Dornier Do 228
|A Dornier Do 228 of Aerocardal taking off|
|First flight||March 21, 1981|
|Status||Active service In production|
|Primary user||Indian Air Force|
|Number built||270+ 4 in 2010 and 10 in 2013|
$ 7,000,000 Dornier 228NG
|Developed from||Dornier Do 28|
The Dornier Do 228 is a twin-turboprop STOL utility aircraft, manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981 until 1998. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL) bought a production licence and manufactured 125 aircraft for the Asian market sphere.  Approximately 270 Do 228 were built at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany and Kanpur, India. In August 2006, 127 Dornier Do 228 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service.
In 2009, RUAG started building a Dornier 228 New Generation in Germany with the fuselage, wings and tail unit manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Kanpur (India) and transported to Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, where RUAG Aviation carries out aircraft final assembly, customized equipment installation, product conformity inspection and aircraft delivery. It is basically the same aircraft with improved technologies and performances, such as a new five blade propeller, glass cockpit and longer range. The first delivery was in September 2010.
In October 2014, HAL announced that it has received an Indian Navy order for 12 Do-228 aircraft maritime surveillance and patrol aircraft worth about Rupees 1600 crores, and a few months later in February 2015, it announced that receiving an Indian Air Force order for 14 Do-228 aircraft worth about Rupees 1090 crores including six engines and a simulator.
Design and development
In the late 1970s, Dornier GmbH developed a new kind of wing, the TNT (Tragflügel neuer Technologie), subsidized by the German Government. Dornier tested it on a modified Do 28D-2 Skyservant and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-110 turboprop engines. Finally, Dornier changed the engine and tested the new aircraft, which was named Do 128 with two Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5 engines. The company developed a new fuselage for the TNT and TPE 331–5 in two variants (15- and 19-passenger) and named both project-aircraft E-1 (later Do 228-100) and E-2 (later Do 228-200). At ILA '80, Dornier presented the new aircraft in public. Both the prototypes were flown on 28 March 1981 and 9 May 1981 for the first time.
After German certification was granted on 18 December 1981, the first Do 228 entered service in the fleet of Norving in July 1982. British and United States certification followed on 17 April and 11 May 1984 respectively. Over the years Dornier offered the 228 in upgraded variants and with special equipment for special missions. In 1998 the production line was stopped for better development of the successor Fairchild-Dornier 328.
The Dornier 228NG was produced by RUAG Aviation and certified by EASA on 18 August 2010. First delivery, to a Japanese customer, took place in September 2010. The main changes from the previous Dornier 228-212 model are a new five-blade propeller made of composite material, more powerful engines and an advanced glass cockpit featuring electronic instrument displays. In 2011, the Bangladesh Navy ordered two Do 228NG for the surveillance and search and rescue (SAR) mission. The aircraft were delivered on 3 June 2013.
As of October 2014 79 aircraft are known to be in commercial service. Major operators include:
- Air West Coast (2)
- APSA Colombia (1)
- Agni Air (2)
- Arcus Air (4)
- Aerocardal (2)
- Aero VIP (Portugal) (2)
- Bighorn Airways (3)
- Air Marshall Islands (1)
- Daily Air (4)
- Dornier Aviation Nigeria (9)
- Divi Divi Air (2)
- Inter Island Airways (1)
- Island Aviation (3)
- Jagson Airlines (2)
- National Cartographic Center of Iran (3)
- Lufttransport (2)
- New Central Airlines (4)
- Sita Air (3)
- Solar Air (2)
- Summit Air (8)
- Vision Airlines (11)
- Star Air Aviation (1)
- Susi Air (1)
- GAM Aviation (3)
- German Aerospace Center (2)
- Tara Air (3)
- Mero Air (3)
- Gorkha Airlines (2)
Dornier 228-200NG Users
- Lufttransport (1)
- Venezuelan Air Force (10) On Order
- New Central Airlines (1)
- Bangladesh Navy (2)
- German Air Force (1) On order
- Susi Air (3) On order
- Aurigny Air Services (2) on order
Police, law enforcement, para-military operations
- Indian Coast Guard - 38 Do 228-101 maritime surveillance aircraft
- Royal Oman Police Air Wing
- Indian Air Force - operates 40 Do 228-201 with a further 14 on order.
- Indian Navy - operates 25 Do 228-201 and 1 Do 228-101 with a further 6 on order.
- DRDO 1 Dornier DO-228 “Nabhratna” used as a flying test bed by LRDE
- Seychelles Air Force - operates one Do 228. A second to be delivered in 2014. Both aircraft donated by India.
- Venezuelan Air Force - eight Do 228NG and two second-hand Do 228-212s ordered 2013. Delivery expected from 2014.
