Dopamine receptor

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Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). The neurotransmitter dopamine is the primary endogenous ligand for dopamine receptors.

Dopamine receptors are implicated in many neurological processes, including motivation, pleasure, cognition, memory, learning, and fine motor control, as well as modulation of neuroendocrine signaling. Abnormal dopamine receptor signaling and dopaminergic nerve function is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders.[1] Thus, dopamine receptors are common neurologic drug targets; antipsychotics are often dopamine receptor antagonists while psychostimulants are typically indirect agonists of dopamine receptors.

Dopamine receptor subtypes[edit]

The existence of multiple types of receptors for dopamine was first proposed in 1976.[2][3] There are at least five subtypes of dopamine receptors, D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. The D1 and D5 receptors are members of the D1-like family of dopamine receptors, whereas the D2, D3 and D4 receptors are members of the D2-like family. There is also some evidence that suggests the existence of possible D6 and D7 dopamine receptors, but such receptors have not been conclusively identified.[4]

At a global level, D1 receptors have widespread expression throughout the brain. Furthermore, D1-2 receptor subtypes are found at 10-100 times the levels of the D3-5 subtypes.[5]

D1-like family[edit]

Activation of D1-like family receptors is coupled to the G protein G, which subsequently activates adenylyl cyclase, increasing the intracellular concentration of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).[citation needed]

D2-like family[edit]

Activation of D2-like family receptors is coupled to the G protein G, which directly inhibits the formation of cAMP by inhibiting the enzyme adenylyl cyclase.[6]

  • D2 is encoded by the Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2), of which there are two forms: D2Sh (short) and D2Lh (long):
    • The D2Sh form is pre-synaptically situated, having modulatory functions (viz., autoreceptors, which regulate neurotransmission via feedback mechanisms. It affects synthesis, storage, and release of dopamine into the synaptic cleft).[7]
    • The D2Lh form may function as a classical post-synaptic receptor, i.e., transmit information (in either an excitatory or an inhibitory fashion) unless blocked by a receptor antagonist or a synthetic partial agonist.[7]

Receptor heteromers[edit]

Dopamine receptors have been shown to heterodimerize with a number of other G protein-coupled receptors.[13] The resulting dopamine receptor heterodimers include:[13]

Role of dopamine receptors in the central nervous system[edit]

Dopamine receptors control neural signaling that modulates many important behaviors, such as spatial working memory.[14] Although dopamine receptors are widely distributed in the brain, different areas have different receptor types densities.[citation needed]

Non-CNS dopamine receptors[edit]

Cardio-pulmonary system[edit]

In humans, the pulmonary artery expresses D1, D2, D4, and D5 and receptor subtypes, which may account for vasodilatory effects of dopamine in the blood.[15] In rats, D1-like receptors are present on the smooth muscle of the blood vessels in most major organs.[16]

D4 receptors have been identified in the atria of rat and human hearts.[17] Dopamine increases myocardial contractility and cardiac output, without changing heart rate, by signaling through dopamine receptors.[4]

Renal system[edit]

Dopamine receptors are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells showing the highest density.[16] In rats, D1-like receptors are present on the juxtaglomerular apparatus and on renal tubules, while D2-like receptors are present on the glomeruli, zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex, renal tubules, and postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals.[16] Dopamine signaling affects diuresis and natriuresis.[4]

Dopamine receptors in disease[edit]

Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including social phobia,[18] Tourette's syndrome,[19] Parkinson's disease,[20] schizophrenia,[19] neuroleptic malignant syndrome,[21] attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),[22] and drug and alcohol dependence.[19][23]

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]

Dopamine receptors have been recognized as important components in the etiology of ADHD for many years. Drugs used to treat ADHD, including methylphenidate and amphetamine, have significant effects on neuronal dopamine signaling. Studies of gene association have implicated several genes within dopamine signaling pathways; in particular, the D4.7 variant of D4 has been consistently shown to be more frequent in ADHD patients.[24] ADHD patients with the 4.7 allele also tend to have better cognitive performance and long-term outcomes compared to ADHD patients without the 4.7 allele, suggesting that the allele is associated with a more benign form of ADHD.[24]

