8 1,117.97
22 Xiegang Town 谢岗镇 Xiègǎng Zhèn 99,387 103.0 964.92
Putian Area 1,624,473 458.5 3,543.01
3 Nancheng District 南城区 Nánchéng Qū 289,255 59.0 4,902.62
23 Changping Town 常平镇 Chángpíng Zhèn 386,378 108.0 3,577.57
24 Qiaotou Town 桥头镇 Qiáotóu Zhèn 166,774 56.0 2,978.10
25 Qishi Town 企石镇 Qǐshí Zhèn 121,693 51.0 2,386.13
26 Hengli Town 横沥镇 Hénglì Zhèn 204,830 50.0 4,096.60
27 Dongkeng Town 东坑镇 Dōngkēng Zhèn 138,819 27.5 5,047.96
29 Chashan Town 茶山镇 Cháshān Zhèn 156,522 51.0 3,069.05
30 Shipai Town 石排镇 Shípái Zhèn 160,202 56.0 2,860.75

History[edit]

Although the earliest traces of human habitation in the area stretch back 5,000 years, Dongguan's emergence as a true city is a recent phenomenon.

In 1839, at the outset of the First Opium War, large quantities of seized opium were burned in the local town of Humen. Several of the major battles of the war were fought in this area.

During the Second World War, the city served as the base for guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation.[4]

Dongguan earned city status in 1985, and was upgraded to prefecture city status three years later. During the period the city changed its focus from an agricultural town into a manufacturing hub, with an average annual growth of up to 18%.[5]

The city ranked 13th in Forbes China's listing of the most innovative mainland cities, as well as 18th in Foreign Policy's listing of the most dynamic cities in the world.

Geography[edit]

Guan Yin Shan (Kuan Yin Mountain) in Dongguan, China

Geographically, the city is mostly hilly to the east and flat in the west, with 115.98 kilometres (72.07 mi) of shoreline.The urban centre of Dongguan is 50 kilometres (31 mi) from that of Guangzhou to its north, 90 kilometres (56 mi) from Shenzhen to its south, 47 nautical miles (87 km) from Hong Kong and 48 nautical miles (89 km) from Macau by waterway. It is positioned in the middle of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen economic corridor, a hub for both land and sea transport.

Of Dongguan's total area, 27% is water, 25% forest land, and 13% arable land, while 35% of its land area has been fully developed.

Climate[edit]

Dongguan has a humid subtropical climate, with abundant sunshine and rainfall over the year. It lies just south of the Tropic of Cancer. The average temperature is 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) throughout the year with average rainfall of 2,042.6 millimetres (80.42 in).[6]

Demographics[edit]

DG residential property

Dongguan had an estimated 6,949,800 inhabitants at the end of 2008, among whom 1,748,700 were local residents and 5,201,100 permanent migrants from other parts of the country.[7] At the 2010 Census the population had expanded to 8,220,237.[8] The number reached 8.29 million by the end of 2012, with average population age of 30.82.

Dongguan is also a known hometown for many overseas Chinese, the family origin of over 700,000 people in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau and over 200,000 nationals living abroad.

Transport[edit]

Dongguan traffic

Many foreign travellers to Dongguan fly into Hong Kong, which gives visa on arrival to citizens of over 170 countries. After landing, visitors must apply for a visa to enter mainland China.

One can travel from Hong Kong to Dongguan by bus, ferry, or train. Passengers travelling overland must disembark from their transport at the Hong Kong/China border to go through customs and immigration, except for those traveling on the Mass Transit Railway intercity services (former Kowloon-Canton Railway) from Hung Hom Station to Dongguan, Guangzhou and beyond.

Dongguan serves as one of the regional railway hubs in Guangdong, where the Guangzhou-Kowloon Railway, Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou Railway and the Beijing-Kowloon converge.

Rail services in and out of the city call at Dongguan railway station where there are direct train services to Guangzhou East railway station in Guangzhou; and Hung Hom Railway station in Hong Kong.

The Humen Pearl River Bridge is a suspension bridge over the Pearl River. Completed in 1997, it has a main span of 888 metres (2,913 ft). Construction work on the Second Humen Pearl River Bridge will start in early 2014.

