Doping at the Olympic Games
|Part of a series on|
|Doping in sport|
The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) has had a long history at the Olympic Games. Its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Olympics where Olympians would eat lizard meat prepared a special way, in the hopes that it would give them an athletic edge. The first documented use of drugs to improve an athlete's performance was the winner of the 1904 marathon, Thomas Hicks who was injected with strychnine. The use of performance-enhancing medication has also been attributed to one death during Olympic competition. As rumors of rampant drug use by athletes began to spread, so the International Olympic Committee (IOC) decided to act. By 1967, the IOC had banned the use of performance enhancing drugs in Olympic competition. The IOC introduced the first drug use controls at the 1968 Winter Olympics.
These controls eventually evolved into a systematic-testing regimen that all Olympic athletes must adhere to. Testing of athletes for performance-enhancing drugs includes both urine and blood tests. As of 1999, the authoritative body on the use of performance-enhancing drugs is the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This organization oversees the testing of athletes for several sports federations and the Olympic Games. As the creators of these drugs continue to improve their sophistication, potency and transparency, WADA and its constituency also innovate new ways to detect these drugs. Athletes continue to use various medical modifications to their body as a means of improving their athletic performances.
- 1 History
- 2 Response
- 3 Prohibited drugs
- 4 Summer Olympic Games
- 5 Winter Olympic Games
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The use of performance enhancing tactics or more formally known as PEDs, and more broadly, the use of any external device to nefariously influence the outcome of a sporting event has been a part of the Olympics since its inception in Ancient Greece. One speculation as to why men were required to compete naked was to prevent the use of extra accoutrements and to keep women from competing in events specifically designed for men. Athletes were also known to drink "magic" potions and eat exotic meats in the hopes of given them an athletic edge on their competition. If they were caught cheating, their likenesses were often engraved into stone and placed in a pathway that led to the Olympic stadium. In the modern Olympic era, chemically enhancing one's performance has evolved into a sophisticated science, but in the early years of the Modern Olympic movement the use of performance enhancing drugs was almost as crude as its ancient predecessors.
During the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes discovered ways to practically improve their athletic abilities by having testosterone. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. As these methods became more extreme, it became increasingly evident that the use of performance enhancing drugs was not only a threat to the integrity of sport but could also have potentially fatal side effects on the athlete. The only Olympic death linked to athletic drug use occurred at the Rome Games of 1960. During the cycling road race, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamine, which had caused him to lose consciousness during the race. Jensen's death exposed to the world how endemic drug use was among elite athletes. By the mid–1960s, sports federations were starting to ban the use of performance enhancing drugs, and the IOC followed suit in 1967.
The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use. Liljenwall was the only athlete to test positive for a banned substance at the 1968 Olympics, as the technology and testing techniques improved, the number of athletes discovered to be chemically enhancing their performance increased as well.
The most systematic case of drug use for athletic achievement is that of the East German Olympic teams of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990, documents were discovered that showed many East German female athletes, especially swimmers, had been administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers. Girls as young as eleven were started on the drug regimen without consent from their parents. American female swimmers, including Shirley Babashoff, accused the East Germans of using performance enhancing drugs as early as the 1976 Summer Games. Babashoff's comments were dismissed by the international and domestic media as sour grapes since Babashoff, a clear favorite to win multiple gold medals, won three silver medals - losing all three times to either of the two East Germans Kornelia Ender or Petra Thümer, and one gold medal in a relay. There was no suspicion of cheating on the part of the East German female swimmers even though their medal tally increased from four silvers and one bronze in 1972 to ten golds (out of a possible 12), six silvers, and one bronze in 1976. No clear evidence was discovered until after the fall of the Berlin Wall, when the aforementioned documents proved that East Germany had embarked on a state-sponsored drug regimen to dramatically improve their competitiveness at the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. Many of the East German authorities responsible for this program have been subsequently tried and found guilty of various crimes in the German penal system.
A very publicized steroid-related disqualification at an Olympic Games was the case of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the Men's 100 metres at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was subsequently stripped and awarded to runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics, but had not been banned due to a lack of consistency in the application of the rules. At that time National Olympic Committees had leeway to determine whether a specific athlete met the criteria to be banned from Olympic competition.
In the late 1990s, the IOC took the initiative in a more organized battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that the effort to eliminate performance enhancing drugs from the Olympics is not over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to failing a drug test. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the "Olympic Standard") has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate. During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood testing was used in a coordinated effort to detect banned substances and recent blood transfusions. While several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games, six athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.