The D4.7 allele has suppressed gene expression compared to other variants.[25]

Addictive drugs[edit]

Main article: ΔFosB

Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the reward pathway in the brain. Thus, drugs that increase dopamine signaling may produce euphoric effects. Many recreational drugs, such as cocaine and substituted amphetamines, inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT), the protein responsible for removing dopamine from the neural synapse. When DAT activity is blocked, the synapse floods with dopamine and increases dopaminergic signaling. When this occurs, particularly in the nucleus accumbens,[26] increased D1[23] and decreased D2[26] receptor signaling mediates the "rewarding" stimulus of drug intake.[26]

Schizophrenia[edit]

While there is evidence that the dopamine system is involved in schizophrenia, the theory that hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction induces the disease is controversial. Psychostimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine, indirectly increase dopamine signaling; large doses and prolonged use can induce symptoms that resemble schizophrenia. Additionally, many antipsychotic drugs target dopamine receptors, especially D2 receptors.

Genetic hypertension[edit]

Dopamine receptor mutations can cause genetic hypertension in humans.[27] This can occur in animal models and humans with defective dopamine receptor activity, particularly D1.[16]

Dopamine regulation[edit]

Dopamine receptors are typically stable, however sharp (and sometimes prolonged) increases or decreases in dopamine levels can downregulate (reduce the numbers of) or upregulate (increase the numbers of) dopamine receptors. With stimulants, downregulation of DRD1 is typically associated with loss of interest in pleasureable activities, shortened attention span, and drug seeking behavior. With antipsychotics, associated D2-like receptor upregulation can cause temporary dyskinesia, or tardive dyskinesia (fine muscles e.g. facial muscles, twitch involuntarily).[medical citation needed]

Haloperidol, and some other antipsychotics, have been shown to increase the binding capacity of the D2 receptor when used over long periods of time (i.e. increasing the number of such receptors).[28] Haloperidol increased the number of binding sites by 98% above baseline in the worst cases, and yielded significant dyskinesia side effects.

Addictive stimuli have variable effects on dopamine receptors, depending on the particular stimulus.[29] According to one study,[30] cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, alcohol, and nicotine cause decreases in D2 receptor quantity. A similar association has been linked to food addiction, with a low availability of dopamine receptors present in people with greater food intake.[31][32] A recent news article[33] summarized a U.S. DOE Brookhaven National Laborotory study showing that increasing dopamine receptors with genetic therapy temporarily decreased cocaine consumption by up to 75%. The treatment was effective for 6 days. Cocaine upregulates D3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens, possibly contributing to drug seeking behavior.[34]

Certain stimulants will enhance cognition in the general population (e.g., direct or indirect mesocortical DRD1 agonists as a class), but only when used at low (therapeutic) concentrations.[35][36][37] Relatively high doses of dopaminergic stimulants will result in cognitive deficits.[36][37]

Summary of addiction-related plasticity
Form of neural or behavioral plasticity Type of reinforcer Sources
Opiates Psycho­stimulants High fat or sugar food Sexual reward Physical exercise
(aerobic)
Environmental
enrichment
ΔFosB expression in
nucleus accumbens D1-type MSNs
[29]
Behavioral plasticity
Escalation of intake Yes Yes Yes [29]
Psychostimulant
cross-sensitization
Yes Not applicable Yes Yes Attenuated Attenuated [29]
Psychostimulant
self-administration
[29]
Psychostimulant
conditioned place preference
[29]
Reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior [29]
Neurochemical plasticity
CREB phosphorylation
in the nucleus accumbens
[29]
Sensitized dopamine response
in the nucleus accumbens
No Yes No Yes [29]
Altered striatal dopamine signaling DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD1, ↓DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD1, ↓DRD2, ↑DRD3 DRD2 DRD2 [29]
Altered striatal opioid signaling μ-opioid receptors μ-opioid receptors
κ-opioid receptors
μ-opioid receptors μ-opioid receptors No change No change [29]
Changes in striatal opioid peptides dynorphin dynorphin enkephalin dynorphin dynorphin [29]
Mesocorticolimbic synaptic plasticity
Number of dendrites in the nucleus accumbens [29]
Dendritic spine density in
the nucleus accumbens
[29]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