Among the four railway lines (R1-R4) planned for the Dongguan Metro, R2 line is presently under construction and is scheduled to open for operations in early 2015. The R2 Line will link towns in Western Dongguan, thereby promoting the connection of the entire downtown area with Houjie, Humen and Chang’an. It will also support Dongguan's regional transportation with other cities such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong by joining with the rail transit junctions of the Pearl River Delta.[9]

Economy[edit]

Dongguan developing CBD
Dongguan developing CBD

Dongguan is a major manufacturing hub, although it suffered significant loss of economic activity from the impact of the 2008 financial crisis.[10][11] The largest industrial sector is manufacturing of electronics and communications equipment; international companies with facilities in Dongguan include DuPont, Samsung Electronics, Nokia, Coca-Cola, Nestlé and Maersk.[12]

The Dongguan Science & Technology Museum (opened in December 2005), the high tech commerce park in the Songshan Lake district (opened in 2003) and a partnership with the Global IT Academy of the Brea Olinda Unified School District in Southern California have demonstrated the city's emphasis on attracting technology business. The city also announced in 2005 a planned investment of US$500 million over five years for technology infrastructure improvements. The city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment.[citation needed] Among the investments were bringing Brazilian shoemaking industrials as their country had excelled in manufacturing cheap footwear in the 1970s and 80s. The community, which accounted for 1.753 million people in 2013, was at a certain point the largest of Brazilians in China with 4,000 people.[13][14]

While the city is the third largest export region in China, behind Shanghai and Shenzhen (and a major centre for Taiwanese investment), outside of China, Dongguan has yet to gain the kind of name recognition realized by Shenzhen. This may be because the city has focused on infrastructure investment rather than the directly targeting of major corporations with financial incentives for economic development. Nevertheless, Dongguan has been identified by high level representatives of the National Development and Reform Commission of the central government as one of the most significant growth regions for technology in the coming years. As part of this plan the Dongguan local government has announced a plan to create and support a 100-billion-yuan photovoltaic manufacturing industry by 2015.[15]

To cope with the impact of the financial crisis, Dongguan city is looking to industrial restructuring, focusing on four pillar platforms - governmental services, supporting measures, technology upgrade and market expansion. The city government claims that this process has already enhanced the city’s capability for independent innovation and the quantity of patent applications in 2008.[16][17]

In Dongguan, manufacturing is prosperous and with a strong tertiary industry and had a total GDP of 501 billion RMB with the scale proportion of the three major industrial sectors standing at 0.4:46.9:52.7 in 2012.[18]

The city is known as "China's sex capital", with the prostitution sector - consisting of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sex hotels, sauna centres and karaoke bars - estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry, employing between 500,000 and 800,000 people.[19]

The prostitution sector has mushroomed since the turn of the century, and by 2014 employed around one in ten of the migrant labour force of between 500,000 and 800,000 people, including around 300,000 prostitutes, and is estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry. Another estimate put the sector's contribution at 40 billion yuan - roughly 10 per cent of Dongguan's gross domestic product.[20]

Sports and culture[edit]

Yulan Grand Theatre

Dongguan is a “National Basketball City” and is the only prefecture-level city with 3 professional basketball clubs in China. The Guangdong Southern Tigers was the first professional basketball club in China, having won eight Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) championships in the past 10 years.

Dongguan Yulan Theater is one of China’s newest multipurpose performing arts venues. With its multi-layered exterior suggestive of an unfolding lotus petal, it has become a landmark in Dongguan city. The new cultural hub houses two theatres presenting a full schedule of performances, including Romeo and Juliet and the Chinese classic Butterfly Lovers. So far Dongguan has produced 7 original musicals by its own and made a roadshow of 60 performances in over 30 cities of China.[21]

Social issues[edit]

The city and province have been the recent focus of press and journalist attention with coverage of the many young Chinese workers, principally females (so-called factory girls), from agricultural areas who work in the area's factories and manufacturing/assembly facilities, where many are housed in large dormitories, usually several to a room.[22]

An article in the High Tech Misery in China series reports research conducted, over 2008 to 2009, on working conditions at one of the city's major keyboard makers (Dongguan Meitai Plastics & Electronics Factory); in it, Meitai factory won some unwanted attention, due to the disappointing conditions for its young, mostly female workers. The article[23] includes details of those conditions, photos, translations of employer's rules and evidence that well-known computer brands use this keyboard supplier's products.

