Dorabella Cipher

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The text of the Dorabella Cipher, in Elgar's handwriting

The Dorabella Cipher is an enciphered letter written by composer Edward Elgar to Dora Penny, which was accompanied by another dated July 14, 1897. Penny never deciphered it and its meaning remains unknown.

The cipher, consisting of 87 characters spread over 3 lines, appears to be made up from 24 symbols, each symbol consisting of 1, 2, or 3 approximate semicircles oriented in one of 8 directions (the orientation of several characters is ambiguous). A small dot appears after the fifth character on the third line.

Background[edit]

Dora Penny (1874-1964) was the daughter of the Reverend Alfred Penny (1845-1935) of Wolverhampton. Dora's mother had died in February 1874, six days after giving birth to Dora, after which her father worked for many years as a missionary in Melanesia. In 1895 Dora's father remarried, and Dora's stepmother was a friend of Caroline Alice Elgar. In July 1897 the Penny family invited Edward and Alice Elgar to stay at the Wolverhampton Rectory for a few days.

Edward Elgar was a forty-year-old music teacher who had yet to become a successful composer. Dora Penny was almost seventeen years his junior. Edward and Dora liked one another and remained friends for the rest of the composer's life: Elgar named Variation 10 of his 1899 Variations on an Original Theme (Enigma) Dorabella as a dedication to Dora Penny.

On returning to Great Malvern on 14 July 1897 Alice wrote a letter of thanks to the Penny family. Edward Elgar inserted a note with cryptic writing: he pencilled the name 'Miss Penny' on the reverse. This note lay in a drawer for forty years and became generally known when Dora had it reproduced in her memoir Edward Elgar: Memories of a Variation, published by Methuen Publishing in 1937. Subsequently the original note was lost. Dora claimed that she had never been able to read the note, which she assumed to be a cipher message.

Kevin Jones advanced one view;

Dora's father had just returned from Melanesia where he had been a missionary for many years. Fascinated by local language and culture, he possessed a few traditional talismans decorated with arcane glyphs. Perhaps such an item surfaced as a conversation piece during the Elgar's week in Wolverhampton? And if Dora recalled this when writing her memoirs, it might account for the fact the coded message was referred to as an 'inscription' when communicating with the director of SOAS many years later.[1]

Elgar was interested in ciphers: the Elgar Birthplace Museum preserves four articles from Pall Mall magazine of 1896 entitled Secrets in Cipher and a wooden box that Elgar painted with his solution to a cipher that the fourth of these articles had presented as an insoluble "nihilist cipher".

Proposed solutions[edit]

Eric Sams, the musicologist, produced an interpretation in 1970[2] but, although he made a number of reasonable points, his method of attack is convoluted and difficult to follow. His interpretation of the message is;

STARTS: LARKS! IT'S CHAOTIC, BUT A CLOAK OBSCURES MY NEW LETTERS, A, B [alpha, beta, ie Greek letters or alphabet] BELOW: I OWN THE DARK MAKES E. E. SIGH WHEN YOU ARE TOO LONG GONE.

The length of this text is 109 letters (ignoring the parenthetic note on Greek), whereas the original text contains only 87 or 88 characters: Sams claimed the surplus letters are implied by phonetic shorthand.

Javier Atance has suggested that the solution is not a text but a melody, the 8 different positions of the semicircles, turning clockwise, corresponding to the notes of the scale, and that each semicircle has 3 different levels corresponding to natural, flat or sharp notes.

Tim S. Roberts claims a solution via a simple substitution cipher and offers a statistical justification[3][4]

P.S. Now droop beige weeds set in it – pure idiocy – one entire bed! Luigi Ccibunud luv’ngly tuned liuto studo two.

In December 2011 Canadian cryptographer enthusiast Richard Henderson claimed[5] to have found the correct clear text, encoded once again as a simple substitution cipher (with two letters as nulls), although some details remain to be worked out. His solution would read;

whY AM I VERY SAD, BELLE. I SAG AS WE SEE ROSES DO. E.E. IS EVER FOND OF U, DORA. I kNOw I PeN ONE I LOVe. All Of My Affection.

There have been many unsound claims. One example follows. It makes up its details from nowhere, and then uses anagrams. Anagrams are unsafe as its though that the recipient would be unable to find the anagrams themself, and even if they did, they'd never be sure of if they found the CORRECT anagram solution. In July 2012, a claimed solution has been published on a French blog (The Dorabella Code). The key element of this analysis is the date which replaces the signature at the bottom of the message. The author has identified the name of Elgar hidden in this date, and thanks to this, to the Templars code and a deep letter frequency analysis he proposed a new substitution code.

The next step is based on the use of anagrams, by line, using key words or entries. The solution would be at the end:

YELL EUREKA! CLASSIC CODE – HINT WXYZ
SWEETHEART, I WANT YOU AS WIFE. SHRED
DONA DORA, I LOV’YOU SO MUCH. ADIEU. HIC A

Each end of line is a hint to attack the next line (WXYZ being replaced by "The last four letters", SHRED giving the authorization to "shred" letter "O" in two letters "C", and HIC A giving CUP, through A HIC-CUP, which is the cup of victory).

An original supplementary solution is based on a graphic representation of the coded symbols on a 24 graduations wheel (or on a 24 hours clock). This graphical solution give the word ADIEU, and combined to the end of the message would give the date and the hour of a "date" between the two lovers to become...

Recent attempts on Dorabella[edit]

The Elgar Society advertised a Dorabella Cipher Competition in 2007 to mark the 150th anniversary of Elgar's birth. A number of entries were received but none were found satisfactory: "One or two entries did contain some impressively ambitious and thoughtful analysis. These entries, though, having matched Elgar's symbols to the alphabet, invariably ended up with a fairly arbitrary sequence of letters. ... [T]he results read as a disconnected chain of bizarre utterances, such as an imaginative mind could conjure up from any group of random letters".[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BBC - Proms - The Dorabella Code
  2. ^ The Musical Times, Feb., 1970, (pp. 151-154), Elgar's cipher letter to Dorabella, by Eric Sams
  3. ^ http://cryptologicfoundation.org/content/Educational-Programs/documents/Solving_the_Dorabella_Cipher_v2a.pdf
  4. ^ http://unsolvedproblems.org/S12frev.pdf
  5. ^ Henderson, Richard. "Dorabella Solved". Ancient Cryptography. Retrieved 19 December 2011. 
  6. ^ No longer on Elgar.org: archival copy at http://www.aerobushentertainment.com/crypto/index.php?topic=4.msg388#msg388

External links[edit]