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  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Olsen CM (December 2011). "Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions". Neuropharmacology 61 (7): 1109–1122. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.03.010. PMC 3139704. PMID 21459101. Cross-sensitization is also bidirectional, as a history of amphetamine administration facilitates sexual behavior and enhances the associated increase in NAc DA ... As described for food reward, sexual experience can also lead to activation of plasticity-related signaling cascades. The transcription factor delta FosB is increased in the NAc, PFC, dorsal striatum, and VTA following repeated sexual behavior (Wallace et al., 2008; Pitchers et al., 2010b). This natural increase in delta FosB or viral overexpression of delta FosB within the NAc modulates sexual performance, and NAc blockade of delta FosB attenuates this behavior (Hedges et al, 2009; Pitchers et al., 2010b). Further, viral overexpression of delta FosB enhances the conditioned place preference for an environment paired with sexual experience (Hedges et al., 2009). ... In some people, there is a transition from “normal” to compulsive engagement in natural rewards (such as food or sex), a condition that some have termed behavioral or non-drug addictions (Holden, 2001; Grant et al., 2006a). ... In humans, the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a dopamine dysregulation syndrome in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs. This syndrome is characterized by a medication-induced increase in (or compulsive) engagement in non-drug rewards such as gambling, shopping, or sex (Evans et al, 2006; Aiken, 2007; Lader, 2008)."
     Table 1"
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  33. ^ "Gene Therapy For Addiction: Flooding Brain With 'Pleasure Chemical' Receptors Works On Cocaine, As On Alcohol". 2008-04-18. 
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  35. ^ Ilieva IP, Hook CJ, Farah MJ (January 2015). "Prescription Stimulants' Effects on Healthy Inhibitory Control, Working Memory, and Episodic Memory: A Meta-analysis". J. Cogn. Neurosci.: 1–21. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00776. PMID 25591060. The present meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of the effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine on cognitive functions central to academic and occupational functioning, including inhibitory control, working memory, short-term episodic memory, and delayed episodic memory. In addition, we examined the evidence for publication bias. Forty-eight studies (total of 1,409 participants) were included in the analyses. We found evidence for small but significant stimulant enhancement effects on inhibitory control and short-term episodic memory. Small effects on working memory reached significance, based on one of our two analytical approaches. Effects on delayed episodic memory were medium in size. However, because the effects on long-term and working memory were qualified by evidence for publication bias, we conclude that the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on the examined facets of healthy cognition is probably modest overall. In some situations, a small advantage may be valuable, although it is also possible that healthy users resort to stimulants to enhance their energy and motivation more than their cognition. ... Earlier research has failed to distinguish whether stimulants’ effects are small or whether they are nonexistent (Ilieva et al., 2013; Smith & Farah, 2011). The present findings supported generally small effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate on executive function and memory. Specifically, in a set of experiments limited to high-quality designs, we found significant enhancement of several cognitive abilities. ...

    The results of this meta-analysis cannot address the important issues of individual differences in stimulant effects or the role of motivational enhancement in helping perform academic or occupational tasks. However, they do confirm the reality of cognitive enhancing effects for normal healthy adults in general, while also indicating that these effects are modest in size.
     
  36. ^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 318. ISBN 9780071481274. Mild dopaminergic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex enhances working memory. ...
    Therapeutic (relatively low) doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in in normal subjects and those with ADHD. Positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrates that methylphenidate decreases regional cerebral blood flow in the doroslateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex while improving performance of a spacial working memory task. This suggests that cortical networks that normally process spatial working memory become more efficient in response to the drug. ... [It] is now believed that dopamine and norepinephrine, but not serotonin, produce the beneficial effects of stimulants on working memory. At abused (relatively high) doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control ... stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks ... through indirect stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine receptors.
     
  37. ^ a b Wood S, Sage JR, Shuman T, Anagnostaras SG (January 2014). "Psychostimulants and cognition: a continuum of behavioral and cognitive activation". Pharmacol. Rev. 66 (1): 193–221. doi:10.1124/pr.112.007054. PMID 24344115.