Summer Olympic Games
What follows is a list of all the athletes that have tested positive for a banned substance either during or after an Olympic Games in which they competed. Any medals listed were revoked by the International Olympic Commission (IOC). In 1967 the IOC banned the use of performance-enhancing drugs, instituted a Medical Commission, and created a list of banned substances. Mandatory testing began at the following years Summer and Winter games.
1968 Mexico City
|Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall||Sweden||Modern pentathlon||Ethanol||(team)|
|Bakaava Buidaa||Mongolia||Judo||Caffeine||(63 kg)|
|Rick DeMont||United States||Swimming||Ephedrine||(men's 400 m freestyle)|
|Jaime Huélamo||Spain||Cycling||Coramine||(individual road race)|
|Mohammad Reza Nasehi||Iran||Weightlifting||Ephedrine|
|Aad van den Hoek||Netherlands||Cycling||Coramine||(100 km team race)|
|Blagoi Blagoev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(82.5 kg)|
|Mark Cameron||United States||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|
|Philippe Grippaldi||United States||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|
|Zbigniew Kaczmarek||Poland||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(67.5 kg)|
|Valentin Khristov||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid||(110 kg)|
|Arne Norrback||Sweden||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|
|Peter Pavlasek||Czechoslovakia||Weightlifting||Anabolic steroid|
|Danuta Rosani||Poland||Athletics||Anabolic steroid|
Though no athletes were caught doping at the 1980 Summer Olympics, it has been claimed that athletes had begun using testosterone and other drugs for which tests had not been yet developed. A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that "there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner...who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists' Games".
A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike's unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols. The first case of "blood doping" occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.
1984 Los Angeles
|Martti Vainio||Finland||Athletics||Methenolone||(10,000 m)|
The organizers of the Los Angeles games had refused to provide the IOC doping authorities with a safe prior to the start of the games. Due to a lack of security, medical records were subsequently stolen. A 1994 letter from IOC Medical Commission chair Alexandre de Mérode claimed that Tony Daly, a member of the Los Angeles organizing committee had destroyed the records. Dick Pound later wrote of his frustration that the organizing committee had removed evidence before it could be acted on by the IOC. Pound also claimed that IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Primo Nebiolo, President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) had conspired to delay the announcement of positive tests so that the games could pass without controversy.
The American cyclist Pat McDonough later admitted to "blood doping" at the 1984 Los Angeles Games. Following the games it was revealed that one-third of the U.S. cycling team had received blood transfusions before the games, where they won nine medals, their first medal success since the 1912 Summer Olympics. "Blood doping" was banned by the IOC in 1985, though no test existed for it at the time.
|Kerrith Brown||Great Britain||Judo||Furosemide|
|Mitko Grablev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(56 kg)|
|Angell Guenchev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(67.5 kg)|
|Ben Johnson||Canada||Athletics||Stanozolol||(men's 100 m)|
|Jorge Quesada||Spain||Modern pentathlon||Propanolol|
|Andor Szanyi||Hungary||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||(100 kg)|
|Alexander Watson||Australia||Modern Pentathlon||Caffeine|
|Madina Biktagirova||Unified Team||Athletics||Norephedrine|
|Bonnie Dasse||United States||Athletics||Clenbuterol|
|Jud Logan||United States||Athletics||Clenbuterol|
|Fritz Aanes||Norway||Wrestling||Norandrosterone and noretiochdandone|
|Ashot Danielyan||Armenia||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||(+105 kg)|
|Izabela Dragneva||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(48 kg)|
|Ivan Ivanov||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(56 kg)|
|Marion Jones||United States||Athletics||THG|| (women's 100 m), (women's 200 m),
(women's 4x400 m relay), (women's long jump),
(women's 4x100 m relay)
|Alexander Leipold||Germany||Wrestling||Nandrolone||(76 kg)|
|Sevdalin Minchev||Bulgaria||Weightlifting||Furosemide||(62 kg)|
|Antonio Pettigrew||United States||Athletics||EPO and HGH||(men's 4x400 m relay)|
|Andreea Răducan||Romania||Gymnastics||Pseudophedrine||(women's individual all-round)|
|Jerome Young||United States||Athletics||Nandrolone||(men's 4x400 m relay)|
Konstantinos Kenteris missed the test together with
Ekaterini Thanou, both from Greece.