Former military operators
Accidents and incidents
- On 24 February 1985, the Polar 3, a Dornier 228 of the Alfred Wegener Institute, was shot down by guerrillas of the Polisario Front over West Sahara. All three crew members died. Polar 3, together with unharmed Polar 2, was on its way back from Antarctica and had taken off from Dakar, Senegal, to reach Arrecife, Canary Islands.
- On April 18 1991, a Dornier Do 228 of Air Tahiti crashed in the ocean while approaching the airport of Nuku Hiva (Marquesas Islands) killing all 18 on board.
- On 2 January 1993, an Indian Coast Guard Do 228 crashed in sea approx 20 nm off Orisa coast. One pilot and one maintenance crew survived. Four maintenance crew were killed.
- On 31 July 1993, an Everest Air Dornier Do 228 crashed in the Himalayas, killing all 19 people on board.
- On 10 August 1997, Formosa Airlines Flight 7601, crashed while attempting to land at Matsu Beigan Airport. All 16 passengers and crew on board perished in the accident.
- On 6 September 1997, Royal Brunei Airlines Flight 238 crashed at Lambir Hills National Park on approach to Miri Airport. The crash killed all ten passengers and crew on board.
- On 30 July 1998, Indian Airlines Flight IC 503 crashed while taking off at Cochin airport in Kerala killing all six persons on board and three others who were working inside a naval workshop building onto which it nose-dived and burst into flames.
- On 7 August 1999, TACV Flight 5002 crashed into the side of a mountain on Santo Antão Island, Cape Verde in rain and fog. The accident killed all 18 passengers and crew on the Dornier Do 228.
- On 4 December 2003, a Dornier 228 of Kato Air operating Flight 603 was struck by lightning, causing a fracture to the control rod that operated the elevator. The aircraft landed heavily just short of the runway at Bodø. Both crew members sustained serious injuries while both passengers sustained slight injuries. The aircraft, registered LN-HTA, was written off.
- 31 August 2004, a Dornier 228 of Landsflug belly-landed at Siglufjordur Airport. The aircraft was written off and stored at Reykjavik Airport before being moved to the Flugsafn (Air Museum) in Akureyri in 2010.
- In January 2005, Polar 4 was severely damaged during a rough landing at the British over-wintering station Rothera on the Antarctic Peninsula. As it was impossible to repair the plane, the aircraft had to be decommissioned. Since then, scientific and logistical tasks of polar flights have been performed by Polar 2.
- On 17 September 2006, an 18-seater Dornier 228 Nigerian Air Force transport plane, carrying 15 senior army officers and three crew members crashed into a hillside, leaving only three surviving passengers and two crew members that sustained serious injuries. The plane with registration number NAF 033 crashed near a remote village in Benue State at about 10:30 a.m. The military officers were members of a committee set up by the government to reposition the Nigerian Army. The plane departed Abuja in the early morning hours of September 17, on its way to Obudu Cattle Ranch in Cross River State where the officers were to hold a retreat and crashed about 18 nautical miles from its destination.
- On 13 December 2008, a Dornier 228 C-FYEV with 14 people on board operated by Summit Air Charters, was on approach at Cambridge Bay (YCB) after a flight from Resolute Bay (YRB) when the aircraft collided with terrain about 2,5 km short of the runway. One flight crew member and one passenger received minor injuries.
- On 24 August 2010, Agni Air Flight 101 crashed outside of Kathmandu in heavy rain, killing all 14 people on board.
- On 23 June 2011, Tara Air Do 228 9N-AGQ was substantially damaged in a heavy landing and runway excursion at Simikot Airport, Nepal. The aircraft was operating a cargo flight from Nepalgunj Airport.
- On 14 May 2012, an Agni Air Dornier 228 crashed while attempting to land at Jomsom Airport, killing 15 of 21 people on board.
- On 28 Sept 2012, a Sita Air Flight 601 crashed just one minute after it took off for Lukla Airport from Kathmandu, killing all 19 (16 passengers and three crew members) on board. Although the plane successfully crash-landed near the Manohara river, 50 meters away from the runway of Tribhuvan International Airport, it was destroyed by fire on the ground. Some witnesses stated that the aircraft had been on fire before landing . Later in a press release by TIA, it was confirmed that a bird struck the aircraft, leading to an unusual maneuver which was informed right away to ATC by the captain of the aircraft.
- On 9 September 2013, A Corpflite Dornier 228, registration CC-CNW crashed into power lines whilst attempting to land in fog at Viña del Mar Airport, resulting in the loss of both crew members on board.
- On 25 March 2015, the Indian Navy has started a full scale search and rescue operation to look for its two officers flying the Dornier 228 who have gone missing after it went off the Goa coast believed to have developed some technical problems after which it plunged into the sea.