Dongguan has as well a variety of types of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sauna centres and karaoke bars, the city has more than 120 top-end luxury hotels and hundreds of other mid-range places that offer illegal sexual services or lease floors to sex operators, and many parts of the broader service sector benefit from the trade brought by visitors. Although much of the business is illegal, police operations to limit these activities were for a long time largely ineffective, in part because many members of the local administration and other officials have business interests in the sector.[19][24][25]

On 9 February 2014, CCTV aired a report about prostitution in Dongguan. In reaction, on the same day, Dongguan police checked brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sauna centres and karaoke bars, leading to some commentary that the city's days as China's sex capital were numbered.[26]

Education[edit]

The City possesses 650 all kinds of schools, among which 1 general college, 1 TV University, technical schools and vocational schools and 550 primary schools, besides are 480 kindergartens. The number of professional teachers of all kinds of schools including kindergartens is 20,268. From preschool education, basic education, vocational education, higher education to lifelong adult education, a comparative integrated and harmonious educational system has been basically set up. Senior high school education has been popularized since the year 1995. [27]

Festivals[edit]

Donguan is host to the following annual festivals:[28]

  • Dongguan Lingnan Arts Festival (January)
  • Dongkeng Workers Festival (Second day of the second lunar month)
  • Machong Guanyin Festival (Nineteenth day of the second lunar month)
  • Qingxi Flower Festival (April)
  • Tea Tea Garden Festival (April)
  • Qiaotou Lotus Art Festival (June)
  • Qishi Qiufeng Culture Festival (August)
  • Machong “Scent of Four Seasons” Cultural Art Festival (September)
  • Zhangmutou Hong Kong Tourism Festival (September)
  • Fenggang Hakka Art Festival (During the Lunar Mid-autumn Festival)
  • Xiegang Mountain Climbing Festival (Third week in September)
  • (Tangxia) Band Festival (October);
  • Shatian Water Culture Festival (October to November)
  • Hengli Niuxu Folk Festival (INovember)
  • Liaobu Tourism and Cultural Festival (December)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tom Phillips (1 May 2013). "Inside Dongguan, China's Sin City". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Palash Ghosh (7 May 2013). "Prostitution Thriving In China: The Dark Underbelly of Economic Prosperity". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  3. ^ Utopia, Part 3: The World’s Largest Shopping Mall, August 18, 2009, Retrieved February 9, 2010
  4. ^ Dongguan - History, Dongguan Government
  5. ^ Huizhou City, Dongguan City
  6. ^ "Weather data of Dongguan". 中国天气网. 
  7. ^ http://english.dg.gov.cn/POPULATION.htm
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Dongguan Railway Line R2, Dongguantoday
  10. ^ "Dongguan 'remains processing trade hub'". People's Daily Online. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  11. ^ He Huifeng (12 October 2013). "Dongguan is city in search of reason to exist". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Manufacturing Base'". http://english.dg.gov.cn/. DongGuan Government. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Brasileiros vão à China em busca de emprego, Folha de S. Paulo (Portuguese)
  14. ^ Custo tira calçadistas brasileiros da China, Folha de S. Paulo (Portuguese)
  15. ^ "China Market Pulse". The China Perspective. 2011-01-12. 
  16. ^ "Change with innovation for Dongguan city". Dongguan daily digital newspaper. 2008-07-22. 
  17. ^ "Chinese premier pays a visit". NextInsight. 2008-07-22. 
  18. ^ http://en.hellodongguan.com/upload/accessory/20138/20138517273120578.pdf
  19. ^ a b Crackdown fails to scare Dongguan's sex-trade veterans
  20. ^ Girlfriends for hire bolster city's economy, SCMP, 21 Aug 2010
  21. ^ http://culture.sun0769.com/daguan/news/201311/t20131119_3054997.shtml
  22. ^ Chang, Leslie T., Factory Girls: From Village to City In A Changing China, New York: Random House (2008), ISBN 978-0-385-52017-1
  23. ^ The Dehumanization of Young Workers Producing Our Computer Keyboards, New York: The National Labor Committee
    http://www.nlcnet.org/admin/media/document/China/2009_meitai/HIGHTECH_MISERY_CHINA_WEB.pdf
    http://wen.org.cn/xu/HIGHTECH_MISERY_CHINA_WEB.pdf (Feb 2009, pp 63)
  24. ^ Party chief vows to crack down but excessive measures will be avoided, SCMP, 26 Nov 2009
  25. ^ Dzodin, Harvey. "Dongguan's poor reputation hides a city of two tales". Global Times. Global Times. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  26. ^ 东莞6525名警力查涉黄场所 涉事派出所长全停职
  27. ^ [2], Dongguan Government
  28. ^ [3]
Economic data

External links[edit]