Out of the 4,500 samples that were collected from participating athletes at the games, six athletes with positive specimens were ousted from the competition. It is possible that further positive tests may still be found as samples are sealed and frozen for eight years. It is unclear who remains in charge of these samples, the host or the IOC. The quality of testing was questioned when the BBC reported that samples positive for EPO were labeled as negative by Chinese laboratories in July. The rate of positive findings is lower than at Athens four years ago, but it cannot be deduced that the prevalence of doping has decreased; possibly, doping technology has become more sophisticated and a number of drugs cannot be detected.
|Tony André Hansen||Norway||Equestrian||Capsaicin||(team jumping)|
|Kim Jong-su||North Korea||Shooting||Propranolol||(men's 10 m air pistol), (50 m pistol)|
|Courtney King||United States||Equestrian||Felbinac|
|Maria Isabel Moreno||Spain||Cycling||Erythropoietin|
|Rashid Ramzi||Bahrain||Athletics||CERA||(men's 1500 m)|
|Davide Rebellin||Italy||Cycling||CERA||(men's road race)|
|Do Thi Ngan Thuong||Vietnam||Gymnastics||Furosemide|
It was announced prior to the Summer games that half of all competitors would be tested for drugs, with 150 scientists set to take 6,000 samples between the start of the games and the end of the Paralympic games. Every competitor who wins a medal will also be tested. The Olympic anti-doping laboratory will test up to 400 samples every day for more than 240 prohibited substances.
The head of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, announced on 24 July that 107 athletes had been sanctioned for doping offences in the six months to June 19. The "In-competition" period began on July 16. During the "In-competition" period Olympic competitors can be tested at any time without notice or in advance.
British sprinter Dwain Chambers, cyclist David Millar and shot putter Carl Myerscough competed in London after the British Olympic Association's policy of punishing drug cheats with lifetime bans was overturned by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Gold medallists at the games who had been involved in previous doping offences included Alexandre Vinokourov, the winner of the men's road race, Tatyana Lysenko, the winner of the women's hammer throw, Aslı Çakır Alptekin winner of the women's 1500 meters and Sandra Perković, winner of the women's discus throw. Other competitors at the Summer games involved in previous doping cases included American athletes Justin Gatlin and LaShawn Merritt, and Jamaican sprinter Yohan Blake, although Blake's offence was for a substance not on the WADA banned list.
Spanish athlete Ángel Mullera was first selected for the 3000 m steeplechase and later removed when emails were published in which he discussed EPO use with a trainer. Mullera appealed to CAS which ordered the Spanish Olympic Committee to allow him to participate.
|Name||Country||Sport||Banned substance||Medals||Details of test|
|Ghfran Almouhamad||Syria||Athletics||Methylhexaneamine||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Victoria Baranova||Russia||Cycling||Male hormone testosterone||IOC pre-Games testing in Belarus|
|Kissya Cataldo||Brazil||Rowing||EPO||International Rowing Federation pre-Games testing in Brazil|
|Nicholas Delpopolo||United States||Judo||Cannabis||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Luiza Galiulina||Uzbekistan||Gymnastics||Furosemide||IOC pre-Games testing in Uzbekistan.|
|Hassan Hirt||France||Athletics||EPO||IOC pre-Games testing.|
|Amine Laâlou||Morocco||Athletics||Furosemide||IAAF post-competition testing at Diamond League meeting in Monte Carlo.|
|Marina Marghiev||Moldova||Athletics||Furosemide||IOC pre-Games testing.|
|Nadzeya Ostapchuk||Belarus||Athletics||Methenolone||(women's shot put)||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics (two separate positive samples).|
|Diego Palomeque||Colombia||Athletics||Exogenous testosterone||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Darya Pishchalnikova||Russia||Athletics||Oxandrolone||(women's discus throw)||Random out of competition test in May 2012. All her results (Including those at the 2012 Summer Olympics) since May 2012 were annulled by the IAAF in April 2013.|
|Hysen Pulaku||Albania||Weightlifting||Stanozolol||IOC pre-competition testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Alex Schwazer||Italy||Athletics||EPO||IOC pre-Games testing in Italy.|
|Soslan Tigiev||Uzbekistan||Wrestling||Methylhexaneamine||(freestyle 74 kg)||IOC post-event testing at 2012 Summer Olympics.|
|Tameka Williams||Saint Kitts and Nevis||Athletics||"Blast Off Red"||Did not fail test but confessed to have used an illegal "veterinary medicine".|
Winter Olympic Games
No athletes were caught doping at these Games.
|Alois Schloder||West Germany||Ice hockey||Ephedrine|
|Galina Kulakova||Soviet Union||Cross-country skiing||Ephedrine||(5 km)|
|Frantisek Pospisil||Czechoslovakia||Ice hockey||Codeine|
1980 Lake Placid
No athletes were caught using performance enhancing drugs at these Games.
