|— Prefecture-level city —|
|Central Business District), Humen Pearl River Bridge, & Keyuan|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Xu Jianhua (徐建华)|
|• Mayor||Yuan Baocheng (袁宝成)|
|• Total||2,465 km2 (952 sq mi)|
|• Density||3,300/km2 ( 8,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||粤S|
|- Total||¥ 424.6 billion (2010)|
|- Per capita||¥ 53,285 (2008)|
|City flower||Yulan magnolia
|Cantonese Jyutping||Dung1 gun2|
|Literal meaning||Smiling east|
An important industrial city located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west.
The city is known as "China's sex capital", with the prostitution sector - consisting of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sex hotels, sauna centres and karaoke bars - estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry, employing between 500,000 and 800,000 people.
It is also home to the world's largest, though mostly empty, shopping mall, New South China Mall. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. The three neighboring municipalities of Guangzhou, Dongguan, and Shenzhen are home to over 25 million residents, accounting for a large proportion of the Pearl River Delta Region's population.
Dongguan has no intermediate county level; instead it is divided into:
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 Census)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Guancheng District||莞城区||Guǎnchéng Qū||162,116||13.5||12,008.59|
|31||Shilong Town||石龙镇||Shílóng Zhèn||141,850||11.3||12,553.09|
|4||Wanjiang District||万江区||Wànjiāng Qū||244,765||50.5||4,846.83|
|5||Gaobu Town||高埗镇||Gāobù Zhèn||217,436||30.0||7,247.86|
|6||Zhongtang Town||中堂镇||Zhōngtáng Zhèn||139,563||60.0||2,326.05|
|7||Machong Town||麻涌镇||Máchǒng Zhèn||118,062||74.0||1,595.43|
|8||Wangniudun Town||望牛墩镇||Wàngniúdūn Zhèn||84,786||31.5||2,685.65|
|10||Hongmei Town||洪梅镇||Hóngméi Zhèn||58,114||33.0||1,761.03|
|32||Shijie Town||石碣镇||Shíjié Zhèn||246,960||36.0||6,860.00|
|9||Daojiao Town||道滘镇||Dàojiào Zhèn||143,107||63.0||2,271.53|
|11||Shatian Town||沙田镇||Shātián Zhèn||177,482||107.0||1,658.71|
|12||Houjie Town||厚街镇||Hòujiē Zhèn||438,283||126.0||3,478.43|
|13||Humen Town||虎门镇||Hǔmén Zhèn||638,657||178.5||3,577.91|
|14||Chang'an Town||长安镇||Cháng'ān Zhèn||664,230||97.8||6,791.71|
|2||Dongcheng District||东城区||Dōngchéng Qū||492,875||110.0||4,480.68|
|15||Dalingshan Town||大岭山镇||Dàlǐngshān Zhèn||279,414||110.0||2,540.12|
|16||Dalang Town||大朗镇||Dàlǎng Zhèn||310,889||118.0||2,634.65|
|17||Huangjiang Town||黄江镇||Huángjiāng Zhèn||231,399||98.0||2,361.21|
|28||Liaobu Town||寮步镇||Liáobù Zhèn||418,578||87.5||4783.74|
|19||Fenggang Town||凤岗镇||Fènggǎng Zhèn||318,971||82.5||3,866.31|
|18||Tangxia Town||塘厦镇||Tángxià Zhèn||482,067||128.0||3,766.14|
|20||Qingxi Town||清溪镇||Qīngxī Zhèn||312,639||143.0||2,186.28|
|21||Zhangmutou Town||樟木头镇||Zhāngmùtou Zhèn||132,816||118.8||1,117.97|
|22||Xiegang Town||谢岗镇||Xiègǎng Zhèn||99,387||103.0||964.92|
|3||Nancheng District||南城区||Nánchéng Qū||289,255||59.0||4,902.62|
|23||Changping Town||常平镇||Chángpíng Zhèn||386,378||108.0||3,577.57|
|24||Qiaotou Town||桥头镇||Qiáotóu Zhèn||166,774||56.0||2,978.10|
|25||Qishi Town||企石镇||Qǐshí Zhèn||121,693||51.0||2,386.13|
|26||Hengli Town||横沥镇||Hénglì Zhèn||204,830||50.0||4,096.60|
|27||Dongkeng Town||东坑镇||Dōngkēng Zhèn||138,819||27.5||5,047.96|
|29||Chashan Town||茶山镇||Cháshān Zhèn||156,522||51.0||3,069.05|
|30||Shipai Town||石排镇||Shípái Zhèn||160,202||56.0||2,860.75|
Although the earliest traces of human habitation in the area stretch back 5,000 years, Dongguan's emergence as a true city is a recent phenonomenon.
The urban centre of Dongguan is 50 km away from that of Guangzhou to its north, 90 km away from Shenzhen to its south, 47 nautical miles (87 km) away from Hong Kong and 48 nautical miles (89 km) from Macau by waterway. Dongguan is a must-pass-by locality from Guangzhou to Hong Kong by road or waterway.
Of the total area of Dongguan, 27% is water, 25% forest land, and 13% ploughed land, while 35% of its land area has been fully developed.
The climate of Dongguan is humid subtropical. It lies just south of the Tropic of Cancer. The average temperature is 22.8 °C (73.0 °F) throughout the year. The average rainfall is 1,756.8 millimetres (69.17 in).