Specifications (Do 228-212)
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 
- Crew: two pilots
- Capacity: 19 passengers
- Payload: 2,340 kg freight (5,158 lb)
- Length: 16.56 m (54 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 16.97 m (55 ft 8 in)
- Height: 4.86 m (15 ft 11 in)
- Wing area: 32.0 m² (344 sq ft)
- Airfoil: A-5
- Empty weight: 3,739 kg (8,243 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 6,400 kg (-212) 6,200 kg (-202K) 6,100 kg (-202) 5,700 (-101) (14,550 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5-252D or -10 variation( GP and GT ) turboprop, 578 kW (776 shp flat rated for -5A and -10 powerplants Available at 30 Celsius at Sea Level / 715 shp flat rated for -5 variations) each
- Propellers: Hartzell Propellers model- HC-B4TN-5ML/LT10574 , 4 per engine
- Propeller diameter: 105 in ()
- Never exceed speed: 223 Knots (-212 )
- Maximum speed: 223 knots (-212) 200 Knots(-200)
- Cruise speed: 190 knots (196 mph) at appox 15 degree C with 85% torque
- Stall speed: Flaps dependent () Appox. 75 flaps Down
- Range: 1,111 km (715 nmi, 823 mi) with full payload
- Service ceiling: 8,535 m (28,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.5 m/s (1,870 ft/min)
- Related development
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- Related lists
- [title=Hindustan Aeronautics wins Rs1,090 crore deal for Indian Air Force |URL=http://www.livemint.com/Companies/NJu8YeDDKsyW3mJ6HW8SUP/Hindustan-Aeronautics-wins-Rs1090-crore-deal-for-Indian-Air.html]
- Flight International, 3–9 October 2006
- Dornier 228 RUAG Dornier 228 webpage. RUAG. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
- "RUAG liefert erste Do 228NG aus". airliners.de. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- HAL to supply 12 Do-228 MSAs to Indian Navy Flight Global 28 October 2014
- HAL bags major contract for aircraft supply to IAF Times of Inda 5 February 2015
- Air International October 1987, pp. 163—166.
- Air International October 1987, p.166.
- Taylor 1988, p.87.
- "EASA certifies modernised Dornier 228NG". Retrieved 2010-08-18.
- First Dornier 228NG Shipset Supplied
- "Building Three-dimensional Navy - PM hopes to buy submarine". The Daily Star. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "National Cartographic Center of Iran". Retrieved 4 July 2013.
- Hoyle 2011, p. 34.
- "Media Witty News - Politics". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis: IHS Jane's - IHS". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Etusivu - Rajavartiolaitos". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Hoyle 2011, p. 39.
- Hoyle 2010, p. 40.
- HAL hands over Do-228 flying test bed to DRDO Flight Global 5 May 2014
- Hoyle 2011, p. 41.
- Hoyle 2011, p. 42.
- Hoyle 2011, p. 49.
- "News By Numbers: ten Dornier 228s for Venezuela". Air International, Vol. 86, No. 2. February 2014. p. 6.
- Aviation safety network - Report on Polar 3 accessed: 18 April 2009
- http://dgca.nic.in/accident/acc98.pdf Indian DGCA report
- "REPORT ON THE AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AT BODØ AIRPORT ON 4 DECEMBER 2003 INVOLVING DORNIER DO 228-202 LN-HTA, OPERATED BY KATO AIRLINE AS" (PDF). Accident Investigation Board Norway. Retrieved 11 March 2008.
- Harro Ranter (13 December 2008). "ASN Aircraft accident Dornier 228-202 C-FYEV Cambridge Bay Airport, NU (YCB)". Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Crash: Agni D228 at Bastipur on Aug 24th 2010, technical problems". The Aviation Herald. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Tara D228 at Simikot on Jun 23rd 2011, hard landing results in runway excursion and gear collapse". Aviation Herald. Retrieved 25 June 2011.
- "13 Indians among 15 killed in Nepal air crash". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- "Corpflite Dornier 228 CC-CNW crashes in Chile, two pilots killed". World Airline News. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Taylor 1999, p.195.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, 14–20 December 2010. ISSN 0015-3710. pp. 26–53.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, 13–19 December 2011. ISSN 0015-3710. pp. 26–52.
- "Dornier's Way With Commuters". Air International, October 1987, Vol 33 No 4. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 163–169, 201—202.
- Taylor, John W.R. (editor). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. Brassey's World Aircraft Systems Directory 1999/2000. London:Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dornier Do 228.|
- RUAG Aerospace Deutschland
- HAL India
- Aircraft data and history by Airliners.net
- Simtec GmbH Dornier 228 full-flight-simulator