|Batsukh Purevjal||France||Cross-country skiing||Anabolic steroid|
|Jaroslaw Morawiecki||Poland||Ice hockey||Testosterone|
No athletes were caught using performance enhancing drugs at these Games
No athletes were caught using performance enhancing drugs at these Games
No athletes were caught using performance enhancing drugs at these games. The Canadian snowboarder Ross Rebagliati, winner of the men's giant slalom, was initially disqualified and stripped of his gold medal by the International Olympic Committee's Executive Board after testing positive for marijuana. Marijuana was not then on the list of prohibited substances by the IOC, and their decision was reversed by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and Rebagliati's medal reinstated.
2002 Salt Lake City
|Alain Baxter||Great Britain||Alpine skiing||Methamphetamine||(slalom)|
|Olga Danilova||Russia||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(10 km pursuit), (10 km)|
|Larisa Lazutina||Russia||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(30 km), (10 km), (15 km freestyle)|
|Marc Mayer||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Possession of blood-transfusion equipment|
|Johann Mühlegg||Spain||Cross-country skiing||Darbepoetin||(50 km), (30 km freestyle), (20 km pursuit)|
|Vasily Pankov||Belarus||Ice hockey||Nandrolone|
|Achim Walcher||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Possession of blood-transfusion equipment|
|Olga Pyleva||Russia||Biathlon||Carphedon||(15 km)|
|Kornelia Marek||Poland||Cross-country skiing||Erythropoietin|
|Marina Lisogor||Ukraine||Cross-country skiing||Trimetazidine|
|Vitalijs Pavlovs||Latvia||Ice hockey||Methylhexanamine|
|Johannes Dürr||Austria||Cross-country skiing||Erythropoietin|
|Nicklas Bäckström||Sweden||Ice hockey||Pseudoephedrine||Awarded despite the doping violation.|
|Ralfs Freibergs||Latvia||Ice hockey||Dehydrochloromethyltestosterone|
- List of sporting scandals
- List of stripped Olympic medals
- List of doping cases in cycling
- List of doping cases in sport
- World Anti-Doping Agency
- Technology doping
- Lovgren, Stefan. "Ancient Olympics mixed Naked Sports, Pagan Partying". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2009-01-05.
- "A Brief History of Anti-Doping". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 2008-09-10.
- Gibson, Candace. "How the First Olympics Worked". Discovery Communications. Retrieved 2009-01-05.
- "Tom Hicks". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4165-3407-5.
- Begley, Sharon (2008-01-07). "The Drug Charade". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- "Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall". 123explore.com. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Brennan, Christine (2004-07-14). "Babashoff had Mettle to Speak out about Steroids". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Longman, Jere (2001-04-22). "Just Following Orders, Doctors' Orders". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- "Sports Doping Statistics Reach Plateau in Germany". Deutsche Welle. 2006-02-26. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Magnay, Jacquelin (2003-04-18). "Carl Lewis's positive test covered up". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Coile, Zachary (2005-04-27). "Bill Seeks to Toughen Drug Testing in Pro Sports". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
- "Doping: 3667 athletes tested, IOC seeks action against Halkia's coach". Express India Newspapers. 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- "A Brief History of Anti-Doping". World Anti-Doping Agency. Retrieved 2008-08-28.
- Mottram, David R. (30 March 2011). Drugs in Sport. Taylor & Francis. pp. 21–. ISBN 978-0-415-55086-4. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Mitchell Hunt, Thomas (2007). Drug Games: The International Politics of Doping and the Olympic Movement, 1960--2007. ProQuest. pp. 99–. ISBN 978-0-549-16219-3. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Wilson, Wayne (Ph.D.); Derse, Ed (2001). Doping in Élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7360-0329-2. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Steven B. Kayne (2006). Sport And Exercise Medicine For Pharmacists. Pharmaceutical Press. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-0-85369-600-1. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
- Associated Press (September 26, 2000). "Raducan tests positive for stimulant". ESPN.
- "Beijing Faces Big Challenge in Keeping Olympics Drug-Free". Deutsche Welle. 08-03-2008. Check date values in:
- McGrath, Matt (2008-07-21). "Concerns over Olympic drug test". BBC.
- KNA; Reuters (2008-08-23). "Ukrainischer Gewichtheber Razoronov positiv getestet". Der Spiegel.
- "Blonska stripped of silver medal". BBC Sport. 22 August 2008.