Dongguan had an estimated 6,949,800 inhabitants at the end of 2008, among whom 1,748,700 were local residents and 5,201,100 permanent migrants from other parts of the country. At the 2010 Census the population had reached 8,220,237.
One can travel from Hong Kong to Dongguan by bus, ferry, or train. Passengers travelling overland must disembark from their transport at the Hong Kong/China border to go through customs and immigration, except for those traveling on the Mass Transit Railway intercity services (former Kowloon-Canton Railway) from Hung Hom Station to Dongguan, Guangzhou and beyond.
Depending on the time of day, using the ferry may be the most convenient way to travel from Hong Kong, as it allows one to avoid long queues at the land border checkpoint between Hong Kong and mainland China.
The city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment.
The Dongguan Science & Technology Museum (opened in December 2005), the high tech commerce park in the SongShan Lake district (which debuted in 2003) and a partnership with the Global IT Academy of the Brea Olinda Unified School District in Southern California have demonstrated the city's emphasis on attracting technology business. The city also announced in 2005 a planned investment of US$500 million over five years for technology infrastructure improvements.
The city and province have been the recent focus of press and journalist attention with coverage of the arrival of teenaged Chinese workers, principally females (so-called factory girls), from agricultural areas to work in the area's factories and manufacturing/assembly facilities, where many are housed in large domitories, usually several to a room.
An article in the High Tech Misery in China series reports research conducted, over 2008 to 2009, on working conditions at one of the city's major keyboard makers (Dongguan Meitai Plastics & Electronics Factory); in it, Meitai factory won some unwanted attention, due to the disappointing conditions for its young, mostly female workers. The PDF article includes details of those conditions, photos, translations of employer's rules and evidence that well-known computer brands use this keyboard supplier's products.
The city's prostitution sector has mushroomed since the turn of the century, and now employs around one in ten of the enormous migrant labour force, between 500,000 and 800,000 people, including around 300,000 prostitutes, and is estimated to contribute 20 to 30 per cent of the total output of the city's service industry. Another estimate puts the sector's contribution at 40 billion yuan - roughly 10 per cent of Dongguan's gross domestic product. As well as variety of types of brothels, massage parlours, nightclubs, sauna centres and karaoke bars, the city has more than 120 top-end luxury hotels and hundreds of other mid-range places that offer illegal sexual services or lease floors to sex operators, and many parts of the broader service sector benefit from the trade brought by visitors. Although much of the business is illegal, police operations to limit it have been ineffectual, in part because many members of the local administration and other officials have business interests in it themselves.
While the city is the third largest exporting region in China, behind Shanghai and Shenzhen (and a major centre for Taiwanese investment), outside of China, Dongguan has yet to gain the kind of name recognition realized by Shenzhen (just an hour away, and downriver from Dongguan). This may be because the city has emphasised investing in infrastructure, rather than directly targeting major corporations with financial incentives for economic development. Still, Dongguan has been identified by high level representatives of the National Development and Reform Commission of the central government as one of the most significant growth regions for technology in the coming years. As part of this plan the Dongguan local government has announced a plan to create and support a 100-billion-yuan photovoltaic manufacturing industry by 2015.
To cope with the impact of financial crisis, Dongguan city is looking to industrial restructuring, focusing on four pillar platforms - governmental services, supporting measures, technology upgrade and market expansion. The city government claims that this process has already enhanced the city’s capability of independent innovation and the quantity of patent applications in 2008.
International relations 
Twin towns and sister cities 
Dongguan is twinned with:
- Hartford, Connecticut, United States since (5 March 2001) 
- Thessaloniki, Greece since (24 October 2008) 
See also 
- Dongguan New Century
- Guangdong Southern Tigers
- Lanwa FC plays in the Hong Kong, not Chinese, football pyramid
- New South China Mall: World's second largest mall.
- Crackdown fails to scare Dongguan's sex-trade veterans
- "Livable Dongguan". Liveable.dg.gov.cn. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Dongguan - History, Dongguan Government
- "Livable Dongguan". Liveable.dg.gov.cn. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
- Chang, Leslie T., Factory Girls: From Village to City In A Changing China, New York: Random House (2008), ISBN 978-0-385-52017-1
- The Dehumanization of Young Workers Producing Our Computer Keyboards, New York: The National Labor Committee
http://wen.org.cn/xu/HIGHTECH_MISERY_CHINA_WEB.pdf (Feb 2009, pp 63)
- Girlfriends for hire bolster city's economy, SCMP, 21 Aug 2010
- Party chief vows to crack down but excessive measures will be avoided, SCMP, 26 Nov 2009
- "China Market Pulse". The China Perspective. 2011-01-12.
- "Change with innovation for Dongguan city". Dongguan daily digital newspaper. 2008-07-22.
- "Chinese premier pays a visit". NextInsight. 2008-07-22.
- "Donguan Forges Sister-city Relations With Hartford". People's Daily. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Dongguan and Thessaloniki Formed Sisterhood (in Chinese)". City of Dongguan. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Economic data
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dongguan|
- Dongguan City Government (Chinese) and (English)
- www.dongguantoday.com Government funded website, giving a full range of information about Dongguan (Chinese) and (English)
- Dongguan Bureau of Foreign Trade & Economic Cooperation (Chinese) and (English)
- IATT - International Association for Technology Trade
- Expats in Dongguan - Expatacular - Expat Community