- "Greek champion fails drugs test". BBC Sport. 17 August 2008.
- "Spanish cyclist Moreno tests positive for EPO". guardian.co.uk. 11 August 2008.
- Wilson, Stephen (July 8, 2009). "Backup samples positive for 5 Olympians". Associated Press.
- "Ukrainian lifter fails dope test". BBC Sport. 23 August 2008.
- "London 2012: All medallists to be drugs tested at Olympics". BBC News Online. 2012-07-15. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
- Grohmann, Karolos (2012-07-24). "Testers nab more than 100 athletes - WADA". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Testing during Games-time". UKAD. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Olympics shot put: Carl Myerscough out of London 2012". BBC News Online. 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Road race winner Alexandre Vinokourov considers retiring". BBC News Online. 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
- "Women's Discus Throw". London2012.com. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Phillips, Mitch (2012-07-10). "Gold medals tainted by time-served dopers". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-07-12.
- Grohmann, Karolos (August 4, 2012). "Doping back in spotlight with new cases, past offenders". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- "Jamaicans given three-month ban". BBC News Online. 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- "Ángel Mullera habría consumido EPO para lograr la clasificación para los Juegos de Londres". Cadenaser.com. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "Ángel Mullera correrá definitivamente los 3.000 obstáculos". ABC.es. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- "London 2012: Positive doping test for Syrian athlete Ghfran Almouhamad". Guardian. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Olympic cycling: Russia's Victoria Baranova fails drugs test". BBC. 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- "Olympics rowing: Brazil's Kissya da Costa fails drugs test". BBC News Online. 2012-08-04. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Associated Press (August 6, 2012). "U.S. judoka expelled from Olympics for cannabis". CBCSports.ca. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- "Olympics 2012 drugs: Gymnast expelled over failed test". BBC News Online. 2012-08-05. Retrieved 2012-08-05.
- "London 2012: French athlete Hassan Hirt sent home over 'positive test'". Guardian. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
- Reuters (2012-08-03). "London 2012: Amine Laalou, Moroccan 1500m runner, fails doping test". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
- Associated Press (August 4, 2012). "Moldova hammer thrower Marina Marghieva tossed from Olympics for positive doping test". Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Wilson, Stephen (August 13, 2012). "Belarus shot putter stripped of Olympic gold". Associated Press.
- "IOC sanctions two athletes for failing anti-doping tests". IOC. 2012-08-04. Retrieved 2013-03-20.
- "Russian gets doping ban". Associatd Press. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- O'Leary, Naomi (2012-08-06). "Walk champion Schwazer excluded for doping". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
- "Doping-IOC strips Uzbek wrestler of Olympic bronze". Reuters. 2012-11-07. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- LK Hewlett (3 August 2012). "Public Calling for Answers from Tameka Williams". The St. Kitts-Nevis Observer. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- "Boarder skirmish in Japan". BBC News Online. 14 January 2002. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Holly Thorpe (6 January 2012). Snowboarding. ABC-CLIO. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-0-313-37623-8.
- John E. Findling; Kimberly D. Pelle (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 417–. ISBN 978-0-313-32278-5.
- Scislowska, Monika (March 17, 2009). "Test confirms Polish skier Marek doped at Olympics". Associated Press.
- "Biathletin Evi Sachenbacher-Stehle positiv getestet". Focus.de. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014: German athlete fails A sample drugs test". BBC Sport. 21 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014: German athlete fails A sample drugs test". BBC Sport. 21 February 2014.
- Grohmann, Karolos (27 February 2014). "Italy bobsleigh athlete Frullani tests positive in Sochi - team". Reuters. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "IOC sanctions Ukrainian cross-country skier Marina Lisogor for failing anti-doping test at Sochi 2014". International Olympic Committee. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014: Ukraine's Marina Lisogor fails drugs test". BBC Sport. 22 February 2014.
- "IOC sanctions Latvian men’s ice hockey player Vitalijs Pavlovs for failing anti-doping test at Sochi 2014". International Olympic Committee. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- "Sochi 2014: Austria's Johannes Duerr suspended after positive EPO test". 23 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Nicklas Backstrom misses gold medal game over use of banned substance: Source". 23 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "IOC Decision - Swedish ice hockey player Nicklas Backstrom to receive Sochi silver medal.". IOC. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Polish bobsledder Zalewski fails doping test at Sochi Olympics: Source". 15 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "IOC sanctions Latvian Ice Hockey Player Ralfs Freibergs for failing anti-doping test at Sochi 2014 : Source" (PDF). 25 April 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.